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The Periodic Table.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table

2 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
Antione Laviosier- 1st list of elements John Newlands:arranged by increasing atomic mass, the properties repeat every 8 elements (law of octaves) Mendeleev : based on the similarity of properties and reactivities exhibited by certain elements using atomic mass; able to predict properties of unknown elements Henri Moseley: each elements has a unique atomic number, which is how the current periodic table is organized.

3 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
The columns: groups/families The rows: periods Group A elements:representative/main group elements Groups 1,2, 13-18 Blocks s & p Group B elements:transition & inner transition Groups 3-12 Blocks d & f

4 3 Main Classifications of Elements:
1. Metals – shiny, smooth, solid at room temperature, good conductors of heat and electricity, ductile, malleable mostly group 1 and 2 and B (left of periodic table) Group 1 – alkali metals Group 2 – alkaline earth metals Group B are transition and inner transition (lanthanide and actinide series)

5 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
2. Nonmetals: upper right side of the periodic table Usually gases or brittle dull solids, poor conductors of heat and electricity Only bromine is liquid at room temperature Halogens: Group 17 & highly reactive Noble gases: Group 18 & non-reactive 3. Metalloids: border stair step – have properties of both metals and nonmetals Used in computer chips and solar cells

6 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
1 IA 18 VIIIA 2 IIA 13 IIIA 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 10 11 IB 12 IIB Metals Nonmetals

7 Classification of the elements
Valence electrons Atoms in groups have similar chemical properties because they have the same # of valence electrons Remember s,p,d &f blocks of the periodic table B 2p1 I 1A 18 VIIIA 1 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA 2 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 10 11 IB 12 IIB H 1s1 Li 2s1 Na 3s1 K 4s1 Rb 5s1 Cs 6s1 Fr 7s1 Be 2s2 Mg 3s2 Ca 4s2 Sr 5s2 Ba 6s2 Ra 7s2 Sc 3d1 Ti 3d2 V 3d3 Cr 4s13d5 Mn 3d5 Fe 3d6 Co 3d7 Ni 3d8 Zn 3d10 Cu 4s13d10 C 2p2 N 2p3 O 2p4 F 2p5 Ne 2p6 He 1s2 Al 3p1 Ga 4p1 In 5p1 Tl 6p1 Si 3p2 Ge 4p2 Sn 5p2 Pb 6p2 P 3p3 As 4p3 Sb 5p3 Bi 6p3 S 3p4 Se 4p4 Te 5p4 Po 6p4 Cl 3p5 4p5 5p5 At 6p5 Ar 3p6 Kr 4p6 Xe 5p6 Rn 6p6 Y 4d1 La 5d1 Ac 6d1 Cd 4d10 Hg 5d10 Ag 5s14d10 Au 6s15d10 Zr 4d2 Hf 5d2 Rf 6d2 Nb 4d3 Ta 5d3 Db 6d3 Mo 5s14d5 W 6s15d5 Sg 7s16d5 Tc 4d5 Re 5d5 Bh 6d5 Ru 4d6 Os 5d6 Hs 6d6 Rh 4d7 Ir 5d7 Mt 6d7 4d8 5d8 IIA

8 Periodic Trends Atomic Radius: (atoms without charge) ½ the distance across atom Decreases left to right because of the pull from the nucleus as the outer energy level fills Increase top to bottom because of the additional energy level

9 Periodic Trends Shielding- when levels of electrons “block” the pull of the nucleus from the outer electrons As you go across the periodic table, shielding does not change As you go down a period, shielding increases b/c you have added a level

10 Periodic Trends Atomic Radius Questions:
Which has a large atomic radius: Li or Ne? Why? Which has a smaller atomic radius: Na or Cs? Why?

11 Periodic Trends Ionic Radius
Ions are atoms with a charge - #p+ do not equal #e- Remember that “stable” atoms/ions have 8 e- (octet rule) Atoms will gain, lose, or share e- to get 8 Groups 1 – 14 lose an e- becoming positively charged and they get smaller (metals) Groups gain e- becoming negatively charged and they get bigger (nonmetals) Which is larger Na or Na+? Why? Which is smaller Br or Br-? Why?

