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Modern Civil Rights Movement SS8H11 Describe the developments in civil rights and GA’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge,

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Civil Rights Movement SS8H11 Describe the developments in civil rights and GA’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Civil Rights Movement SS8H11 Describe the developments in civil rights and GA’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and the end of the white primary, Brown V Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.

2 Benjamin Mays  Parents were slaves  Lifelong educator:  South Carolina State College  Morehouse College  Dean-Howard University School of Religion  President-Morehouse College  First African-American President of the Atlanta Board of Ed.

3  Served as mentor to Martin Luther King, JR at Morehouse  Chairman of Atlanta Board of Ed after retirement from Morehouse

4 End of the White Primary  White Primary-one way Blacks were kept from voting  Legislature determined that 15 th Amendment only applied to general election  1900 primary, Democratic leaders ruled only white Democrats would be allowed to vote in the primary  GA primarily one-party state since Rep and Ind candidates got little support from whites/rarely ran for offic

5  1946 King V Chapman  White primary systems in GA were unconstitutional  1946 election-black voters were able to take part in the primary election for the first time since Reconstruction

6 1946 Governor’s Race  Candidates in the Democratic primary:  Eugene Talmadge  Eurith Rivers  James Carmichael  Talmadge won the county unit vote/became Democratic candidate

7  Republicans had no candidate  Talmadge ran unopposed in general election (62/poor health)  Few hundred supporters wrote in son’s name on ballot as their 2 nd choic  Talmadge SR elected Governor  Melvin Thompson Lieutenant Governor  Talmadge sworn in/died  CONFUSION BEGAN---  Write in ballots for Herman Talmadge “suddenly appeared”- Legislature chose him as governor  Governor Arnall declared Melvin Thompson Governor

8  Group of Eugene Talmadge’s men broke into governor’s office and changed the locks on the door and prepared to run the state themselves!  Arnall set up office at Capitol (locked out)  3 days later-resigned  Thompson opened office in downtown Atl  Began legal proceedings to become governor  Secretary of State Ben Fortson refused to give official state seal (used for legalizing documents) to anyone

9 No one could run the state!  March 1948- GA Supreme Court ruled that Thompson was rightful head of state until special election could be held to fill unexpired term of Governor-elect (Eugene Talmadge)  Herman Talmadge elected Herman Talmadge

10 Brown V Board of Education  1950  7 year old Linda Brown tried to enroll in all white school in Topeka, KS  Entry denied  NAACP helped Brown’s father sue the Topeka Board of Education  Case reached Supreme Court  1954 ruling-separate but equal school unconstitutional

11  After nearly 60 years, Plessy V Ferguson case overturned  Many states were SLOW to carry out orders of segregation

12 Martin Luther King, JR.  January 15, 1929  Family actively involved in African American Baptist Church  Grandfather one of founders of Atlanta chapter of NAACP/pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church  Father also pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church

13  Attended Morehouse College  Pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church (Montgomery, AL)  Interested in Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolent approach to bring social change  Led Montgomery Improvement Association after Rosa Parks refused to give up seat on bus/received national attention for his role in the bus boycott

14 Believed: 4 pronged approach for gaining civil rights for all Americans:  1. direct, nonviolent actions  2. legal remedies  3. ballots  4. economic boycotts

15  1957 helped form Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)  1963 helped organize protests in Birmingham/President Kennedy appalled at police violence against unarmed black protesters/Kennedy urged Congress to pass major civil rights laws/led to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964  1967 began Poor People’s Campaign to address economic issues left unsolved by earlier legislation

16  August 1963-March on Washington/  “I Have a Dream” speech  YouTube - Martin Luther King "I have a dream“ YouTube - Martin Luther King "I have a dream“ YouTube - Martin Luther King "I have a dream“  1968 Dr. King was assassinated  1963 Man of the Year (Time Mag)  1964 Nobel Peace Prize

17 1956 State Flag  1956 Changed to incorporate the St. Andrew’s cross, a Confederate battle emblem  Long subject of controversy and division within the state  Modern leaders offended by image of state caught up in past  Damaging to GA’s tourist industry and world’s businesses  Governor Barnes called on to change flag

18 1956-2001

19  Jan 31, 2001Barnes signed the bill authorizing the new flag into law  Some saw 1956 flag as a memorial to Confederate war dead/proud heritage – outraged at change  Others saw 1956 flag as symbol of racism  Became issue in 2000 Election/Barnes V Perdue  Those offended over flag change voted against Barnes/not reelected  Perdue signed new state flag into law 5/8/03

20 2001-2003

21  2003 flag  based on first national flag of Confederacy  Left corner square blue section containing GA’s coat of arms and words, “In God We Trust”  surrounding coat of arms is circle of 13 stars representing the original 13 colonies  March 2004-people of GA voted to keep the 2003 flag as the state flag.

