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Forestry By: Steven Bradley 2011.

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1 Forestry By: Steven Bradley 2011

2 Made in Color Plate format
Tree Identification Made in Color Plate format

3 White Oak – Quercus alba

4 White Oak - Quercus Alba
LEAVES: Alternate, simple, 6"-9" long, and 4" wide, with 6-10 rounded lobes; bright green above, paler below, both surfaces smooth on mature leaves. TWIGS: Red-grey, often with a grayish coating. Buds rounded, reddish-brown, smooth, to 1/8" long; end buds clustered. FRUIT: An acorn, ¾-1" long, light brown, cup bowl like, hairy inside, enclosing ¼ of the nut; cup scales warty at the base. Acorn ripens in September after one season. BARK: Pale grey, scaly, not deeply fissured, often flaky. GENERAL: A dominant forest tree on dry to moist sites throughout the Commonwealth usually reaching 80'-100' high. This tree is very important to both wildlife and people. The acorn is an important wildlife food and eastern Native Americans made a flour from these acorns. Traditional uses of White oak wood include hardwood flooring, whiskey barrels and boat building. The "white oak group" includes all oaks without bristle-tipped lobes and acorns that ripen in one season.


6 Northern Red Oak – Quercus rubra
LEAVES: Alternate, simple, 4"-9" long, to 6" wide, with 7-11 bristle-tipped lobes, sinuses between lobes extend half-way to the mid-rib. Smooth, dull green above, paler with small tufts of reddish-brown hair in vein-axils beneath. TWIGS: Greenish brown to reddish brown, smooth when mature. Buds pointed, light brown, smooth. FRUIT: An acorn, ¾" to 1¼" long; the cup shallow, saucer shaped, covering 1/4 of the nut, cup-scales reddish-brown, narrow, tight, sometimes fuzzy on the edges. The acorns need two growing-seasons to ripen; the kernel is bitter. BARK: Smooth and greenish-brown or grey, maturing to dark grey or nearly black and is divided into rounded ridges. GENERAL: A dominant forest tree throughout the state growing to 90' in moist to dry soils. Deer, bear, and many other mammals and birds eat the acorns. It is often planted as a shade tree. The hard strong wood is used for furniture, flooring, millwork, railroad ties and veneer. The "red oak group" includes all oaks with bristle-tipped leaves and acorns ripening over two seasons.


8 Southern Red Oak – Quercus falcata
Southern red oak also is known as Spanish oak or red oak. It seldom is found above 2,000 feet elevation. Its habitat often is dry hills of poor, sandy or gravelly soils. Occasionally, this tree is found along streams in fertile bottoms, where it reaches its largest size.  Southern red oak trees usually grow to a height of 60 to 80 feet and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet; however, heights of over 100 feet are not uncommon. Its large spreading branches form a broad, round, open top. The bark is rough, though not deeply furrowed, and varies from light gray on younger trees to dark gray or almost black on older ones.  Leaves are of two different types: (1) irregularly shaped lobes that are mostly narrow and bristle tipped, with the central lobe often being the longest; or (2) pear-shaped with three rounded lobes at the outer end.  The leaves are dark lustrous green above and tan and downy beneath. This contrast is strikingly visible in a wind or rainstorm. They average 5 to 9 inches long and 4 to 5 inches wide.  The flowers appear in April while the leaves are unfolding. The fruit ripens during the second year. The small rounded acorn, about 1/2 inch long, is set in a thin, saucer-shaped cup that tapers to a short stem. 


10 Water Oak – Quercus nigra
It is a medium-sized deciduous tree, growing to 30 m (100 ft) tall with a trunk up to 1 m (3 ft) in diameter. Young trees have a smooth, brown bark that becomes gray-black with rough scaly ridges as the tree matures. The leaves are alternate, simple and tardily deciduous, only falling well into winter; they are 3–12 cm (1–5 in) long and 2–6 cm (1/2–2 in) broad, variable in shape, most commonly shaped like a spatula being broad and rounded at the top and narrow and wedged at the base. The margins vary usually being smooth to shallowly lobed, with a bristle at the apex and lobe tips. The tree is easy to identify by the leaves, which have a lobe that looks as if a drop of water is hanging from the end of the leaf. The top of each leaf is a dull green to bluish green and the bottom is a paler bluish-green. On the bottom portion of the leaves, rusty colored hairs run along the veins. The acorns are arranged singly or in pairs, 10–14 mm (1/3-1/2 in) long and broad, with a shallow cupule; they mature about 18 months after pollination in fall of second year.


12 Post Oak – Quercus stellata
It grows slowly and commonly reaches a height of 40 to 50 feet and a diameter of 1 to 2 feet. Its leaves are 4 to 6 inches long and are deeply divided into five lobes by broad sinuses. The central-lateral lobes are roughly square on the ends, giving the leaf a cross-like appearance. The oval acorn, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, is about one-third covered by the bowl- a saucer-shaped scaly cup.  Post oak bark is rougher and darker than the white oak and is broken into much smaller scales. Horizontal cross-breaks in the ridges of the trunk's bark are a characteristic of this tree. Post oak often has stout branches that spread to form a dense, round-topped crown. The branches and upper stem often are twisted and gnarled.


