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 Means fish with bony skeletons  There are over 20,000 species of bony fish.

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Presentation on theme: " Means fish with bony skeletons  There are over 20,000 species of bony fish."— Presentation transcript:


2  Means fish with bony skeletons  There are over 20,000 species of bony fish

3  Most fish live in the epipelagic zone

4 1. Tail Fin (CAUDAL FIN) 2. Paired Fins (PECTORAL and PELVIC FINS) 3. Medial Fins (DORSAL and ANAL FINS)

5  Ray-finned fish have fins supported by a fan- shaped array of bones  Makes the fin light, collapsible, and easy to move  Ray-finned fishes are the most diverse group of living vertebrates, making up nearly half of all vertebrate species.



8  Caudal fins have different shapes 1. Homocercal --> Top and bottom halves the same size a. Rounded (Low A.R.) b. Truncate (Intermediate A.R.) c. Forked (Intermediate A.R.) d. Lunate (High A.R.) 2. Heterocercal --> Top half different size than bottom half


10  Heterocercal – often found on sharks

11  Most fish have a complex sense of smell  Used to detect prey, mates and predators  Smell is detected in the nares (nostrils)  Fish also have taste buds  Found in the mouth, fins and skin  Catfish have taste buds on barbels (whiskers)  Rely on vision  Eyes focus by moving closer or further from the object they wish to view  Covered by a nictitating membrane – clear membrane that allows the fish to see while protecting the eye

12  Sight – some fish can see color and can see in very dim light  Hearing – fish can hear  Smell – fish have nostrils used for smelling  Touch – fish can feel objects against their skin  Lateral line- A system of canals on the sides of fishes that helps fish detect changes in pressure, vibrations and currents

13  Fish “hear” via their lateral lines, a line of pressure sensors running along each side of the fish that pick up pressure waves (= sound) in water. When someone pounds on an aquarium, that creates waves of pressure in the water that, to the fish, would be analogous to cupping your hands and pounding on your ears--NEVER POUND ON A FISH TANK!

14  Detect changes in pressure and vibrations and currents  Detect prey  Swim together in a school  Detect predators on the side or behind them  Pick up vibrations from the swimming together of other animals


16  Most fish swim with an S motion  A rhythmic side to side moving from the head to the tail  Controlled by bands of muscle called myomeres  Run parallel along the sides of the fish  Visible in fish you eat  Makes up 75% of the fishes weight  White muscle is used for bursts of speed  Red muscle is used for constant locomotion  The fins are used like rudders to change direction in the water  Some fish move by moving only their fins and not their body



19  To maintain buoyancy the fish will either:  Adjust the density of its body by using a SWIM BLADDER  They will adjust the density of the components of their insides (they will consume lighter weight ions and leave the heavier ones in the surrounding water)

20  A swim bladder is a balloon-like structure that is:  inflated to make the fish rise higher in the water  or deflated to make the fish sink lower


22  Some fish like Tuna do not have a swim bladder and must swim fast to prevent sinking  Some fish like catfish do not have a swim bladder and spend their life on the bottom

23  Fish use gills to absorb oxygen from the surrounding water

24  Gill Arch - stiff structure that supports the gill filaments and the gill rakers  Gill Rakers – prevent food from clogging up the gill filaments  Gill Filaments – fingerlike projections where oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide is removed


26  Freshwater fishes  never drink  Lots of nephrons  Ions are reabsorbed  Marine fishes  Drink constantly  Less blood is filtered  Water is reabsorbed

27  Most fish have internal sex organs that we cannot see.  fish gonads (sex organs) produce gametes (sex cells) only at certain times.  These times must be the same for both males and females and must be timed to the most favorable conditions.

