ROLE OF DRUGS Lesson Essential Question: How does drug dependency lead to violent crimes?
Types of Drugs Depressants: Drugs that act on the central nervous system and slow down brain activity. Impaired co-ordination, balance and judgment are common. Higher doses can lead progressively to drowsiness, vomiting, coma and even death. Examples: Volatile substances or sniffable substances (eg glues, gases, aerosols) Examples: Volatile substances or sniffable substances (eg glues, gases, aerosols) Alcohol Tranquillisers GHB (Gamma hydroxy-butyrate)
Types of Drugs Stimulants Drugs that act on the central nervous system and increase brain activity. Some give feelings of alertness, greater energy and confidence. They may also reduce appetite, leading to hunger when the drug's effects have worn off, and tiredness or exhaustion if there has been a long period of activity. Cocaine Crack Ecstasy Alkyl Nitrites Amphetamines Nicotine
Types of Drugs Hallucinogens Drugs that act to change the way users experience the world through the five senses. Sometimes this involves seeing, and hearing things which aren't there. Cannabis LSD Magic mushrooms Ketamine
Types of Drugs Analgesics Drugs that have a painkilling effect. Heroin (and other opiates/opioids)
Types of Drugs Anabolic steroids Drugs that promote muscle growth and increase lean body mass. These drugs mostly have legitimate medical uses and are often misused by those wishing to enhance their athletic performance or strength. Anabolic steroids
Drug Schedules Drug schedules are used to categorize types of drugs. The drug schedule has 5 parts with ranging from schedule 1-5 Schedule 1 has the highest potential for addiction Schedule 5 is expectable medicinal usage
Gateway Drugs Gateway drugs" is a term for drugs that supposedly lead to abuse of other substances. Marijuana, for instance, is considered by some to be a gateway to harder drugs. Basically, this concept says that if you abuse drugs like marijuana you will be more likely to be open to the use of harder drugs like cocaine and heroin
Gateway Drugs Whether there is such a thing as a gateway drug is still very controversial. Critics of the idea note that even if people who use cocaine started with marijuana, it is not clear that the marijuana use caused or encouraged the cocaine use: The person may simply have encountered marijuana first, and/or is the sort of person more inclined than others to experiment with a variety of illegal drugs. Fewer than one percent of marijuana users go on to become cocaine addicts. What is known is that long-term use of marijuana can produce changes in the brain comparable to that seen after long-term use of other major drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin, and alcohol.
PET scans show long-term changes in glucose metabolism in the brain of a marijuana abuser, compared to that of a normal brain.
Role of Drugs Drugs can lead to violent crimes for a variety of reasons including: ◦ Individuals who are involved in drug trade may cause violence during drug deals or because of deals gone bad ◦ Individuals who are addicted to drugs may commit crimes to support their habit, either to steal drugs or money to purchase drugs ◦ Individuals who are under the influence of drugs may commit crimes while high due to lack of inhibitions and reasoning skills
Vocabulary Addiction: the state of being enslaved to a habit or practice or to something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming, as narcotics, to such an extent that its cessation causes severe trauma. Narcotics: An addictive drug, such as opium, that reduces pain, alters mood and behavior, and usually induces sleep or stupor. Natural and synthetic narcotics are used in medicine to control pain.
Fighting Drugs Lesson Essential Question: What steps has the US taken to stop the drug supply?
Role of Government The U.S. Government has been working since 1880 to control the amount of drugs that enter this country. At that time they entered into an agreement with China that they would not ship opium into the U.S. The U.S. also prohibited the use of alcohol from 1920- 1933. The following slides give examples of more recent attempts to combat drug addiction.
War on Drugs The War on Drugs was started in 1971 by President Richard Nixon. During the 1960’s drug use became more main-stream among middle class whites, prompting Nixon to call drugs “public enemy number one” Goal is to decrease amount of drugs produced in the U.S., decrease amount of drugs brought in from outside the U.S., and therefore decrease the number of people using and abusing drugs
Zero-Tolerance Policy Attempt by President Clinton to crack down on sales of prescription drugs on the Internet Internet drug sales are often unregulated and are dangerous because drugs can be bought without a valid prescription Policy also sought to fund drug testing and treatment programs
National Drug Control Strategy Strategy introduced by George W. Bush with the goals of: ◦ Stopping abuse before it begins with education and community activism ◦ Healing current drug users with treatment resources ◦ Attacking the economic basis of the drug trade through border control, enforcement, and prosecution
Medical Marijuana Lesson Essential Question: What are the arguments for and against the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes?
Medical Marijuana A debate has raged for years in the U.S.: should marijuana be legalized for medical purposes? Marijuana can be used medicinally to numb pain, relieve the eye pressure of glaucoma, calm muscle spasms, and ease discomfort of AIDS and cancer patients but it is illegal in most states
Medical Marijuana California Proposition 215: Also known as the Compassionate Use Act of 1996, was an attempt to legalize marijuana for patients that were “seriously” ill. The goal was to allow them to use marijuana without being arrested or imprisoned for it. What do you think? Should marijuana be legalized in certain circumstances?