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Georgia on my mind.

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Presentation on theme: "Georgia on my mind."— Presentation transcript:

1 Georgia on my mind

2

3 Georgia’s location Georgia is located in the Western and Northern hemispheres. In other words, we are located west of zero degrees longitude (the “prime meridian” which passes through Great Britain) and north of the equator. Within the U. S., we are a part of two major geographic regions: the South, the Southeast

4 Georgia’s location Georgia is located in the ______ and ______ hemispheres. In other words, we are located west of zero degrees longitude (the “_____ meridian” which passes through Great Britain) and north of the ________. Within the U. S., we are a part of two major geographic regions: the ______, the _____east

5 Georgia’s Relative Location

6 Within Georgia there are five geographic regions
Within Georgia there are five geographic regions. Georgia’s five geographic regions are: 1. COASTAL PLAIN PIEDMONT 3. BLUE RIDGE 4. RIDGE AND VALLEY 5. APPALACHIAN PLATEAU

7 COASTAL PLAIN

8 The Coastal Plain, covers about 60% of the state, once entirely covered by Atlantic Ocean. Relatively flat , it’s known for sedimentary deposits like sand and limestone. It is relatively flat and famous for the 3 P’s: peanuts, peaches, and pecans. Cotton also grows well in this region. Key features: Okefenokee Swamp, Barrier Islands, estuaries, continental shelf, Fall Line, Savannah and Chattahoochee Rivers

9 The Coastal Plain, covers about __% of the state, once entirely covered by _____ Ocean. Relatively flat , it’s known for sed_________ deposits like ____ and ______. It is relatively flat and famous for the 3 P’s: p_____, p_______, and p______. C____ also grows well in much of the region. Key features: Okefenokee Swamp, Barrier Islands, estuaries, continental shelf, Fall Line, Savannah and Chattahoochee Rivers

10 Okefenokee Swamp FACTS: * approximately 700 square miles of swamp land
* logging was a primary industry here from to 1937 * In 1937 (during the Great Depression) President Franklin Roosevelt makes the Okeefenokee a wildlife refuge.

11 Barrier Islands: Islands just off coast earn name by providing barrier between mainland and ocean. This barrier protects fishing boats, pleasure craft, and shippers from winds, waves and currents as they travel along the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. Estuaries (semi enclosed bodies of water where salt and fresh water mix) contain 70% of GA’s recreationally and commercially important fishes. These estuaries are located in and among the Barrier islands. Some developed, to the mainland by bridges/causeways: (Jekyll {a state park}, St. Simons, Tybee). Tourism is important to these islands. Some are wildlife refuges (Blackbeard, Wassaw, Wolf) Some are privately owned.

12 B___ Islands: . Islands just off coast earn name by providing barrier between mainland and ocean. This barrier protects fishing boats, pleasure craft, and shippers from winds, waves and currents as they travel along the A____ I_______ Waterway. E_____ (semi enclosed bodies of water where salt and f____ water mix) contain 70% of GA’s recreationally and commercially important fishes. These e_______ are located in and among the B______ islands. Some developed, to the mainland by bridges/causeways: (Jekyll {a state park}, St. Simons, Tybee). Tourism is important to these islands. Some are wildlife refuges (Blackbeard, Wassaw, Wolf) Some are privately owned.

13 FALL LINE: ** It’s located on the former shoreline
of the Atlantic Ocean. ** It is a 20 mile wide drop off in eleva- tion that forms the boundary between the Piedmont and Coastal Plains regions. **The Fall Line affected early commercial transportation and provided water power resulting in the development of cities along the Line (Columbus, Macon, Augusta)

14 F____ LINE: ** It’s located on the former s______ of the A_____ Ocean.
** It is a ____mile wide drop off in eleva- tion that forms the boundary between the P_____ and C_____ Plain regions. **The Fall Line affected early commercial transportation resulting in the development of cities along the Line (C_____, M______, A______)

15 History and the Fall Line
1828: Georgia’s General Assembly (our legislative branch of gov’t) creates the town of Columbus. Why? Late 1830s: Fall line used for industrial power source (water power)for textile mills & gristmills. These mills were important to the Confederacy during Civil War (1861 – 1865). For that reason, Union troops focused on destruction of factories and mills of cities on Fall Line.

16 History and the Fall Line
1828: Georgia’s General Assembly (our legislative branch of gov’t) creates the town of C_____. Why? Late 1830s: Fall line used for industrial p____ source (w____power)for t___ mills & gristmills. These mills were important to the Confederacy during Civil War (1861 – 1865). For that reason, Union troops focused on destruction of factories and mills of cities on Fall Line.

