Presentation on theme: "Georgia History Chapter 9"— Presentation transcript:
1 Georgia History Chapter 9 Growth and ProsperityGeorgia HistoryChapter 9
2 Growth After the Revolution Constitution requires that a census be taken every 10 years (GA quadrupled in 50 years).Geography of land determined settlements (Cumberland Gap)1787 GA gives up land to create Alabama and MississippiLouisiana Purchase ($15 million) doubled size of U.S.
3 Manifest DestinyAmericans felt they had a right to all land west of the Mississippi RiverLewis and Clark sent on expedition to map landsWestern expansion created desire for freedom, unlimited opportunities and cheap land.Manifest Destiny was belief of U.S. from coast to coast.
4 GeorgiaCreeks and Cherokees, in heavy debt from white traders, gave up more than 2 million acres of backcountryGrowing population meant more representation in state and federal HouseState government continued to pressure Indians into ceding (giving up) land.
5 Public Land Distribution Do we give up land to encourage settlement or sell it to pay for roads, schools, etc.? Population growth wins.GA uses headright system; war veterans received more land (288 – 1,955 acres)People chose plats (maps of land lots); along rivers most popular. Headright lots often irregular shapes.
6 Georgia’s Capital Savannah was capital when it was a colony Settlers/traders said Augusta was closer for backcountry folks (legislature heard all court cases)Augusta still too far east, so Louisville (on Ogeechee River) was named capitalIn 1806 Milledgeville became capital.
7 Yazoo Land FraudLand speculation allowed people to buy at low prices and sell highIn1795, 4 private companies bribe many members of General Assembly to pass law to let companies buy land to Yazoo River (in Mississippi) for $.02/acreNewly elected legislature repealed law and publicly burned it.Federal gov’t ended up paying off claims.
8 Georgia’s Western Territory (see page 141) Both GA and Spain claimed land between Chattahoochee River and Mississippi River. Spain gave it up.After War, it was decided the area would be the Mississippi Territory with its own government.GA citizens tired of lawsuits from Yazoo Fraud and trying to protect its settlers there.Federal gov’t paid Georgia $1,250,000 for land and would remove all Indians from the state.
9 Georgia Acquires Indian Lands Settlers wanted Indians out to take their land.Gen. Elijah Clarke tried to create independent government on Creek Indian land (built several forts and called area Trans-Oconee Republic), but Georgia army and federal troops removed them.By 1802 Georgians fighting Creeks along Oconee River. Creeks signed treaty to give up land west to the Ocmulgee River.
10 Land LotteriesBy 1803 no headright system. Surveyors divided land into small square lots, so that families would settle frontier.Lots varied along with quality of land (better quality, smaller lots)Lottery for every white male (21+) allowed to draw one chance (w/wife and child = 2 chances). Widows and orphans had 1 chance.
11 State Lottery (continued) They would register at county courthouse.Names sent to state capital, written on a ticket, and placed in a barrel.Land lots given away were numbered. Number of each lot was written on a ticket and placed in a barrel.Official drew from both barrels simultaneously to award land to “fortunate drawers”
12 Advantages of Winning the Lottery Land was free (except $4.00/100 acres recording fee)Winners could farm land or sell it.Six lotteries held in 28 yearsGeorgia distributed about 30 million acres to more than 100,000 fortunate drawers.
13 Encouraging Economic Growth Steamboats and railroads are rapidly creating faster/cheaper transportationSamuel Slater’s inventions in textile industry creates factoriesEli Whitney’s cotton gin, Henry Blair’s corn harvester, and Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper make great changes in agriculture.
14 Northern Economic Growth More roads, railroads and canals allowed for large industrialization. Finish goods now shipped all over country.Southern cotton could also be shipped.More settlement in West helped fuel nation’s growth as exchange of farm and manufactured goods increased.
15 Government and Transportation Georgia officials worked with business people to develop a transportation system.Planned cities encouraged settlement in undeveloped areas.Rivers became “highways” to transport goods, Savannah River becomes waterway between backcountry and port of Savannah. Augusta becomes a major city.
16 Water TransportationRectangular barges (Oconee boxes) carried bales of cotton downriver to ocean ports. Couldn’t go upstream due to current.Steamboats (1820s) transported large quantities of cotton downstream and return with goods needed inland.Steamboats privately owned, but gov’t passed laws and spent money to make sure rivers didn’t become hazardous.
17 Water TransportationRectangular barges (Oconee boxes) carried bales of cotton downriver to ocean ports. Couldn’t go upstream due to current.Steamboats (1820s) transported large quantities of cotton downstream and return with goods needed inland.Steamboats privately owned, but government passed laws and spent money to make sure rivers didn’t become hazardous.
18 A Georgia Canal?Word of Erie Canal spread south, and Georgia government looked into possible canal to connect the Ocmulgee or Oconee River to the Tennessee River and Mississippi River to New Orleans.North Georgia Mountains prevented a canal.
19 Georgia RoadsAfter War most “roads” were old Indian trails. Roads needed for settlers to travel west and to get their crops to market.1806 Congress decided to construct a road from Cumberland, Maryland to Ohio River. This was the first national highway.In 1775 Georgia colonial government made all males between 16 and 60 work on roads 12 days per year.
20 Georgia RoadsGovernment finally turned to turnpike organizations (private roadway built and maintained by companies and travelers paid a toll).Pikes across road prevented travelers from using road until toll was paid.Some had bridges and ferries that charged extra tolls.