2 WAYS TO CITE: Paraphrase: in your own words restate what you have read Direct Quote: Use quotation marks to show that you are using someone else’s words
EXAMPLE ONE: Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor (MedicineNet.com, 2011).
Your notes might look like this: Results from abnormal cell Body has checks and balances system Cells produce new cells only when needed Uncontrolled cell division Tumor or mass is formed
To paraphrase… The basic unit of life is the cell. Cancer can develop when cell division becomes uncontrolled. A great system of checks and balances usually maintains cell growth and division. Cells only reproduce when old cells need to be replaced. However, when cell division runs rampant, tumors or masses can eventually form (MedicineNet.com, 2011).
To Quote… Lung cancer can result “from an abnormality in the body’s basic unit of life, the cell” (MedicineNet.com, 2011).
EXAMPLE TWO: The incidence of lung cancer is strongly correlated with cigarette smoking, with about 90% of lung cancers arising as a result of tobacco use. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the time over which smoking has occurred; doctors refer to this risk in terms of pack-years of smoking history (the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked). For example, a person who has smoked two packs of cigarettes per day for 10 years has a 20 pack-year smoking history. Among those who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per day, one in seven will die of lung cancer (MedicineNet.com, 1011).
Your notes might look like this: Cigarette smoking and lung cancer are related 90% of lung cancers caused by tobacco use Risk goes up as number or cigarettes smoked goes up Pack years =packs X years smoked 2 packs a day = one in seven dies
To paraphrase… People who smoke have a greater risk of developing lung cancer. Approximately 90% of lung cancers are found in people who have used tobacco. The more a person smokes, the higher their risk of lung cancer. Doctors base cigarette use on the number of packs smoked per day times the number of years a person has smoked. People with the highest risk are those who smoke two packs of cigarettes per day (MedicineNet.com, 2011).
To Quote… The more a person smokes, the higher their risk of lung cancer. “Among those who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per day, one in seven will die from lung cancer” (MedicineNet.com, 2011).
WORKS CITED PAGE: Separate sheet of paper Alphabetical order by author Must follow specific format At BHS, this format is MLA
MLA Format for citing a book: Author. Book title. City: Publisher, Year. (Pay attention to punctuation!!!) Morrison, T. Paradise. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
Correct MLA citation for a book: Brown, M. All of my Love. New York: Scholastic, 2006.
MLA Format for citing an Internet source: Author. “Page title.” Title of website. Date of publication. Institution or Publisher. Retrieved Date, from URL (Pay attention to punctuation!) Spinks, A. “Library research: The information search process.” MLA Citation Guide. 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://andyspinks.com/researchprocess/ library_research_printable.htm
IF THERE IS NO AUTHOR LISTED AT YOUR INTERNET SITE: “The Retina.” Neuroscience for Kids. 2006. University of Washington. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from http://washington.edu/retina http://washington.edu/retina
WORKS CITED PAGE: Spinks, A. “Library research: The information search process.” MLA Citation Guide. 2005. November 4,2011, from http://andyspinks.com/researchhelp/APA/A PAGuide.pdf http://andyspinks.com/researchhelp/APA/A PAGuide.pdf Stompler, M.“Lung Cancer.” MedicineNet.com. 2011.Retrieved on November 4, 2011, from http://www.medicinenet.com/lung_cancer/ article.htm http://www.medicinenet.com/lung_cancer/ article.htm