21. Human-made objects, such as tools and jewelry 2. A people’s unique way of life 3. Ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet peoples’ needs 4. A complex culture with five characteristics including advanced cities 5. Professional record keepersA. TechnologyB. ScribesC. CivilizationD. ArtifactsE. CuneiformF. Culture
36. A system of Sumerian writing 7. Area in modern-day Iraq. Means “land between the rivers” 8. A series of rulers from a single family 9. The process in which a new idea or product spreads from one culture to another 10. The belief in more than one godA. MesopotamiaB. cultural diffusionC. CuneiformD. PolytheismE. DynastyF. Hieroglyphics
4Add these to the back of your answer sheet 21. What are the five characteristics of a civilization?22. What are the first civilizations?23. Give three specific examples of cultural diffusion from the first civilizationstell me what the item is, where it came from, and where it went
5Geography Somewhat isolated by natural barriers. Most of the 10% of China that is suitable for farming lies in a plain between the Huang He and Chiang Jiang Rivers in Eastern ChinaChina was not completely protected by natural boundaries and was frequently invaded
7Civilization Emerges in Shang Times Shang rose to power in northern ChinaCreated walled cities made of wood to protect from invadersLasted from BC
8Culture Family: Central to Chinese society Social Classes: society was sharply divided between nobles and peasantsReligious beliefs: Believed the spirits of ancestors would bring good fortune or disaster to a family. Also worshiped a main god, Shang Di, and several lesser gods
9WritingVery few links between the written language and spoken languageAdvantage: People in all parts of China could learn the written language even if their spoken language was very differentDisadvantage: Enormous number of written symbols to be memorized.
10Zhou DynastyZhou used Mandate of Heaven to justify their conquest of the ShangDynastic cycle: pattern of rise, decline and replacement of dynastiesZhou established feudalism: political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king. In return, nobles owe loyalty and military service to the king.
11Technology and Warring Roads and canalsCoined moneyBlast furnaces produced cast iron that was used to create weapons and toolsWarring States:Zhou ruled from BC until nomads killed the royal family. Chaos replaced order as competing nobles attacked each other