22 2003- present

23 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee(SNCC)  1960 black students in North Carolina started a new era of protest  Refuse to leave until they are served or their needs are met—sit ins  Formed this new organization (SNCC) called “snick”  John Lewis first president of the org from GA  Led protests, sit ins, and boycotts

24 Sibley Commission  Most schools in GA refused desegregation  1955- Opposition to integration was so strong that the General Assembly voted to cut state funds for refusing  General Assembly organized a 14 member commission headed by John Sibley, Atlanta attorney and banker, thus Sibley Commission  Held hearings all over the state to hear public opinion

25  Rather close schools than integrate them  The commission recommended that local school systems decide if they wanted to abide by a probable court order or choose to close schools  Private schools were opened to avoid the issue

26 Hamilton Holmes/Charlayne Hunter  Jan 6, 1961, UGA allowed its first two black students  They were escorted into the school by state patrol officers  Charlayne Hunter graduated from Henry Grady School of Journalism and later as Charlayne Hunter-Gault became a nationally known newspaper and public TV reporter

27  Hamilton Holmes installed in Phi Beta Kappa, graduated with honors and later practiced medicine as an orthopedic surgeon until 1995 death  Vandiver was the governor who instructed the college to open the doors to both students  Many citizens pleaded to close UGA instead  Vandiver had won the governor’s office by promising to not integrate schools  Vandiver also asked legislature to abolish other segregation laws

28  As a result of Vandiver’s actions, GA’s further desegregation of schools were smoother and calmer than other states.

29 Albany Movement  1961 center of civil rights activity  Population 40% African American  Mostly farming  Only a small fraction were allowed to vote, despite Brown vs Board of Education

30  Nov 1, 1961 NAACP and SNCC decided to test the ruling of segregation in interstate bus and train stations  Sat in “white only” waiting room at the Albany bus station  Arrested  African American community created the Albany Movement led by Dr. William Anderson

31  December- black and white freedom riders arrived to support the movement  Arrested at the train station terminal  Next day, SNCC led a march of high school students to same train station  Arrested and jailed while the press watched  500 people in jail or out on bond  Dr King and Rev Ralph Abernathy were arrested for asking for a meeting to resolve dispute  Biracial committee was created to study issues

32 March of Washington 1963  June 19, 1963 strongest bill for civil right sent to Congress by Kennedy  Called to End:  Discrimination in public places  Fair employment assurances  Voter registration practices

33  Withhold funds from projects where discrimination was practiced  Authority of attorney general to file suit school districts not following rules of integration  250,000 people gathered at Washington Monument to demonstrate its passage  All races, creeds, and nationalities were represented  King made the “I Have a Dream” Speech

34 Civil Rights Act  1963 Kennedy went on national TV to describe segregation as a moral crisis for America  Kennedy was assassinated (Nov 23, 1963) and did not live to see the bill become law.  Johnson took over and vowed to fight for the civil rights bill  1964 Civil Rights Act became law

35 Maynard Jackson  1974 first African American and youngest mayor of Atlanta  Morehouse College  North Carolina Central University Law School in 1964  Neighborhood planning units to give voice to citizens  Tackled police brutality

36  Changed the organization and administration of the police, fire dept, and city govt  Expansion of MARTA  Expansion of Hartsfield Intl Airport  Supporter of the arts-Bureau of Cultural Affairs  Art construction projects around Atlanta  Worked to get Olympics to Atlanta  Died in 2003, Hartsfield-Jackson Intl Airport

37 Lester Maddox  1967 governor  Segregationist  Restaurant owner-Pickrick near Georgia Tech  Closed the restaurant instead of serving blacks  Appointed African Americans to state boards and commissions

38  Named the first black member of the Board of Pardons and Paroles  Reformed state prisons  Integrated GA state patrol  People’s Day-could visit the Gov mansion 2 times a month to discuss issues

39 Andrew Young  Civil rights leader  Pastor  Established citizenship schools to teach future leaders about nonviolent strategies  Aide to MLK Jr  Was with MLK Jr when assassinated  1972 House of Representatives

40  First African American elected since Reconstruction  1977 Pres Carter named him US Ambassador to United Nations  1981 Mayor of Atlanta twice  Co-chairman to bring 1996 Olympics to Atl  Professor at Georgia State University

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