17 REMINDER: `The Coastal Plain region is famous for growing the 3 P’s:
, PEACHES, and PECANS These grow well in the western section of the Coastal Plain. Near the Fall Line, peaches grow well. The soil is too sandy in the eastern Coastal Plain which is known for its pine barrens.

18 ASSIGNMENT: Do progress/development graphic organizer (flip chart) showing how progress led to greater survival rate of each Native American period.

19 Early Native American Periods in GA
Paleo Indians first appeared along Savannah River ~10,000 B.C.(“Native Americans” migrated from Asia into North America across a land bridge known as Beringia that connected the two continents at that time.) The 4 early Native American periods found in GA from earliest to most recent were: Paleo->Archaic->Woodland->Mississippian (“PAWM”). .

20 Early Native American Periods in GA
P_____Indians first appeared along Savannah River ~10,000 B.C.(“Native Americans” migrated from A___ into N_____ A_______ across a land bridge known as B_____ that connected the two continents at that time.) The 4 early Native American periods found in GA from earliest to most recent were: P____->Ar_____>W_______->M_______(“PAWM”). .

21 Paleo: nomadic hunters of large game (wild animals) from which they got food clothing, tools); also ate fruits & vegetables they found; may have developed atlatl (spear throwing device). Archaic: nomadic in early years,; dependent on hunting, fishing, gathering (fruits, veggies) widespread use of atlatl, eventually developed pottery allowing them to become more settled WHY? Woodland: began to form tribes & villages; bow & arrow improved survival rate; built burial mounds and ceremonial mounds (Rock Eagle; Kolomoki). Started farming Mississippian: agricultural developments and food storage made large settlements (towns) possible; main crops: the 3 sisters—corn (maize), squash, beans; built large flat -topped mounds used for burials and ceremonies (Etowah & Ocmulgee Mounds); were here when Spanish arrived.

22 Major Rivers: Chattahoochee and Savannah
P_____: n_____hunters of large game (wild animals) from which they got food clothing, tools); also ate f____& v__________ they found; may have developed a____(spear throwing device). A_______: n________ in early years,; dependent on hunting, fishing, gathering (fruits, veggies) widespread use of a______, eventually developed p_______ allowing them to become more settled WHY? Woodland: began to form tribes & villages; b___ & a_____improved survival rate; built b____mounds and c______mounds (R_____ Eagle; K_________). Mississippian: agricultural developments and food storage made large settlements (towns) possible; main crops: the 3 s______—c____, s_____, b_____; built large flat -topped mounds used for burials and ceremonies (E____ & O_______Mounds); were here when Spanish arrived.

23 Rivers cont’d: Arrival of Europeans
First known European explorer: Hernando de Soto in 1540; came to new world in search of gold and silver. Spanish claimed the area we now call GA. When de Soto arrived, the Mississippian cultures were thriving. European diseases brought by Spanish wreaked havoc on native populations, decimating the Mississippian cultures In early 1700s, British needed buffer colony for S. Carolina (protection from Spanish in FL), so GA colony was established on Savannah River under the leadership of James Oglethorpe. British said this was part of their territory based on exploration of North American coast by John Cabot in 1497 &1498

24 Rivers cont’d.: Georgia after U. S. becomes a nation.
4. In the 1800s, these rivers were important lines of travel and transport. 5. Both purposes vital to the Confederacy during Civil War. Union ships blockaded Savannah River during the war ( ). 6. After WWI (1914 – 1918), roles reduced due to advances in railroad development and motorized vehicles (trucks, cars, busses). 7. Today these rivers provide vital water supply for drinking. Dams on the rivers provide reservoirs and hydroelectric power. 8. Savannah River forms most of GA’s border with S. Carolina; Chattahoochee forms major portion of border with Alabama.

25 PIEDMONT REGION

26 ** Georgia “red clay” (result of iron in the soil)
**Part of the larger Piedmont (100 to 300 mi. wide) that stretches from mid Atlantic States down through SE. **2nd largest region (30% of GA), rolling hills & valleys ** Atlanta , GA’s largest city (and Canton) located here ** large areas of solid rock (called bedrock) contains marble , granite (Stone Mtn. is granite), and slate deposits; “Granite capital of the world” = Elbert County, GA ** This region known for growing cotton, soybeans and wheat. Beef cattle, dairy cattle, hogs, and chickens raised in large numbers in the Piedmont (Gainesville: “Chicken Capital”) ** Southern border of Piedmont is the Fall Line. FACTOID: Most of Ga’s Peach crop is grown in counties along the Fall Line.