12 Periodic Trends Ionization energy: The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atom in the gaseous state Increases left to right because the electron is closer to the nucleus Decrease going down because the electron is further from the nucleus

13 Periodic Trends Electronegativity :The ability of an atom to attract e- when bonded in units of Paulings F is most electronegative because F is smallest with the most pull from the nucleus Fr is least electronegative because Fr is largest with least pull from the nucleus

14 Periodic Trends Electronegativity decreases
1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac 22 Ti 40 Zr 72 Hf 104 Rf 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 105 Db 42 Mo 74 W 106 Sg 25 Mn 43 Tc 75 Re 107 Bh 26 Fe 44 Ru 76 Os 108 Hs 27 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 109 Mt 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 110 Uun 111 Uuu 30 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 8 O 16 S 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po 7 N 15 P 33 As 51 Sb 83 Bi 6 C 14 Si 32 Ge 50 Sn 82 Pb 5 B 13 Al 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 24 Cr 29 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 112 Uub 114 Uuq 116 Uuh 118 Uuo Electronegativity decreases Ionization energy decreases Atomic radius increases Electronegativity increases Ionization energy increases Atomic radius decreases

15 Properties of the s-Block Elements
Diagonal Relationships – some period 2 elements behave more like the period 3 elements in the next group than what is expected based on their position. Li behaves like Mg B behaves like Si Be behaves like Al

16 Properties of s-Block Elements
H is in group 1 because it has 1 valence electron It has metallic and non metallic properties Metal: loses an e- Non-metal: gas, increase reactivity (like halogens) gains an e-

17 Properties of s-Block Elements
Alkali Metals: Group 1 React with water to form alkaline solutions, lose 1 valence e- becoming a 1+ ion, soft metal, highly reactive, the best conductors of heat and electricity So reactive that they must be stored under oil

18 Properties of s-Block Elements
Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2 Shiny solids, harder than alkali metals, less reactive then alkali metals, lose 2 valence e- becoming a 2+ ion, good conductors of heat and electricity, react with water

19 Properties of p-Block Elements
Group 13: The “Boron” Group Boron is a metalloid, the rest are metals B, Al, Ga, In lose 3 valence e- Tl loses 1p valence e- (Ga and In can too) Group 14: The “Carbon” Group C is a nonmetal, Si and Ge are metalloids, Sn and Pb are metals

20 Properties of p-Block Elements
Mineral: found in nature as solid crystals Ore:material that can be removed at a reasonable cost Allotrope: forms of an element in the same physical state – solid, liquid, or gas – that have different structures and properties Diamond, graphite, and coal

21 Properties of p-Block Elements
Group 15: The “Nitrogen” Group N and P are nonmetals and gain 3 e- to become a 3- charged ion As and Sb are metalloids Bi is a metal and loses 3 e- to become a 3+ charged ion Group 16: The “Oxygen” Group 6 valence e-, gain 2 e- to become ions with a 2-charge O, S, and Se are nonmetals Te and Po are metalloids

22 Properties of p-Block Elements
Group 17: Halogens – “salt formers” Combine with metals to form salts Form ions with a 1-charge by gaining 1 e- Group 18: Noble gases Colorless, un-reactive, full valence e- Homework: page 206 #39, 41, 45, 49

23 Properties of the d and f-Block Elements
Transition metals Electric conductors, have luster and malleability Little variation in atomic size, electronegativity, and ionization energy across a period More unpaired e- in d orbital, the increase in hardness and melting points Varied ions due to access of d orbital – all lose e- Inner Transition Lanthanide – silvery metals with increased melting point Homework: page 206 # 57, 59-61, 69

24 Properties of the d and f-Block Elements
Magnetism – ability to be affected by magnet Diamagnetism – all e- are paired, substance is unaffected or slightly repelled by magnetic field Paramagnetic – unpaired electron in the valence orbital is attracted to magnetic field Ferromagnetism – strong attraction of substance, ions can align in direction of field and form permanent magnet


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