14 Blackjack Oak - Quercus marilandica
The presence of blackjack oak is said to indicate poor soil. This tree most commonly is found on poorly drained, heavy clay soils or on dry gravel or sandy upland soils where few other forest trees thrive. Blackjack oak leaves are 4 to 8 inches long and leathery; the underneath surfaces are brownish or orangish and are quite hairy. The leaves have many shapes, but commonly are much broader at the end than at the base, with three ill-defined large lobes at the apex. They often are described as "bell-shaped. "  Its acorns are less than an inch long. They are oblong and about half-covered by thick, scaly cups. Blackjack oak bark is rough, very dark (often nearly black) and broken into small, hard rectangular blocks. Small, stiff dead branches commonly are present.  These trees rarely grow larger than 20 to 30 feet tall. They are scraggly and not very valuable as a timber species. The wood makes excellent charcoal and is used commercially for this product.


16 Loblolly Pine – Pinus taeda
The trees reach a height of 30–35 m (98–115 ft) with a diameter of 0.4–1.5 m (1.3–4.9 ft). Exceptional specimens may reach 50 m (160 ft) tall, the largest of the southern pines. Its needles are in bundles of three, sometimes twisted, and measure 12–22 cm (4.7–8.7 in) long; an intermediate length for southern pines, shorter than those of the Longleaf Pine or Slash Pine, but longer than those of the Shortleaf Pine and Spruce Pine. The needles usually last up to two years before they fall, which gives the species its evergreen character. Although some needles fall throughout the year due to severe weather, insect damage, and drought, most needles fall during the autumn and winter of their second year. The seed cones are green, ripening pale buff-brown, 7–13 cm (2.8–5.1 in) in length, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.2 in) broad when closed, opening to 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) wide, each scale bearing a sharp 3–6 mm spine.


18 Shortleaf Pine – Pinus echinata
This tree reaches heights of m with a trunk diameter of m. The leaves are needle-like, in bundles of two and three mixed together, and from 7-11 cm long. The cones are 4-7 cm long, with thin scales with a transverse keel and a short prickle. They open at maturity but are persistent. Shortleaf pine seedlings develop a persistent J-shaped crook near the ground surface.[2] Axillary and other buds form near the crook and initiate growth if the upper stem is killed by fire or is severed.


20 Virginia Pine – Pinus virginiana
LEAVES: Evergreen needles in clusters of 2, twisted, stout, relatively short 1½"-3" long. TWIGS: Slender, curved, flexible, brown to purple with bluish white coating. Buds egg-shaped, usually less than ½" long, brown and resinous. FRUIT: Cone 2"-3" long, prickles small but sharp, edge of scales with darker bands, usually without a stalk, remains attached for 3 or 4 years. BARK: Smooth, thin, reddish brown and scaly, shallowly fissured into small flat plates. GENERAL: Also called Scrub pine, this small tree attains a height of 30'-40' on sandy or poor rocky soils of barrens and ridgetops. It is valuable as cover for worn-out farmlands and is harvested for pulpwood. The seeds are eaten by squirrels, songbirds and game birds.


22 Sourwood - Oxydendrum arboreum
Sourwood is found scattered on both rich and poor soils but is least abundant in the low alluvial parts of the state. It is a small tree, 8 to 12 inches in diameter and 30 to 40 feet tall, but rarely taller.  The bark is thin, light gray and divided into narrow shallow ridges. On the strong, straight, first-year shoots, sourwood bark often is bright red. The twigs lack terminal buds.  Sourwood leaves are 3 to 6 inches long, simple, alternate, very acidic to the taste (oxalic acid). They are often rough with solitary, stiff hairs. The leaves are a shiny green on the upper surface and usually turn a deep crimson in the fall.  The flowers, which appear in early summer, are small, white or cream-colored and are borne in particles of 5 to 10 inches long on the ends of the twigs. Sourwood fruit is a conical, dry capsule, 1/3 to 1/2 inch long that contains many small seeds. These capsules hang in drooping clusters sometimes a foot long, often persisting late into the fall.  The wood is heavy, hard, very close-grained and compact. It is brown, sometimes tinged with red. Sourwood is seldom considered a commercial wood. It is sometimes used for turnery, handles, pulp and other items


24 Bald Cypress - Taxodium distichum
It is a large tree, reaching 130 feet (25–40 m) (rarely to 44 m) tall and a trunk diameter of 10 feet (2–3 m, rarely to 5 m). The bark is gray-brown to red-brown, shallowly vertically fissured, with a stringy texture. The leaves are borne on deciduous branchlets that are spirally arranged on the stem but twisted at the base to lie in two horizontal ranks, 1-2 cm long and 1-2 mm broad; unlike most other species in the family Cupressaceae, it is deciduous, losing the leaves in the winter months, hence the name 'bald'. It is monoecious. Male and female strobili mature in about 12 months; they are produced from buds formed in the late fall, with pollination in early winter. Theseed cones are green maturing gray-brown, globular, 2-3.5 cm in diameter. They have from 20–30 spirally arranged four-sided scales, each bearing one or two (rarely three) trianglular seeds. The number of seeds per cone ranges from 20–40. The cones disintegrate when mature to release the large seeds. The seeds are 5-10 mm long, the largest of any species in the cypress family, and are produced every year but with heavy crops every three to five years. The seedlings have 3–9 (most often 6) cotyledons.


