2Struggle to DefineCurriculum is such “permanent” subjects as grammar, reading, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, and the greatest books of the Western world and other cultures that best embody essential knowledge.
3Curriculum is. . .those subjects that are most useful for living in contemporary society.all planned learnings for which the school is responsible.all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school.the totality of learning experiences provided to students so that they can attain general skills and knowledge at a variety of learning sites.
4Curriculum is. . .what the student constructs from working with the computer and its various networks, such as the Internet.the questioning of authority and the searching for complex views of human situations.“what to teach”programmatic goals or targets for instruction.
5Curriculum is . . .all the experiences that learners have in the course of living.an interrelated set of plans and experiences that a student undertakes under the guidance of the school.all the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.
6Curriculum is . . .“The explicit and comprehensive plan developed to honor a framework of standards. A curriculum is the course or program of study composed of numerous units.” (McTighe and Wiggins).
7Written vs Un-written curriculum Written curriculum is that which is set on paper. Written curriculum is traditionally formally taught and assessed by teachers.Unwritten curriculum refers to any goals and standards which are not formally outlined in daily plans. Generally, unwritten curriculum is neither assessed nor evaluated.
8Sources of curriculum – written and unwritten School boardsSchool missionGovernmentsStandards from organizations (NCTM), IBO, universitiesAccrediting standardsOther schoolsParent inputTeachersStudents/needs
9The word curriculum comes from the Latin word currere - literal meaning the race course, thus curriculum means to run the course or to follow one’s path.Curriculum – singularCurricula – plural
10How are these definitions similar to yours… Portelli (1987) in “Perspectives and imperatives on defining curriculum” notes that more than 120 definitions of curriculum exist in the educational literature.Commonality in definitions…Learning is planned and guided.The definition refers to schooling.
11Relationship of Curriculum and Instruction Instruction is HOW the curriculum is delivered to studentsIs it really possible to separate curriculum from instruction or is instruction a necessary part of curriculum?
12Levels of CurriculumBased on how far the learner is from the source of the decisions made about the curriculum.Societal- politicalInstitutional- local educators and laypeopleInstructionaI- teachers plan and deliverExperiential- perceived and experienced by students
13Curriculum consists of matters that: students and teachers attend together (courses and programs)have been generally recognized as important and students are held accountable (competencies and objectives)are organized in time and space (scope and sequence)
14Five Concepts of Curriculum Subjects offered for study/ course descriptionsEducational activities/instructional lessonsIntended learning/competencies and objectivesStudents actual experiencesWhat students actually learn/ (learning outcomes), subject matter and ancillary learning
15Other Related Definitions Curriculum Development- recreating or modifying what is taughtCurriculum Evaluation- guides decision making, serves accountability needs, and promotes understanding of the curriculumCurriculum Guides- include teaching goals and instructional strategies
16Courses of study, syllabi, or blueprints- Courses of study, syllabi, or blueprints- specify the content, the learning outcomes and time allocationsHidden - Implicit – Experienced curriculumNull curriculum – that which is not taughtPlanned – Explicit CurriculumEnacted Curriculum – what actually happens in the classroom
17Standards-based curriculum A program of study based upon a system of behavioral-based expectations.Essentially standards-based school programs are focused on what students are able to accomplish at specific times in their career.Standards-based programs make no directives in regards to teaching methodology or resources.Standards-based curricula is always written in terms of what students will be able to do at the completion of study
18Some definitionsStandard: A general expectation for learning documented for all students to learn in a specific area of study and demonstrated by each student.A goal statement that identifies the knowledge and skills to be learned in the content areas. Standard specifies what we want students to no and to be able to do.Benchmark: Indicator of progress towards a specific standard at a specific point in time.A benchmark can serve as a minimum goal for students to achieve at the end of the year. A benchmark is developmentally appropriate.
19Standards Serve as the core of most academic programs in school. Teaching materials and methods are determined by the standards, not vice versa.Are written by “experts” in the various fields of study.Are not viewed as “negotiable” once they are adopted.Tend to ‘compartmentalize’ student learning expectationsMath worries about mathScience worries about scienceAttitudes and some skills are outlined separately, if at all
20Where do standards come from? National organizations and governmentsIn the United States every state has its own set of standardsOther national/regional governments as wellVirtually every professional organization dedicated to teaching specific subjects has published standardsNCTMNCSSNCTE
21Worth PonderingThe joy of learning is as indispensable in study as breathing is in running. Where it is lacking there are no real students, but only poor caricatures of apprentices who, at the end of their apprenticeship, will not even have a trade.Simone Weil
22Worth PonderingIt is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge.Albert Einstein
23Worth PonderingTrue success is not in learning but in its application for the benefit of mankind.His Royal Highness Prince Mahidol of Songkla
24And one silly quote just for fun.... Never try to teach a pig to sing....it wastes your time and annoys the pig.Anonymous
25Curriculum is a set of goals that informs and guides instruction and content. -Nicole and John
26Curriculum is…the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are taught and assessed. Ron and Eric
27Curriculum is an array of skills, knowledge and concepts to be taught in an educational institution. Sam and Kathy
28Curriculum is a proposed map of standards and benchmarks used to guide the purpose and direction of education both thematically and chronologically. (Tessa and Brian)
29Curriculum isCurriculum is a set of guidelines with which an integrated body of knowledge is taught and implemented by a team of educators along with the effective measures of assessment as to what the students should be able to do and apply once they leave the institution they are currently attending. (Nathan & Ekie)