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The Job is the Learning Environment Noel Dickover Human Performance Technology Consultant

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Presentation on theme: "The Job is the Learning Environment Noel Dickover Human Performance Technology Consultant"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Job is the Learning Environment Noel Dickover Human Performance Technology Consultant

2 Work Environment Changes Need for improved worker performance Many tasks complex, non-repeatable Tasks involve finding answers to complex questions, identifying and solving unique problems People referred to as knowledge workers

3 The Job is Where the Learning Occurs As much as 85% if all learning occurs on the job (Raybould, 2000) Learning occurs when solving problems and attempting to perform tasks Learning occurs best when doing real work or taking action

4 Independent Learning Approaches Are Problematic Follows a Learn-Then-Do Methodology Trainer-centered not user-centered Often sequential in format, hard to quickly find key information Removed from the work context Retention of material is low

5 People Learn While Doing Things

6 Constructivism: How Do We Support Learning? Use rich environments Use Multiple Perspectives Encourage learning through social experience Include experience with the knowledge construction process Use realistic and relevant contexts

7 The Job Is the Learning Environment

8 Current Approaches JIT Learning Approaches –Repurpose independent learning modules –Content seen as discrete piles of unrelated chunks to be served up Performance Support Systems –Good for Discrete Tasks, Not as applicable for Fuzzy, context specific Tasks Knowledge Management –Requires Searching skills –Hard to get contributions

9 We need to rethink the way we support learning in the workplace Knowledge Assets Performance Support Tools Collaboration User-Centered Learning Content

10 What is Performance Centered Learning? Optimized for access while in the process of performing People use it at that moment of need, when they are trying to solve a problem or perform a task Learning occurs in the process of doing, but the goal is performance Not for certification, there is no grade

11 Performance Centered Learning (PCL) Integrates: Practitioner developed knowledge assets Performance support tools User-centered learning content Collaboration among peers and experts

12 Learn-Then-Do vs Learning-While-Doing

13 Implementation of PCL: Tie to Knowledge Domains Allows us to tie content in a way that makes sense to knowledge workers Allows a group of people to coalesce around the motivating area Leverages shared experiences, similar problems and tasks

14 Knowledge Domains Include: Semantic Map of Inter-related concepts History of events Identified skill sets and job roles Knowledge artifacts, including: –Guidance documents (policies) –examples, templates, lessons learned, –success stories, failures –Implementation guidance

15 PCL Relates the Chunks of Information in the Domain Use pair-wise comparison techniques to link together knowledge domain concepts Content is organized around the problems, questions and tasks The relationship structure provides the context

16 What is Question-based Reasoning (QBR)? Navigation method for PCL Approach for linking knowledge assets, learning content and performance support tools for just-in-time access SMEs view of the knowledge domain is embedded into the hypertext structure Support tool to help people work through tasks and problems Allows content to be structured for re-use

17 Whats the Problem that QBR solves? Complex situations are impossible to describe through a single perspective QBR provides a learner-centered approach for navigating through a knowledge domain Details a set of relations between complex material in a non-linear format Turns referential information into a useful learning scaffold Leverages learners existing background/ experience

18 QBR Allows us to Traverse the Knowledge Domain

19 You are as smart as who and what you are connected to.

20 Example: Risk Management Focus Area of the PM CoP Program Managers Community of Practice (PM CoP) for the DoD Acquisition Workforce Risk Management is important in development of large scale systems Includes KM ideas of Communities of Practice (CoPs)

21 Risk Management Approach: Performance Centered Learning Integration of learning, performance support, and knowledge resources Access to SMEs, collaboration Integrated into the job of the PM and risk manager based on problems and tasks Becomes a resource that CoPs can use to foster community growth

22 Back-end Tool Integration Database Driven Content Database Driven Content Add-it Story- Boarding Tool Pair-wise Comparison Tool Extracts Content Organizes Content Associates Content Performance Centered Learning

23 Integration with the ADL Initiative Use of Learning Object Repository Connect Learning Objects via QBR to make Knowledge Maps Can be accessed on the job or exported to independent learning modes Content is reusable for other groups Relationship structure managed separately from the content Data Methods Learning Object

24 Concluding Thoughts The Job is the learning environment Marshall all resources to the moment of need Learning-While-Doing vice Learn-Then-Do Collaboration and Community Building critical to success

25 Concluding Thoughts cont. Focus on the problems, tasks and questions associated with performance Integrate practitioner developed knowledge assets and performance support tools with user-centered learning content Employ Performance-Centered Design

26 Backups

27 Andragogy: How Do Adults Learn? Need to know why they are learning it Adults are Self-directed in their learning Experience serves as guide for learning Problem-centered, not subject centered Learning Motivated by internal factors More interested in real world tasks

28 Learning Object Repository Slides

29 Manage Content Via Learning Objects Learning Objects are self-contained, actionable chunks of information They are made up of data (content) and methods (procedures or actions) They can be combined in many ways to create larger chunks of information Examples: Risk Assessment; Determination of Mission Needs; Independent Cost Estimate Data Methods Learning Object

30 Whats do Learning Objects Contain? Data (Managed Content) –Summary –Learning Content (paragraph and Vu-graph format) –Performance Objectives –Assessment Strategies –Links to Related Examples Methods (Content Actions) –Version Control –Update Function –Publish Function Publish to SCORM Standard Publish to In-Class Courseware –Give Examples, success stories, etc. –Direct Export to XML Data Methods Learning Object

31 How do Learning Objects Work? Data Performance Objectives Content Vu-Graphs, Paragraphs Blooms Levels Graphics Related Examples Case Studies Success Stories Best Practices Defined Information Owner Version Control Publish Me! Change Content Provide Examples DAU Faculty Maintains Content Can Export To Templates ( SCORM, In-Class Books ) Can Export To Templates ( SCORM, In-Class Books ) Links to Related Examples, Stories Links to Related Examples, Stories Keeps track of all updates

32 Knowledge Maps Connect Reusable LOs for Export and Use LO Knowledge Maps Job Role L.O. Repository Sequence Acq. Process Function Task

33 PMCOP and Risk Management Focus Area


35 Performance Support System Knowledge Capture Collaboration and Solutions Environment Generation of New Knowledge Knowledge Retrieval System Lessons Learned Case Studies Success Stories Best Practices Verity Search Engine Evaluate Browse Knowledge File Linkages Strategic Support Process Reengineering New Work Methods Virtual IPT Support Threaded Discussions Project Workspace Calendar of Events Access to Experts Job Aids User-centered Content Support Tools Access to Experts PM CoP FUNCTIONAL COMPONENT DIAGRAM

36 Network Centric View PM Community of Practice Program Office Program Office Program Office Program Office Program Offices DAU Learning Assets Acquisition Related Websites Other Industry Govt. Knowledge Assets Industry Other Govt. Personnel

37 PM CoP Architecture Cold Fusion 4.5 SQL Server 7.0 SQL Server 7.0 Lotus QuickPlace Lotus QuickPlace Knowledge Engine Intelligent Classifier Verity Graphic User Interface Risk Mgt.Sys. Eng.Earned Value Mgt.Contract Mgt.Software Acq. Mgt. PM Community

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