26 Flowering Dogwood – Cornus florida
LEAVES: Opposite, simple, 3"-5" long; clustered toward tips of twigs; margins smooth or wavy; veins prominent and curved like a bow. Foliage bright red in autumn. TWIGS: Red tinged with green, often with a bluish white powdery coating; marked with rings; tips curve upward. End leaf bud covered by 2 reddish scales; side leaf buds very small; flower buds conspicuous, silvery, button-shaped, at ends of twigs. FRUIT: An egg-shaped drupe, 1/2"-3/5" long; coat red; flesh yellowish; stone grooved, 2-celled; usually in clusters of 2-5; persist after the leaves fall. Flowers greenish white or yellowish, small, in flat-topped clusters; four showy white bracts underneath; open before the leaves. GENERAL: Bark red-brown to reddish gray, broken by fissures into small blocks, like alligator hide. A small native tree with low spreading crown, especially valued for ornamental planting. Wood used primarily for textile weaving shuttles. Horticultural varieties with red or pink bracts have been developed.


28 Eastern Red Cedar – Juniperus virginiana
LEAVES: Evergreen, opposite, two types (often on the same tree) the older more common kinds are scale-like and only 1/16"-3/32" long, while the young sharp-pointed ones may be up to 3/4" in length; whitish lines on the upper surface. TWIGS: Slender, usually 4-sided, becoming reddish brown. Buds small and not readily noticeable. FRUIT: Bluish berry-like, covered with a whitish powder, about 1/4" in diameter; flesh sweet and resinous; contains 1-2 seeds. Ripens the first year. BARK: Reddish brown, peeling off in stringy and flaky strips. GENERAL: A slow growing and long-lived tree, to 40' high. Red cedar is adaptable to a variety of wet or dry conditions. It is common in abandoned farm fields in the southern tier counties and on rocky bluffs. The wood is used chiefly for fence posts and moth-proof chests. Cedar wax-wings and other song birds and game birds eat the fruits.


30 Red Maple – Acer rubrum LEAVES: Opposite, simple, with 3-5 shallow lobes, coarsely toothed, light green above, pale green to whitish beneath, turning brilliant red or orange in autumn. TWIGS: Slender, glossy, at first green, later red. FRUIT: Wings usually less than 1" long, spreading at a narrow angle, red to brown, maturing in May or June. BARK: Smooth and light gray on young trunks and branches, older trunks darker, shaggy and roughened with long, irregular peeling flakes. GENERAL: Found throughout Pennsylvania in a wide variety of habitats, typically reaching 50' high, it grows best in wet soils, sometimes over 100'. Also known as Soft maple because its wood is not as hard as Sugar maple, this is an excellent ornamental tree. Young trees are heavily browsed by deer and rabbits; rodents consume the seeds.


32 Green/Red Ash - Fraxinus pennsylvanica
It is a medium-sized deciduous tree reaching m (rarely to 45 m) tall with a trunk up to 60 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth and gray on young trees, becoming thick and fissured with age. The winter buds are reddish-brown, with a velvety texture. The leaves are cm long, pinnately compound with seven to nine (occasionally five or eleven) leaflets, these 5–15 cm (rarely 18 cm) long and 1.2–9 cm broad, with serrated margins and short but distinct, downy petiolules a few millimeters long. They are green both above and below. The autumn color is golden-yellow, and the tree is usually the earliest to change color, sometimes being in autumn color as early as Labor Day. The flowers are produced in spring at the same time as the new leaves, in compact panicles; they are inconspicuous with no petals, and are wind-pollinated. The fruit is a samara  cm long comprising a single seed 1.5-3 cm long with an elongated apical wing 2-4 cm long and 3-7 mm broad.


34 Black Walnut LEAVES: Compound, alternate; leaflets 15 to 23, each 3"-4" long, small-toothed; dark yellow-green above, paler, hairy below. End leaflet absent or very small. Main leaf-stem with very fine hairs. TWIGS: Stout, orange-brown to dark brown, roughened by large leaf scars, easily broken; pith pale brown, chambered. Buds gray, downy; side buds 1/6" long, end bud larger. FRUIT: A round nut, 1"-2" in diameter, shell rough, covered with a thick, almost smooth, green spongy husk; oily kernel sweet. Flowers in drooping green catkins, appearing with the unfolding leaves, which is also true of butternut. BARK: Dark brown to gray-black, with narrow ridges. GENERAL: A large-sized tree, found locally on rich soils mainly in the southern part of state. Wood valuable for quality furniture, veneer, gun stocks and musical instruments.


