2Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter exists in many colors, shapes, textures and forms.All matter is made of very tiny particles that are constantly moving.Properties like mass, volume, and density are common to all matter.Other properties, such as color, texture, odor, luster, ability to dissolve in water, hardness, malleability, ductility, and transparency can be used to identify kinds of matter.Matter’s properties can be explained by the type of particles and the way that they are arranged.These are all carbon. The diamond has a rigid 3-D framework. The graphite pencil is carbon particles in layers. The smoke contains carbon particles that are randomly arranged and weakly held together.
3Properties like mass, volume, and density are common to all matter. Other properties, such as color, texture, odor, luster, ability to dissolve in water, hardness, malleability, ductility, and transparency can be used to identify kinds of matter.Matter’s properties can be explained by the type of particles and the way that they are arrangedWhat is the difference between a chemical and a physical property?
4Changes in MatterMatter that changes size, shape, or phase or is dissolved in water is undergoing a physical change.Physical changes do not change the kind of particles the matter is made of. They can change the arrangement of the particles.When substances are put together to make a mixture, this is also a physical change.Matter that is changed from one substance into another substance has undergone a chemical change.Chemical changes do change the kind of particle the matter is made of. You start with one kind of particle, and end up with a different kind of particle.Examples of chemical change are rusting, corrosion, cooking, and burning.
5Which Property does each picture represent (chemical or physical)?
6Phases of MatterThe three phases that occur naturally on earth are solid, liquid, and gas. All substances can exist as a solid, a liquid, or a gas if conditions are right.
7Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. This is because their particles are tightly packed together and cannot move from one place to another. The particles simply vibrate in place.
8SolidsEven though we cannot see the particles of a solid, we can infer what their motion is like because of the behavior of the solid.A solid has definite volume and definite shape. The particles of a solid are tightly packed together with little space between them.The particles of a solid do not have enough kinetic energy to move from one place to another. They cannot change position.Thus, a solid retains its shape and its size.Particles of a solid can only vibrate in place.
9Liquids have a definite volume, but no definite shape Liquids have a definite volume, but no definite shape. They take the shapes of their containers. This is because their particles are closely packed, but are also free to move around each other from place to place.
10LiquidsA liquid can change its shape to fit whatever container it occupies. Therefore, we say that its shape is indefinite. A liquid does not change its size, so it has a definite volume.The particles of a liquid are almost as tightly packed as the particles of a solid.These particles have more kinetic energy and are able to move around each other from place to place.This particle movement allows a liquid to change its shape to fit the shape of its container.
11Gases have no definite shape or volume Gases have no definite shape or volume. Gases expand to completely fill any container. Their particles are spaced very widely apart and move very fast in straight lines from place to place.
12GasesA gas can change its shape and also its size, depending on its temperature and pressure. We say that gases have indefinite shape and indefinite volume.A gas not only takes the shape of its container, but it also completely fills the container.The particles of a gas have lots of kinetic energy, and move very quickly from place to place, traveling in straight lines like very tiny bullets.They are not densely packed, but instead they are spread very far apart.
13Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law Boyle’s Law - If a gas is kept at constant temperature, the pressure and volume of the gas are inversely proportional. As P increases, V will decrease, and as V is increased, P will decrease.Charles’ Law - If a gas is kept at constant pressure, the temperature and volume of the gas are directly proportional. As T increases, V will also increase.At constant temperatureAt constant pressureAs T increases, V also increases.As P increases ,V decreases.
14Mixture – combination of 2 or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical propertiesExample – sand and water, salt and water
151. Heterogeneous Mixture – one that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinctEx. – Sand and water, pizza
162. Homogeneous Mixture – constant composition throughout, also referred to as solutions Ex. Steel is a solid-solid solution that is called an alloy – homogenous mixture of metalsSolution - a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substancesExample – pure air is a homogeneous mixture, or solution of elements (it is a combo of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases)
17A solution is made up of a solute and a solvent. The solute is the substance that dissolves.The solvent is the substance that does the dissolving.
18Water is the universal solvent Water is the universal solvent. In an aqueous solution (aq), the solvent is water in which the solute is dissolved.saturated solution – the solvent contains as much dissolved solute as it normally can at that temperatureunsaturated solution – solution that contains less dissolved solute than the solvent can normally hold at that temperature.supersaturated solution – a solution that contains more solute than could usually be dissolved at that temperature.
19solubility - the maximum quantity of a substance that will dissolve in a certain quantity of water at a specified temperatureAn increase in temperature gives liquids and solids a greater solubility. A decrease in temperature gives gas a greater solubility.