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Modern Civil Rights Movement

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Civil Rights Movement"— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Civil Rights Movement
SS8H11 Describe the developments in civil rights and GA’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and the end of the white primary, Brown V Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.

2 Benjamin Mays Parents were slaves Lifelong educator:
South Carolina State College Morehouse College Dean-Howard University School of Religion President-Morehouse College First African-American President of the Atlanta Board of Ed.

3 Served as mentor to Martin Luther King, JR at Morehouse
Chairman of Atlanta Board of Ed after retirement from Morehouse

4 End of the White Primary
White Primary-one way Blacks were kept from voting Legislature determined that 15th Amendment only applied to general election 1900 primary, Democratic leaders ruled only white Democrats would be allowed to vote in the primary GA primarily one-party state since Rep and Ind candidates got little support from whites/rarely ran for offic

5 1946 King V Chapman White primary systems in GA were unconstitutional
1946 election-black voters were able to take part in the primary election for the first time since Reconstruction

6 1946 Governor’s Race Candidates in the Democratic primary:
Eugene Talmadge Eurith Rivers James Carmichael Talmadge won the county unit vote/became Democratic candidate

7 Republicans had no candidate
Talmadge ran unopposed in general election (62/poor health) Few hundred supporters wrote in son’s name on ballot as their 2nd choic Talmadge SR elected Governor Melvin Thompson Lieutenant Governor Talmadge sworn in/died CONFUSION BEGAN--- Write in ballots for Herman Talmadge “suddenly appeared”- Legislature chose him as governor Governor Arnall declared Melvin Thompson Governor

8 Arnall set up office at Capitol (locked out)
Group of Eugene Talmadge’s men broke into governor’s office and changed the locks on the door and prepared to run the state themselves! Arnall set up office at Capitol (locked out) 3 days later-resigned Thompson opened office in downtown Atl Began legal proceedings to become governor Secretary of State Ben Fortson refused to give official state seal (used for legalizing documents) to anyone

9 No one could run the state!
March GA Supreme Court ruled that Thompson was rightful head of state until special election could be held to fill unexpired term of Governor-elect (Eugene Talmadge) Herman Talmadge elected Herman Talmadge

10 Brown V Board of Education
1950 7 year old Linda Brown tried to enroll in all white school in Topeka, KS Entry denied NAACP helped Brown’s father sue the Topeka Board of Education Case reached Supreme Court 1954 ruling-separate but equal school unconstitutional

11 After nearly 60 years, Plessy V Ferguson case overturned
Many states were SLOW to carry out orders of segregation

12 Martin Luther King, JR. January 15, 1929
Family actively involved in African American Baptist Church Grandfather one of founders of Atlanta chapter of NAACP/pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church Father also pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church

13 Attended Morehouse College
Pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church (Montgomery, AL) Interested in Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolent approach to bring social change Led Montgomery Improvement Association after Rosa Parks refused to give up seat on bus/received national attention for his role in the bus boycott

14 Believed: 4 pronged approach for gaining civil rights for all Americans:
1. direct, nonviolent actions 2. legal remedies 3. ballots 4. economic boycotts

15 1957 helped form Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
1963 helped organize protests in Birmingham/President Kennedy appalled at police violence against unarmed black protesters/Kennedy urged Congress to pass major civil rights laws/led to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 1967 began Poor People’s Campaign to address economic issues left unsolved by earlier legislation

16 August 1963-March on Washington/
“I Have a Dream” speech YouTube - Martin Luther King "I have a dream“ 1968 Dr. King was assassinated 1963 Man of the Year (Time Mag) 1964 Nobel Peace Prize

17 1956 State Flag 1956 Changed to incorporate the St. Andrew’s cross, a Confederate battle emblem Long subject of controversy and division within the state Modern leaders offended by image of state caught up in past Damaging to GA’s tourist industry and world’s businesses Governor Barnes called on to change flag


19 Jan 31, 2001Barnes signed the bill authorizing the new flag into law
Some saw 1956 flag as a memorial to Confederate war dead/proud heritage – outraged at change Others saw 1956 flag as symbol of racism Became issue in 2000 Election/Barnes V Perdue Those offended over flag change voted against Barnes/not reelected Perdue signed new state flag into law 5/8/03


21 March 2004-people of GA voted to keep the 2003 flag as the state flag.
based on first national flag of Confederacy Left corner square blue section containing GA’s coat of arms and words, “In God We Trust” surrounding coat of arms is circle of 13 stars representing the original 13 colonies March 2004-people of GA voted to keep the 2003 flag as the state flag.