36 Bitternut Hickory - Carya cordiformis
LEAVES: Alternate, compound, 6"-10" long, divided into 7-11 lance-shaped leaflets, bright green and smooth above, paler and somewhat downy beneath, margins finely to coarsely toothed. TWIGS: Slender smooth, glossy, orange-brown to grayish with numerous pale lenticels. Buds covered by 4 sulphur-yellow, gland-dotted outer scales. End buds flattened, ¾" long. FRUIT: Nearly round, ¾"-1½" in diameter with a thin, yellowish gland-dotted husk, which splits into 4 sections almost to the middle when ripe. The ridgeless reddish brown to gray brown nut has a thin shell protecting a bitter kernel. BARK: The tight gray bark remains rather smooth for many years eventually developing shallow furrows and low, narrow interlacing ridges. GENERAL: Bitternut hickory normally attains heights of 60'- 70' when growing on moist, fertile bottomland soils but it can also be found on well-drained uplands throughout the state. The wood of this species is somewhat more brittle than other hickories and the nuts are too bitter to eat. Bitternut hickory is reported to be the best wood for smoking ham and bacon, giving a rich "hickory smoked" flavor


38 Mockernut (White) Hickory - Carya tomentosa
LEAVES: Alternate, compound, 8"-12" long with 7 to 9 leaflets, margins toothed, dark yellowish green above, brownish beneath with golden glandular dots, leaves very fragrant when crushed, the leaf stems finely hairy. TWIGS: Stout and hairy, reddish brown to brownish gray with numerous pale lenticels and distinct three-lobed leaf scars. Buds large, with 3 to 5 yellowish brown, densely hairy outer scales, end buds ½" to ¾" long. FRUIT: Nearly round to egg-shaped, 1½"-2" long, with a thick husk which splits into 4 pieces when ripe. The slightly ridged, thick shelled nut is reddish brown with a sweet kernel. Flowers in catkins, about May when the leaves are half-developed. BARK: The gray to dark gray bark is tight when young and becomes shallowly fissured as the tree ages. GENERAL: Mockernut hickory is so named because the nuts are large but with thick shells and very small kernels. Found in moist open woods and slopes mostly in the southern part of the state, it usually reaches 50'-75' high. A black dye can be extracted from the bark by boiling it in vinegar solution. As with other hickories, the wood is heavy, hard, and strong and used for tool handles and furniture.


40 Pignut Hickory – Carya glabra
LEAVES: Alternate, compound, 8"-12" long usually divided into 5 toothed, lance-shaped leaflets. The leaf is smooth on both surfaces, dark yellowish green above and paler beneath. TWIGS: Slender and usually smooth, reddish brown with numerous pale lenticels. Buds reddish brown to gray, blunt pointed, with 6 outer scales which fall off during winter exposing the grayish downy inner scales. End buds ¼" to ½" long, smallest of our native hickories.. FRUIT: Somewhat pear shaped tapering toward the stem, 1"-2" long with a thin husk only partly splitting when ripe. Nuts brownish white, thick-shelled, kernels often taste bitter. BARK: Gray to dark gray, usually tight, becoming shallowly fissured on older trees. GENERAL: Pignut hickory reaches 50'-60' high growing on dry ridgetops and slopes throughout the southern half of the state. As with other hickories, the wood is heavy, hard, and strong with very high shock resistance, and is principally used for tool handles. Although the nuts are too bitter for human use, they are an important food for squirrels and chipmunks.


42 Black Locust – Robinia psuedoacacia
LEAVES: Alternate, compound, 7-19 oval leaflets 1"-2" long, margins smooth. TWIGS: Angled, somewhat zigzag, brittle, with short stout prickles; no end bud, side buds small and hidden in winter. FRUIT: A thin, flat pod, 2"-4" long; usually with 4-8 seeds; splits into halves when ripe. Flowers white, showy, very fragrant in drooping clusters, appearing in May and June. BARK: Reddish brown, rough, furrowed, thick. GENERAL: A medium-sized tree to 45' high, found in open woods, floodplains, thickets and fencerows throughout the State. Wood is durable in contact with the soil and in demand for posts, poles, railroad ties, and mine timbers. Unfortunately, several insects and wood rots cause heavy damage, especially to trees on poor soils. Squirrels eat the seeds and bees make honey from the nectar of locust flowers.


44 Common Sassafras – Sassafras albidium
LEAVES: Alternate, simple 4"-6" long, smooth, dark green above, much lighter beneath, characteristically aromatic when crushed. Usually three types can be found on a tree: entire, 2-lobed and 3-lobed (rarely 5-lobed). TWIGS: Bright green, sometimes reddish, smooth and shiny; large white pith. End bud much larger than side ones, with many loose scales. FRUIT: A berry, dark blue, shiny, about 1/2" in diameter, on a red stem enlarged at the point of attachment; borne in clusters. Yellow flowers appear before the leaves unfold. BARK: Young trees furrowed, greenish, changing to brown; inner bark salmon colored; older trees show deep fissures extending long distances up the trunk. GENERAL: A small to medium-sized tree, to 50' high, with crooked branches; often spreading by root suckers. Its roots, leaves, twigs and fruit have a spicy odor; the oil contained in these parts is used for a "tea," in medicines, perfumes, etc. Wood used chiefly for fuel and fence posts.


