2Going with the FlowWater, unlike most other natural resources, does not respect political boundaries. The natural flow of water, both on the Earth's surface and underground, routinely crosses these boundaries. When two or more sovereign countries share a watercourse, which could be a river basin, lake, or aquifer, it is considered to be an international watercourse.
3What are the sources of fresh water for the Middle East?
4Source of Conflict? Middle East is world’s driest region Contains 5% of world’s population but only 1% of world’s freshwater resourcesWhat problems do you think the Middle East is having due to the lack of water?
5Source of Conflict?The limited water resources do cross national boundariesWhat issues would arise from this?How would you solve it?Does Georgia have any water rights issues?
6What is FRESH water used for? Why is it important? Water is essential for all life and economic development of a countryIrrigation Systems
7Religious PurposesIn the Jordan valley the heat is often punishing for the Palestinians who are the main agricultural workforce on some Israeli-owned farms
8Many Palestinian farmers and residents continue to use wells for work and drinking water. Some villages remain unconnected with the main water supply.Palestinian farming methods are more traditional, often using unirrigated land to graze sheep and goats.
9Source of Conflict?Several leaders in the region have warned if these issues are not resolved…The next major conflict in the Middle East would be over water, not oil.Water is rarely distributed and shared equally by countriesWith growing populations, the existing ground and surface water resources are not sufficient to meet the combined demands of each country or group.What does that mean?
10Water ResourcesEveryone is saying the other countries are using too much water.Jordan and Syria claim Israel take more water from the Jordan and Yarmuk Rivers than it shouldJordan and Syria face severe water shortages, so their solution?Israel needs to change water use practices or compensate them for extra use.
11Shared Water SourcesTurkey, Iraq, and Syria share water resources of the Euphrates RiverTurkey and Iraq both benefit from Tigris River as wellWho doesn’t even have fresh water sources?
12Building DamsHow might building dams in your portion of the river affect other countries?EX: Turkey spent $32 billion to construct 22 dams along the Tigris-Euphrates river basinThe result?Serious tensions with Syria and IraqCut the flow of the Euphrates into Syria and Iraq while it filled the lake behind the dam. The dam created new farmland and a supply of electricity for Turkey. The other countries suffered.
13How does building dams impact the efforts to control the water supply How does building dams impact the efforts to control the water supply? Think about BOTH countries involved…
14What’s causing the tension? Political divisionsPopulation growth ratesSeveral years of droughtWhat is drought?Growing irrigation needs
15Any Solutions?Number of efforts have been take to address the water issuesElectromagnetic flowmeters (used to control the flow of water into countries)Exporting surplus fresh water to water-poor neighbors in Middle East by pipeline or tankerTowing icebergs from Antarctica
16Ray of Hope? Desalination What is desalination?Some desalination plants near Persian Gulf…but they are VERY expensivePaid by the tremendous oil wealthHave not been built along the Mediterranean Sea
17Another Problem?Not only are there limited sources of water in the Middle East…water pollution is a BIG problemPoor water qualityis mainly a result ofdevelopment andagriculture
18Water Pollution Causes… OilCauses include seepage from the seabed, cracked equipment, illegal dumping, leaking vessels and accidental spillsDams have greatly reduced freshwater inflow that would dilute the pollution
19Water Pollution Causes Side Effects of War: Burning oil wellsWhen the fire is put out…the fire and water evaporated into the air together. This mixture eventually rained back down on the Middle EastEffects?disrupts ecosystems and spoiling food webs. Drinking water was contaminated and fish kills increased tremendously.
20Causes of the pollution… This area’s primary economic activities are oil drilling, agriculture, and herding/grazing…These are harsh on the environment
21Causes of water pollution Heavy metalsRaw SewageIndustrial wasteLimiting the water flowRun off…pesticides and fertilizers
22Water PollutionWhat are the consequences of having severely polluted water?Impact on the economy?Impact on the population?