22 2003- present

23 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee(SNCC)
1960 black students in North Carolina started a new era of protest Refuse to leave until they are served or their needs are met—sit ins Formed this new organization (SNCC) called “snick” John Lewis first president of the org from GA Led protests, sit ins, and boycotts

24 Sibley Commission Most schools in GA refused desegregation
1955- Opposition to integration was so strong that the General Assembly voted to cut state funds for refusing General Assembly organized a 14 member commission headed by John Sibley, Atlanta attorney and banker, thus Sibley Commission Held hearings all over the state to hear public opinion

25 Rather close schools than integrate them
The commission recommended that local school systems decide if they wanted to abide by a probable court order or choose to close schools Private schools were opened to avoid the issue

26 Hamilton Holmes/Charlayne Hunter
Jan 6, 1961, UGA allowed its first two black students They were escorted into the school by state patrol officers Charlayne Hunter graduated from Henry Grady School of Journalism and later as Charlayne Hunter-Gault became a nationally known newspaper and public TV reporter

27 Hamilton Holmes installed in Phi Beta Kappa, graduated with honors and later practiced medicine as an orthopedic surgeon until 1995 death Vandiver was the governor who instructed the college to open the doors to both students Many citizens pleaded to close UGA instead Vandiver had won the governor’s office by promising to not integrate schools Vandiver also asked legislature to abolish other segregation laws

28 As a result of Vandiver’s actions, GA’s further desegregation of schools were smoother and calmer than other states.

29 Albany Movement 1961 center of civil rights activity
Population 40% African American Mostly farming Only a small fraction were allowed to vote, despite Brown vs Board of Education

30 Nov 1, 1961 NAACP and SNCC decided to test the ruling of segregation in interstate bus and train stations Sat in “white only” waiting room at the Albany bus station Arrested African American community created the Albany Movement led by Dr. William Anderson

31 December- black and white freedom riders arrived to support the movement
Arrested at the train station terminal Next day, SNCC led a march of high school students to same train station Arrested and jailed while the press watched 500 people in jail or out on bond Dr King and Rev Ralph Abernathy were arrested for asking for a meeting to resolve dispute Biracial committee was created to study issues

32 March of Washington 1963 June 19, 1963 strongest bill for civil right sent to Congress by Kennedy Called to End: Discrimination in public places Fair employment assurances Voter registration practices

33 Withhold funds from projects where discrimination was practiced
Authority of attorney general to file suit school districts not following rules of integration 250,000 people gathered at Washington Monument to demonstrate its passage All races, creeds, and nationalities were represented King made the “I Have a Dream” Speech

34 Civil Rights Act 1963 Kennedy went on national TV to describe segregation as a moral crisis for America Kennedy was assassinated (Nov 23, 1963) and did not live to see the bill become law. Johnson took over and vowed to fight for the civil rights bill 1964 Civil Rights Act became law

35 Maynard Jackson 1974 first African American and youngest mayor of Atlanta Morehouse College North Carolina Central University Law School in 1964 Neighborhood planning units to give voice to citizens Tackled police brutality

36 Changed the organization and administration of the police, fire dept, and city govt
Expansion of MARTA Expansion of Hartsfield Intl Airport Supporter of the arts-Bureau of Cultural Affairs Art construction projects around Atlanta Worked to get Olympics to Atlanta Died in 2003, Hartsfield-Jackson Intl Airport

37 Lester Maddox 1967 governor Segregationist
Restaurant owner-Pickrick near Georgia Tech Closed the restaurant instead of serving blacks Appointed African Americans to state boards and commissions

38 Named the first black member of the Board of Pardons and Paroles
Reformed state prisons Integrated GA state patrol People’s Day-could visit the Gov mansion 2 times a month to discuss issues

39 Andrew Young Civil rights leader Pastor
Established citizenship schools to teach future leaders about nonviolent strategies Aide to MLK Jr Was with MLK Jr when assassinated 1972 House of Representatives

40 First African American elected since Reconstruction
1977 Pres Carter named him US Ambassador to United Nations 1981 Mayor of Atlanta twice Co-chairman to bring 1996 Olympics to Atl Professor at Georgia State University

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