46 American Sweetgum - Liquidambar styraciflua
Bark: Light brown tinged with red, deeply fissured, ridges scaly. Branchlets pithy, many-angled, winged, at first covered with rusty hairs, finally becoming red brown, gray or dark brown. Wood: Bright reddish brown, sapwood nearly white; heavy, straight, satiny, close-grained, not strong; will take a beautiful polish; warps badly in drying. Has been used with good results in the interior finish of sleeping-cars and fine houses. The wood is usually cut in veneers and backed up with some other variety which shrinks and warps less. Sp. gr., ; weight of cu. ft., 36.83 lbs. Winter buds: Yellow brown, one-fourth of an inch long, acute. The inner scales enlarge with the growing shoot, becoming half an inch long, green tipped with red. Leaves: Alternate, three to five inches long, three to seven inches broad, lobed, so as to make a star-shaped leaf of five to seven divisions, these divisions acutely pointed, with glandular serrate teeth. The base is truncate or slightly heart-shaped. They come out of the bud plicate, downy, pale green, when full grown are bright green, smooth, shining above, paler beneath. In autumn they vary in color from yellow through crimson to purple. They contain tannin and when bruised give a resinous fragrance. Petioles long, slender, terete. Stipules lanceolate, acute, caducous. Flowers: March to May, when leaves are half grown; monoecious, greenish. Staminate flowers in terminal racemes two to three inches long, covered with rusty hairs; the pistillate in a solitary head on a slender peduncle borne in the axil of an upper leaf. Staminate flowers destitute of calyx and corolla, but surrounded by hairy bracts. Stamens indefinite; filaments short; anthers introrse. Pistillate flowers with a two-celled, two-beaked ovary, the carpels produced into a long, recurved, persistent style. The ovaries all more or less cohere and harden in fruit. Ovules many but few mature. Fruit: Multicapsular spherical head, an inch to an inch and a half in diameter, hangs on the branches during the winter. The woody capsules mostly filled with abortive seeds resembling sawdust.[1]


48 American Sycamore - Platanus occidentalis
Bark: Dark reddish brown, broken into oblong plate-like scales; higher on the tree, it is smooth and light gray; separates freely into thin plates which peel off and leave the surface pale yellow, or white, or greenish. Branchlets at first pale green, coated with thick pale tomentum, later dark green and smooth, finally become light gray or light reddish brown. Wood: Light brown, tinged with red; heavy, weak, difficult to split. Largely used for furniture and interior finish of houses, butcher's blocks. Sp. gr., ; weight of cu. ft., 35.39 lbs. Winter buds: Large, stinky, sticky, green, and three-scaled, they form in summer within the petiole of the full grown leaf. The inner scales enlarge with the growing shake. There is no terminal bud. Leaves: Alternate, palmately nerved, broadly-ovate or orbicular, four to nine inches long, truncate or cordate or wedge-shaped at base, decurrent on the petiole. Three to five-lobed by broad shallow sinuses rounded in the bottom; lobes acuminate, toothed, or entire, or undulate. They come out of the bud plicate, pale green coated with pale tomentum; when full grown are bright yellow green above, paler beneath. In autumn they turn brown and wither before falling. Petioles long, abruptly enlarged at base and inclosing the buds. Stipules with spreading, toothed borders, conspicuous on young shoots, caducous. Flowers: May, with the leaves; monoecious, borne in dense heads. Staminate and pistillate heads on separate peduncles. Staminate heads dark red, on axillary peduncles; pistillate heads light green tinged with red, on longer terminal peduncles. Calyx of staminate flowers three to six tiny scale-like sepals, slightly united at the base, half as long as the pointed petals. Of pistillate flowers three to six, usually four, rounded sepals, much shorter than the acute petals. Corolla of three to six thin scale-like petals. Stamens: In staminate flowers as many of the divisions of the calyx and opposite to them; filaments short; anthers elongated, two-celled; cells opening by lateral slits; connectives hairy. Pistil: Ovary superior, one-celled, sessile, ovate-oblong, surrounded at base by long, jointed, pale hairs; styles long, incurved, red, stigmatic, ovules one or two. Fruit: Brown heads, solitary or rarely clustered, an inch in diameter, hanging on slender stems three to six inches long; persistent through the winter. These heads are composed of akenes about two-thirds of an inch in length. October.


50 Yellow Poplar [Tulip Tree] -
LEAVES: Alternate, simple, 4"-6" in diameter, generally 4 lobed, bright green, turning yellow in autumn. TWIGS: In spring and summer, green, sometimes with purplish tinge; during winter reddish brown, smooth, shiny. Buds large, smooth, flattened, "duck-billed." FRUIT: At first green, turning light brown when ripe in autumn; cone-like, 2½"-3" long, made up of winged seeds. Greenish yellow tulip-like flowers in May or June. BARK: Young trees dark green and smooth with whitish vertical streaks, older trunks dark gray and furrowed. GENERAL: Also known as Yellow poplar, Tulip poplar, White poplar and Whitewood. A large tree, the tallest of the eastern hardwoods. It grows rapidly and is an important timber and shade tree. The wood is valuable for veneer and many other uses. Songbirds and game birds, rabbits, squirrels and mice feed on the seeds. Whitetail deer browse the young growth.


