2 The Need To BelongSelf Transcedence needs, need to find meaning and identity beyond the self (transpersonal)Order is not fixed. People have starved themselves to make political statements.The Hurricane Katrina survivors and those in the Haitian earthquake were and are probably not concerned with higher level needs such as self actualization.
4 “Cast Away,” Tom Hanks, suffers from social starvation. The Need to Belong“[Man] is a social animal,” (Aristotle). Separation from others increases our need to belong.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the adaptive value of social attachments, and identify both healthy and unhealthy consequences of our need to belong.20th Century Fox/ Dreamworks/ The Kobal Collection“Cast Away,” Tom Hanks, suffers from social starvation.
5 A. Aiding SurvivalSocial bonds boosted our ancestors’ survival rates. These bonds led to the following:Protecting against predators, especially for the young.Procuring food.Reproducing the next offspring.
6 B. Wanting to BelongThe need to belong colors our thinking and emotions.Social Acceptance: A sense of belonging with others increases our self-esteem. Social segregation decreases it.Demoralized - Disorganized feels lost, weak and helpless, lost self confidence
7 C. Sustaining Relationships We resist breaking social bonds, even bad ones.This can explain why some stay in extremely abusive relationships for fear of being alone.Better Man by Pearl Jam
10 Pain of OstracismOstracism: Social exclusion leads to demoralization, depression, and at times destructive behavior.Jeremy Spoke in class todayKing Jeremy the WickedJeremy by Pearl Jam
11 Social Networking“Poke Me: How Social Networks Can Both Help and Harm Our Kids,” by Larry Rosen (APA Lecture)Potential adverse effects, including: Those who use FacebookTeens more often show more narcissistic tendenciesYoung adults show more signs of other psychological disorders, including antisocial behaviors, mania and aggressive tendencies. can negatively impact learningstudents who checked Facebook at least once during a 15-minute study period achieved lower grades.Daily overuse of media and technology make them more prone to anxiety, depression, and other psychological disorders.
12 Social Networking“Poke Me: How Social Networks Can Both Help and Harm Our Kids,” by Larry Rosen (APA Lecture)Potential positive effects, including: Those who use FacebookYoung adults who spend more time on Facebook are better at showing “virtual empathy” to their online friends. Can help introverted adolescents learn how to socialize behind the safety of various screens Social networking can provide tools for teaching in compelling ways that engage young students.
14 Attitudes Towards Work People have different attitudes toward work. Some take it as a:Job: Necessary way to make money.Career: Opportunity to advance from one position to another.Calling: Fulfilling a socially useful activity.Two decades from now you might be doing something that you never thought of.Indiana Kno’
15 Csikszentmihalyi (chick-SENT-me-hi) Flow & RewardsCsikszentmihalyi (chick-SENT-me-hi)Flow - the experience between no work and a lot of work. Flow marks immersion into one’s work.They are caught up in the process and most times forget about the work once it is completedPeople who “flow” in their work (artists, dancers, composers etc.) are driven less by extrinsic rewards (money, praise, promotion) and more by intrinsic rewards.
16 Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology Applies psychological principles to the workplace.Personnel Psychology: Studies the principles of selecting and evaluating workers.Organizational Psychology: Studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.
17 Harnessing Strengths Identifying people’s strengths: Analytical DisciplinedEager to learn, etc.Matching them to a particular area of work is the first step toward workplace effectiveness.
18 Interviews & Performance Interviewers are confident in their ability to predict long-term job performance.However, informal interviews are less informative than standardized tests and past performance.
19 The Interviewer Illusion Interviewers often overrate their discernment.Intention vs. Habits: Intensions matter, but long- lasting habits matter even more.Successful Employees: Interviewers are more likely to talk about those employees that turned out successful.Presumptions about Candidates: Interviewers presume (wrongly) that what we see (candidate) is what we get.Preconceptions: An interviewer’s prior knowledge about the candidate may affect her judgment.You are practicing who you are going to beLike most Egyptian hieroglyphics, they don’t show (or talk) about the failures. What happened to those who you didn’t hire. Were they successful or meet with failure (like you predicted0It like a first date, you are (hopefully) putting on your best appearances.
20 Structured InterviewA formal and disciplined way of gathering information from the interviewee. Structured interviews pinpoint strengths (attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and skills). The personnel psychologist may do the following:Questions are more specific, tailored to the job being interviewed for. Still open ended, but more directive.Analyze the job.Script questions.Train the interviewer.
21 Achievement Motivation A desire for significant accomplishments; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard.
22 Achievement Motivation People with HIGH achievement motivation prefer moderately difficult tasks.People who have LOW achievement motivation prefer very easy or very difficult tasks.Success is attainable yet attributable to their skill and effort.Failure is unlikely of not embarrassing
23 Why are some people highly motivated, while others are not? There are emotional and cognitive roots.Children learn to associate achievement with positive emotions.Children learn to associate achievement with expectations (intrinsic or extrinsic).These structures are usually set in place by parents and teachers.Strong argument for what playing a part in achievement motivation?Nurture
24 Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work? (School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..)Intrinsic MotivatorsExtrinsic MotivatorsReward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..)Work great in the short run.Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction.
25 Intrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
26 Extrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
28 Industrial and Organizational Psychology Goal Setting TheoryA subfield in psychology that focuses on how to help organizations recruit, select, compensate and train employees.The object is to utilize the human factor in an organization to increase productivity.
29 Leadership StyleTask Leadership: goal oriented leadership that sets standards and organizes work.Social Leadership: group oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict and offers support .
30 Larry Brown offers 4-5 positive comments for every negative comment. Managing WellEvery leader dreams of managing in ways that enhance people’s satisfaction, engagement, and productivity in his or her organization.OBJECTIVE 21| Describe some effective management techniques.Ezra Shaw/ Getty ImagesLarry Brown offers 4-5 positive comments for every negative comment.
32 Theory X Must never be trusted and always be watched. Assumes that works are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money.Must never be trusted and always be watched.To work more, they must be given money.
33 Theory YAssumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
34 Appraising Performance Appraising performance results in two things: 1) employee retention, and 2) the encouragement of better performance.