27 ** Georgia “red ___” (result of i___ in the soil)
**Part of the larger Piedmont (100 to 300 mi. wide) that stretches from mid Atlantic States down through SE. **2nd largest region (30% of GA), r____ hills & v_____ ** A_____ , GA’s largest city (and Canton) located here ** large areas of solid rock (called b______) contains ma_____, gr_____ (Stone Mtn. is gra____), and slate deposits; “G_____ capital of the world” = E____ County, GA ** This region known for growing c_____,soybeans and wheat. Beef cattle, dairy cattle, hogs, and chickens raised in large numbers in the Piedmont (G_______: “C______ Capital”) ** Southern border of Piedmont is the F___Line. FACTOID: Most of Ga’s P_____crop is grown in counties along the Fall Line.

28 Historical Factoids of Piedmont Region:
**1540: de Soto again—passes through this region as well **Through the 1700s on into the 1800s, cotton plantations developed in the lower Piedmont subsistence farming in northern Piedmont, later replaced by poultry and hog farming.

29 BLUE RIDGE:

30 ** Borders Ga’s Piedmont Region to the south and Ridge & Valley
** Region consists of southernmost Appalachian Mtns. ** Borders Ga’s Piedmont Region to the south and Ridge & Valley region to the west. **Heavy rainfall in the Blue Ridge region contributes significantly to GA’s water supply ** Contains spectacular waterfalls. ** Both the Chattahoochee and Savannah Rivers have source (begin in) the Blue Ridge Region ** Apple orchards thrive. ** Brasstown Bald, the highest point in Ga (4,784 ft. above sea level), is located here. *

31 ** Borders Ga’s Piedmont Region to the south and Ridge & Valley
** Region consists of southernmost Appalachian Mtns. ** Borders Ga’s Piedmont Region to the south and Ridge & Valley region to the west. **Heavy r_____ in the Blue Ridge region contributes significantly to GA’s water supply ** Contains spectacular waterfalls. ** Both the C____and S_____ Rivers begin in the Blue Ridge Region ** A____ orchards thrive. ** Br_____ Bald, the ______ point in Ga, is located here. (4,784 ft. above sea level) *

32 Blue Ridge Historical factoids
**Many historians believe Cherokees arrived in 1400s. **First European: conquistador Hernando de Soto (1540) **Gold discovered in late 1820s; Gold rush in 1830s; spells end for Cherokees in GA. Why?

33 Historical factoids cont’d
**During the American Civil War this region was divided. A significant number of the people living here opposed secession. One reason: there were very few slaves. Why?

34 RIDGE AND VALLEY

35 Covers most of NW GA; is part of a larger U. S
**Covers most of NW GA; is part of a larger U. S. Ridge and Valley region stretching from New York southward. **Consists of long parallel ridges (a long hill or mtn.) overlooking wide, rolling valleys. **a series of natural gaps running from Cartersville through Calhoun, Dalton, and Ringgold provided natural landscape for road and railroad construction. This route strongly influenced colonial migration in the 1700s and Union invasion of the South during the Civil War ( ). **Valleys used for pasture and farmland.

36 This GA region covers most of NW GA and is part of a larger U. S
**This GA region covers most of NW GA and is part of a larger U. S. Ridge and Valley region stretching from New York southward. **Consists of long parallel r____ (a long hill or mtn.) overlooking wide, rolling v______. **a series of natural gaps running from Cartersville through Calhoun, Dalton, and Ringgold provided natural landscape for r___ and r_____ construction. This route strongly influenced colonial migration in the 1700s and Union invasion of the South during the Civil War ( ). **Valleys used for p_____ and f____land.

37 Plateau

38 **GA region that is part of the national Appalachian Plateau stretching from New York to Alabama. GA’s smallest region in extreme NW GA **Only known area of GA containing coal deposits. **Land primarily used for hardwood harvesting and pasture.

39 **GA region that is part of the national Appalachian Plateau stretching from New York to Alabama. GA’s s___ region in extreme NW GA **Only known area of GA containing c___ deposits. **Land primarily used for h____ harvesting and p_____.

40 Georgia’s CLIMATE has contributed to its historically agricultural roots. The climate of the state has provided for a long growing season. Georgia’s moderate CLIMATE has also attracted business to the area in the 20th and 21st centuries.

41 Georgia’s C_______ has contributed to its historically a______ roots
Georgia’s C_______ has contributed to its historically a______ roots. The climate of the state has provided for a long g______ season. Georgia’s m______ C______ has also attracted b____ to the area in the 20th and 21st centuries.


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