52 Common Persimmon Bark: Dark brown or dark gray, deeply divided into plates whose surface is scaly. Branchlets slender, zigzag, with thick pith or large pith cavity; at first light reddish brown and pubescent. They vary in color from light brown to ashy gray and finally become reddish brown, the bark somewhat broken by longitudinal fissures. Astringent and bitter. Wood: Very dark; sapwood yellowish white; heavy, hard, strong and very close grained. Specific gravity, ; weight of cubic foot, 49.28 lb (22.35 kg). Winter buds: Ovate, acute, one-eighth of an inch long, covered with thick reddish or purple scales. These scales are sometimes persistent at the base of the branchlets. Leaves: Alternate, simple, four to six inches (152 mm) long, oval, narrowed or rounded or cordate at base, entire, acute or acuminate. They come out of the bud revolute, thin, pale, reddish green, downy with ciliate margins, when full grown are thick, dark green, shining above, pale and often pubescent beneath. In autumn they sometimes turn orange or scarlet, sometimes fall without change of color. Midrib broad and flat, primary veins opposite and conspicuous. Petioles stout, pubescent, one-half to an inch in length. Flowers: May, June, when leaves are half-grown; diœcious or rarely polygamous. Staminate flowers borne in two to three-flowered cymes; the pedicels downy and bearing two minute bracts. Pistillate flowers solitary, usually on separate trees, their pedicels short, recurved, and bearing two bractlets. Calyx: Usually four-lobed, accrescent under the fruit. Corolla: Greenish yellow or creamy white, tubular, four-lobed; lobes imbricate in bud. Stamens: Sixteen, inserted on the corolla, in staminate flowers in two rows. Filaments short, slender, slightly hairy; anthers oblong, introrse, two-celled, cells opening longitudinally. In pistillate flowers the stamens are eight with aborted anthers, rarely these stamens are perfect. Pistil: Ovary superior, conical, ultimately eight-celled; styles four, slender, spreading; stigma two-lobed. Fruit: A juicy berry containing one to eight seeds, crowned with the remnants of the style and seated in the enlarged calyx; depressed-globular, pale orange color, often red-cheeked; with slight bloom, turning yellowish brown after freezing. Flesh astringent while green, sweet and luscious when ripe


54 Black Tupelo [Black Gum] -
LEAVES: Alternate, simple, 2"-5" long, oval with entire and slightly thickened margins, dark green and shiny above, often downy beneath, turning vivid red in early autumn. TWIGS: Smooth grayish to reddish brown, pith white and chambered, buds round, pointed and reddish brown, ¼" long. FRUIT: A dark blue berry, 1/3"-2/3" long, 1-seeded with thin flesh, borne singly or 2-3 in a cluster, ripening in autumn. BARK: Grayish, smooth to scaly, darker gray, thick and fissured into quadrangular blocks forming what is called "alligator bark" on very old trunks. GENERAL: Also called Black tupelo, this is usually a medium sized tree, to 40' in height on dry slopes and ridge tops, but it can reach 100' and 5' in diameter in moist areas along streams. Most common in the southeast and southcentral portions of the state it is rarer in the northern tier counties. The wood is difficult to split and is used for boxes, fuel and railroad ties. The fruits, twigs and foliage provide food for many birds and animals. The brilliant red autumn color and abundant blue fruit make this species an interesting ornamental planting.


56 American Holly – Ilex opaca
It is a medium-sized broadleaved evergreen tree growing to 10–20 m tall, exceptionally up to 30 m tall, with a trunk diameter typically up to 50 cm, exceptionally 120 cm. The bark is light gray, roughened by small warty lumps. The branchlets are stout, green at first and covered with rusty down, later smooth and brown. The winter buds are brown, short, obtuse or acute. The leaves are alternate, 5–7.5 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, stiff, yellow green and dull matte to sub-shiny above (distinctly less glossy than the otherwise fairly similar European Holly Ilex aquifolium ), often pale yellow beneath; the edges are curved into several sharp, spike-like points, and a wedge-shaped base and acute apex; the midrib is prominent and depressed, the primary veins conspicuous; the petiole is short, stout, grooved, thickened at base, with a pair of minute stipules. The leaves remain on the branches for two to three years, finally falling in the spring when pushed off by growing buds. The flowers are greenish white, small, borne in late spring in short pedunculate cymes from the axils of young leaves or scattered along the base of young branches. The calyx is small, four-lobed, imbricate in the bud, acute, margins ciliate, persistent. The corolla is white, with four petal-like lobes united at the base, obtuse, spreading, hypogynous, imbricate in bud. The flower stem is hairy with a minute bract at base. Like all hollies, it is dioecious, with separate male and female plants; only female plants produce the characteristic red berries. One male can pollenize several females. Male flowers have four stamens, inserted on the base of the corolla, alternate with its lobes; filaments awl-shaped, exserted in the sterile, much shorter in the sterile flower; anthers attached at the back, oblong, introrse, two-celled, cells opening longitudinally. The pistil on female flowers has a superior ovary, four-celled, rudimentary in staminate flowers; style wanting, stigma sessile, four-lobed; ovules one or two in each cell. The fruit is a small red drupe 6–12 mm diameter containing four seeds; it is often persistent into winter.


58 American Elm LEAVES: Alternate, simple, 4"-6" long, unequal at the base, rather rough on the upper surface; usually soft-hairy below; veins prominent; margin coarsely toothed. Petiole short. TWIGS: Slender, zigzag, brown, or slightly hairy. Leaf buds 1/8"- 1/4" long, flattened. Flower buds larger, below leaf buds. Bud scales red-brown, smooth or downy; margins dark. FRUIT: A seed surrounded by an oval, thin papery wing, 1/2" long, deeply notched at the tip; ripening in spring and borne in clusters; wing with scattered hairs along margin. Flowers and fruit appear before the leaves, as is true of Slippery elm. BARK: Dark gray to gray-brown with long corky ridges; separated by diamond-shaped fissures on older trees. GENERAL: A large and highly prized shade tree. The drooping crown often gives it a vase-shaped appearance. Found locally throughout Pennsylvania, mainly on moist areas. The hard, tough wood has many uses, including the manufacture of boxes, barrels and furniture.