28  Fish may only reproduce when there: 1. Is enough of the right kind of food 2.There are enough hours of light each day 3. The water is the right temperature

29  Includes:  Courtship: a series of behaviors designed to attract mates  Spawning: a release of gametes into the water  Copulation: a direct transfer of sperm into a females body

30  Most fish reproduce by spawning.  This is when the female swims and lays eggs on plants or sand in the water  The male fish swims behind her depositing sperm into the water where some of it may land on and fertilize the eggs

31  Some fishes are hermaphrodites. They have both male and female gonads  Hermaphrodism is more common among the deep-water fishes. (Gourami)

32  Sex Reversal  Males may change to females or females to males (ex. Clownfish)

33  Among some species of anemone fishes a single large female who mates only with a single large dominant male inhabits each sea anemone. All others are small non-breeding males. If the female disappears her mate changes into a female and the largest of the non-breeding males becomes the new dominant male. The new female can start spawning as soon as 26 days after her sex change.

34  Fish can be either carnivorous or herbivorous (mostly carnivorous)  The teeth will tell you what they eat  Used for grasping and holding the prey  Prey is usually swallowed whole  Usually have one preferred food source  A type of fish, anemone, urchin, etc.  Fish that feed on algae are called grazers

35  Territoriality  An established area that the fish protects against invaders  Some are only territorial during mating period others are for life  Thought this helps ensure there is enough food for the fish  Defended by aggressive behavior like making themselves appear larger or by chasing other fish  Fights are rare

36  Schooling  4000 species of fish school at some point in their lives  Can provide protection against predators  Can cause confusion  Less likely to be the one eaten if there are thousands of other fish around you  Can increase swimming efficiency by reducing the drag of the water  Can be advantageous for mating or feeding


38 Characterized by having:  Bone in their skeleton  An operculum covering the gill openings  A swimbladder or lungs  True scales  Paired fins  Homocercal tail (Exception lungfish – diphycercal)  Mouth terminal  Two chambered heart  Sexes separate (Sex reversal in some)  Fertilization external for most  Excrete ammonia

39 The bony fishes are the most diverse class of fish. ~24,000 species Osteichthyes are divided into two subclasses  The lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygians)  The ray-finned fish (Actinopterygians). *Most modern fish are members of the ray- finned, Teleost subdivision.



42  Sarcopterygians are the fish most closely related to modern amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals = terrestrial vertebrates  This subclass includes the lungfish and coelacanth. Coelacanth were thought to have become extinct at about the same time as the dinosaurs, until a live specimen was found in 1938

43  Characteristics:  Muscular lobe associated with fins  Have lungs for gas exchange  Live in areas with seasonal droughts  Can breathe air if water stagnates  Can withstand desiccation  Burrow in the mud  Have enamel on the teeth

44  Can survive drought by remaining in aestivation for 6 months or more  Aestivation = dormant state  After rain fills the lake or riverbed Lungfish emerge from their burrows to feed & reproduce






50  Cosmoid scales



53  Ray-finned fish (Fins lack muscular lobes)  Have swimbladders to regulate buoyancy  ~23,900 species

54  Include sturgeons and paddlefish  Sturgeon eggs make caviar



57  Superorder Ostariophysi  Order Cypriniformes (minnows, carps)  Order Siluriformes (catfish)  Superorder Protacanthopterygii  Order Esociformes (pikes)  Order Osmeriformes (smelts)  Order Salmoniformes (salmon, trout, whitefish)  Superorder Paracanthopterygii  Order Gadiformes (cod, hakes, pollock)  Superorder Acanthopterygii  Order Percoidei (perches, snook, basses)  Order Pleuronectiformes (flounders, soles)  Order Perciformes (mackerel, tuna, swordfish)

58  Teleosts are modern day ray-finned fish  Use their fins and body wall to push against water for locomotion  Some secrete mucus to reduce friction  Most teleosts are carnivores swallowing prey whole  Herring & paddlefish are filter feeders  Teleosts have pyloric ceca (outpockets in the small intestine to increase absorption)

59  Found on non-teleost bony fishes  Usually diamond shaped bony scales  “Heavy armor”  Gars – Alligator Gar





64  Found on teleost fishes  Light, thin, & flexible

65  Teleost fishes  Have comblike ridges along the exposed edge to reduce friction (drag)








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