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English 111 Sadlier-Oxford Vocabulary Level G, Unit 4.

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1 English 111 Sadlier-Oxford Vocabulary Level G, Unit 4

2 Atrophy: someone whose muscles have atrophied would not win a trophy.  (n.) the wasting away of a body organ or tissue; any progressive decline or failure; (v.) to waste away  Synonyms: (n.) degeneration, deterioration, (v.) wither  Antonyms: (n.) growth, development (v.) mature, develop

3 Bastion: think of the Bastille  (n.) a fortified palace, stronghold  Synonyms: citadel, rampart, bulwark, parapet

4 Concord: think of how you’d feel if your parents bought you an Accord  (n.) a state of agreement, harmony, unanimity; a treaty, pact, covenant  Antonyms: disagreement, strife, discord

5 Consummate: think perfect mate  (v.) to bring to a state of completion or perfection; (adj.) complete or perfect in the highest degree  Synonyms: (v.) clinch, conclude; (adj.) masterful  Antonyms: (v.) launch, initiate, begin, kick off

6 Disarray: think of all the dis words  (n.) disorder, confusion; (v.) to throw into disorder  Synonyms: (n.) disorganized; (v.) dishevel, mess up  Antonyms: (n.) organization, order, tidiness

7 Exigency: ends like urgency  (n.) urgency, pressure; urgent demand, pressing need; an emergency  Synonyms: requirement, crisis

8 Flotsam: float-sam  (n.) floating debris; homeless, impoverished people  Synonyms: floating wreckage

9 Frenetic: think frantic  (adj.) frenzied, highly agitated  Synonyms: frantic, overwrought, distraught  Antonyms: calm, controlled, relaxed, leisurely

10 Glean: gather grain (g sounds)  (v.) to gather bit by bit; to gather small quantities of grain left in a field by the reapers  Synonyms: collect, cull, pick up

11 Grouse: grouch  (n.) a type of game bird; a complaint; (v.) to complain, grumble  Synonyms: gripe, kvetch, bellyache

12 Incarcerate: you’d be incarcerated for stealing a car  (v.) to imprison, confine, jail  Synonyms: intern, immure  Antonyms: liberate, release, free

13 Incumbent: like the prez  (adj.) obligatory, required; (n.) one who holds a specific office at the time spoken of  Synonyms: (adj.) mandatory, necessary  Antonyms: (adj.) optional, unnecessary

14 Jocular: joke-ular  (adj.) humorous, jesting, jolly, joking  Synonyms: waggish, facetious, droll, witty  Antonyms: humorless, solemn, grave, earnest, grim

15 Ludicrous: ends like ridiculous  (adj.) ridiculous, laughable, absurd  Synonyms: risible, preposterous  Antonyms: heartrending, poignant, pathetic

16 Mordant: morbid  (n.) biting or caustic in thought, manner, or style; sharply or bitterly harsh  Synonyms: acrimonious, acidulous, sardonic, scathing  Antonyms: bland, mild, gentle, soothing

17 Nettle: needle  (n.) a prickly or stinging plant; (v.) to arouse displeasure, impatience, or anger; to vex or irritate severely  Synonyms: (v.) peeve, annoy, incense, gall, irk  Antonyms: (v.) please, delight, soothe, pacify

18 Pecuniary: penny-cuniary  (adj.) consisting of or measure in money; of or related to money  Synonyms: monetary, financial

19 Pusillanimous: wusillanimous  (adj.) contemptibly cowardly or mean spirited  Synonyms: craven, lily-livered  Antonyms: stouthearted, courageous, daring

20 Recumbent: recline (don’t confuse with incumbent!  (adj.) in a reclining position, lying down, in the posture of one sleeping or resting  Synonyms: prone, prostrate, supine, inactive  Antonyms: erect, upright, energetic, dynamic

21 Stratagem: singular of strategy  (n.) a scheme to outwit or deceive an opponent or to gain an end  Synonyms: ruse, trick, ploy, subterfuge


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