60 Black Cherry LEAVES: Alternate, simple, 2"-5" long, narrow with tapering tip, shiny above, paler below and usually with one or more small glands at the base; margins with short in-curved teeth which distinguish it from other cherries. TWIGS: Smooth, reddish brown, marked with numerous pale, round lenticels; often covered with a thin gray coating which rubs off easily. Buds smooth, shiny, sharp-pointed, reddish brown tinged with green. FRUIT: Round, black with a purplish tint, 1/3" -1/2" in diameter, containing a single round, stony seed. Arranged in hanging clusters. Flowers white, in June. GENERAL: Commonly 50'-75' high, Black cherry grows throughout the State. It thrives best in fertile alluvial soil but also grows on dry slopes. The hard reddish-brown wood is highly prized for quality furniture and interior trim. Many game birds, song birds, and mammals, including black bear, eat the fruits and seeds.

61 Plant Disease Specimens
Pine Beetle Bagworms Gypsy Moth Ips Engraver Beetle Fusiform Rust Red Heart Dogwood Anthracnose Chestnut Blight


63 Pine Beetle Pine beetles kill trees by boring through the bark into the phloem layer on which they feed and in which eggs are laid. Pioneer female beetles initiate attacks, producing pheromones that attract more beetles. The trees respond to attack by increasing their resin output to discourage or kill the beetles. Pine beetles carry blue stain fungi which, if established, will block the tree resin response. Within about two weeks of a beetle attack, the trees starve to death as the phloem layer is damaged enough to cut off the flow of water and nutrients. Older trees usually succumb first. After particularly hot summers, the mountain pine beetle population can increase dramatically, deforesting large areas. After an outbreak, entire groves of trees will appear red when viewed from above. Rocky Mountain National Park has suffered recent pine beetle outbreaks


65 Bagworms In the larval stage, bagworms extend their head and thorax from their mobile case to devour the leaves of host plants, often leading to the death of their hosts. Trees infested with bagworms exhibit increasingly damaged foliage as the infestation increases until the leaves are stripped bare. 


67 Gypsy Moth Tree damage is caused by the insect larvae, or caterpillars, which emerge from their eggs beginning in early spring and continuing through mid-May.  The larvae move to the leaves of trees and begin to eat, mostly at night.  During daylight hours, larvae generally seek shade from the sun but feeding can occur in daytime in heavy infestations.  Gypsy moth larvae grow by molting, five molts for males and six for females.  Feeding occurs in the “instar” stage or period between each molt.  As might be expected, a caterpillar’s appetite increases with each molt.  Feeding continues until mid-June or early July when the caterpillar enters the pupa stage emerging, finally, as a moth. 


69 Ips Engraver Beetle Ips engraver beetles kill more pine timber in the South than any other forest insect, with the exception of the southern pine beetle. Ips beetles usually attack injured, dying, or recently felled trees and fresh logging debris. Infestations are particularly common in trees weakened by drought or lightning strikes. The first signs of attack are reddish-brown boring dust in bark crevices or reddish-brown pitch tubes about the size of a dime on bark surfaces. If the bark is removed, there are Y- or H-shaped egg galleries with short larval galleries extending perpendicular to them. Egg galleries will usually be free of boring dust. The foliage of Ips-killed pines will eventually turn yellow, and then red about the time the beetles complete development under the bark. Often only the top portion of the crown is killed, leaving lower branches green. Blue-stain fungi, introduced when the beetles attack the tree, is visible in the sapwood and hasten the death of the trees.


71 Blue-stain Fungus The blue stain fungus has evolved a relationship with mountain pine beetles that allow them to travel from tree to tree on a special structure in the beetle’s mouthparts and stops the tree from producing resin to pitch out or kill the beetle, encouraging the pine beetle invasion occurring all along the Rocky Mountains from Mexico up to Canada. The beetles are able to mine and lay eggs while avoiding the tree’s defenses The blue stain fungus spores germinate and produce a thread like mass (mycelium) that colonizes the phloem and sapwood. Spores are usually blown away by wind but blue-stain spores are “sticky”. This process eventually blocks the water conducting columns of the tree draining the trees of their nutrients eventually causing the tree to starve to death.


73 Fusiform Rust Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo). While the disease attacks several southern pine species, it is especially damaging on slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Englem.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and severely limits their management in high-hazard areas. Mortality is heaviest on trees less than 10 years old, but the galls and resulting cankers deform older trees, reducing growth and weakening the stems until breakage in windstorms becomes likely. Annual losses from this disease are estimated at 562 million board feet of sawtimber and 194 million cubic feet of growth stock. Stumpage losses are valued at $28 million annually


75 Red Heart Red heart is a fungal disease of the loblolly pine tree that rots the inner part of the tree, or the heartwood. Red heart doesn't kill the tree, but it will diminish its value for timber use and can also weaken a loblolly pine tree, making it more susceptible to wind damage. According to the U.S. Forest Service, an infected tree will have conks that are produced by the invading fungus, which has most likely entered the tree through a dead branch stub. Preventing infection is limited to harvesting mature and old trees that are not designated as woodpecker habitat, and carefully and correctly pruning dead and dying branches.


77 Dogwood Anthracnose Shortly after the leaves have expanded (mid-late May and June), spots and blotches of varying shape and size appear on infected trees. These spots have a tan center and a purple or reddish margin (Fig. 1). On the opposite side of the leaf, tiny brown or black spots may appear beneath these lesions. The flower "petals" or bracts are also susceptible and show reddish or brownish blotches. Blotches can also occur at the tip or along the margin of leaves; these too have a tan center and purplish margin. In some cases, entire leaves may become infected and die. Many drooping, brown, dried leaves remain on the stem throughout the fall and winter.


79 Chestnut Blight The fungus makes its entry at wounds and grows in and beneath the bark and this eventually kills the cambium all the way round the twig, branch or trunk. The first symptom is a small orange-brown area on the bark of a twig or branch. A sunken canker may form and the bark may split. Yellowish-orange stromata containing conidiomata break through the bark of the canker and perithecia may be formed on the same stroma. Distinctive yellow tendrils (cirrhi) of conidia can be seen extruding from the stroma in wet weather. The canker expands around the circumference of the twig or branch resulting in wilting and death of the plant material above the canker which is deprived of nourishment

80 Foresty Measures Age Board Feet Height Cord

81 Forestry Measures: Age
Dendrochronology Counting Tree Rings Using an increment borer [ see later slide ] Counting whorls [circular growths of branches]

82 Forestry Measures: Board Feet
 board foot: a piece of wood containing 144 cubic inches [i.e. 12”x12”x1”, 3”x4”x12”, etc] Two board-foot volume rules are commonly used, the Doyle and the International 1/4-Inch rules (Tables 1 and 2). Both of these rules provide an estimate of the board-foot content of a tree based on tree-trunk diameter breast high and merchantable tree height See Link for Tables of Doyle and ¼ inch rules

83 Forestry Measures: Height
Move 100ft away from a tree Use a clinometer to determine the “stump” height and the “top” of the tree where its diameter is roughly 6” Take the absolute value of [height of stump] – [height of tree]

84 Foresty Measures: Cord
Typically a 4x4x8 stack of wood [128 ft total]

85 Layers of a Forest

86 Layers of a Forest – Forest Floor
This layer is comprised of decomposing leaves, animal droppings, and dead trees and animals. All of these decay on the forest floor and create new soil and provide nutrients for the plants. Growing out of the forest floor are ferns, grasses, mushrooms, and tree seedlings.

87 Layers of a Forest - Understory
The understory is made up of bushes, shrubs, and young trees that have adapted to living in the shade of the canopy.

88 Layers of a Forest - Canopy
The canopy is formed by the mass of intertwined branches, twigs, and leaves of the tall, mature trees. The crowns of the dominant trees receive most of the sunlight. This is where most of the tree's food is produced. The canopy forms a shady, protective “umbrella” over the rest of the forest.

89 Layers of a Forest – Emergent Layer
The emergent layer exists in the tropical rain forest and is composed of a few scattered trees that tower over the canopy

90 Silvaculture Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latin silvi-(forest) + culture (as in growing).

91 Silviculture “Regeneration” Techniques
Single-Tree Selection [removing one by one] Group Selection [multiple Single-Tree] Clearcut [Get rid of it all] Seed-Tree [Leaves 2-12 seed trees per acre] Shelterwood [layer based cutting] Coppicing [grow trees from stumps]

92 Abbreviations USDA: United States Department of Agriculture
USFS: US Forest Service GFC: Georgia Forestry Commission SMZ: Streamside Management Zones BMP: Best Management Practice(s) GPS: Global Positioning System GIS: Geographic Information System IPM: Integrated Pest Management MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds

93 3 Main Growing Parts of a Tree
Crowns [Canopy] Trunk Roots

94 4 Types of Roots

95 Summary of Roots Fibrous: root formed in bundles where it is not possible to determine the primary root. Cauline: roots that shoot from the stem. Tubercular: root in the form of a tubercle. Taproot: root that grows vertically into the earth.

96 Urban Forestry Urban forestry is the careful care and management of urban forests, i.e., tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of improving the urban environment. Urban forestry advocates the role of trees as a critical part of the urban infrastructure. Urban foresters plant and maintain trees, support appropriate tree and forest preservation, conduct research and promote the many benefits trees provide. Urban forestry is practiced by municipal and commercial arborists, municipal and utility foresters, environmental policymakers, city planners, consultants, educators, researchers and community activists.

97 Historical Figures Forestry dates back to the Han and Ming Dynasties
Improved management began in 16th century Germany John Evelyn promoted the ideas of creating tree plantations [commercial tree use en masse] Jean-Babtiste Colbert was the first to utilize Evelyn’s idea Schools of Forestry were established in 1825 Franklin B. Hough – Father of American Forestry

98 Hardwoods vs Softwoods
[I couldn’t copy the table effectively]

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