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Topics, People, Events, ETC

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1 Topics, People, Events, ETC
CRCT Practice, Jeopardy style. Click blank screen to get the clue. Click again to get a picture clue, click a third time to get the answer.

2 Muhammad Jinnah Muslim leader of India who asked the British for the partitioning of India. He then became the first leader of Pakistan (including East Pakistan) Jinnah on left, Gandhi on right.

3 Operation Desert Storm
Another name for the Persian Gulf War– when a military force was used to liberate Kuwait from the Iraqi invasion in 1991

4 Operation Iraqi Freedom
An invasion led by the United States in 2003 to stop the development of nuclear weapons by Iraq

5 Pan-African Movement The desire for people of African descent, no matter where they lived in the world to think of Africa as a homeland

6 Persian Gulf War A military force used to liberate Kuwait from the Iraqi invasion in 1991; also called Operation Desert Storm

7 Mao Zedong A founder of the Chinese Communist Party. He led the Long March and proclaimed the People’s Republic of China in 1949.

8 Subsistence Farming Growing food to provide for the sustenance (survival) of your family

9 Savanna A vast area of both grassland and more tropical habitats in the middle of Africa close to the equator.

10 Dali Lama The religious leader of Buddhism. He is believed to be Buddha reincarnated.

11 Child Warriors Children who are recruited to fight in Civil Wars as soldiers. Africa uses more children for this purpose than any other region. These children are often orphans forced to fight against their will.

12 Green Revolution A name given to the time period in India in the 1960’s when they tried to modernize their agricultural system by introducing new type of seeds and grains, and fertilizer and pesticides were made available.

13 Loess Another name for the silt or sediment that is deposited along a rivers path, creating rich soil for farmers

14 Colonialism/Imperialism/
Dominion Having control or the exercise of control over another country.

15 Ashanti A group of people found in the modern country of Ghana.

16 Karma The Hindu belief that ones actions determines ones fate.

17 The Golden Rule of Behavior
A belief that is common in all religions and the philosophy of Confucianism. “Do unto others as you would have them do to you.”

18 The Diet The name for the Japanese legislature.

19 Association of Southeast Asian Nations
An organization in Asia that was organized to help the member countries cooperate on economic matters, encourage cultural exchanges, and to help keep peace and stability in the region.

20 F.W. De Klerk Last white president of South Africa. He released Nelson Mandela and allowed the Bantu the power to vote. He was then voted out of power.

21 Kami The divine spirit that followers of the Shinto’s
religion believe live in nature; means superior in Japanese language.

22 The Great Leap Forward A name given to China’s attempt in the 1950’s to reorganize its economy. It failed due to people not farming, over worked/produced low grade steel and droughts/floods.

23 I think we need to re-organize!
Four Modernizations A name given to China’s attempt in the 1970’s to reorganize its economy after the economic destruction of the Great Leap Forward. I think we need to re-organize!

24 Cooperatives/Communes
Farms that are owned by the government; workers are told what produce they may produce. Plant half of the field with cotton! “No problem Sir!”

25 The refusal to obey unfair laws even if the result was punishment.
Civil Disobedience The refusal to obey unfair laws even if the result was punishment. “I’m not obeying it!”

26 Bantu A member of any of a large number
of linguistically related peoples of central and southern Africa. Their migration in Africa spreads their culture and religion throughout the rest of Africa.

27 Mohandas Gandhi Leader of the non-violent protest for Indian independence against the British. He then encouraged peace among the Muslims and Hindus in India, but was assassinated by a Hindu who didn’t want peace.

28 Indira Gandhi First female prime minister of India. Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Indian prime minister. She was assassinated by one of her body guards for ordering the firing missiles at Muslim Mosques in Northern India.

29 Jawaharlal Nehru First Hindu prime minister after independence from Great Britain. He fought alongside Gandhi (non-violent protesting). He also allowed the Dali Lama and the Tibetan people to live in India in exile.

30 Cornwallis British General who ruled India for Queen Victoria of England. He thought the people were “uncivilized” and discriminated further against the Hindu/Indian people.

31 Queen Victoria British queen who ruled during the colonial period of Africa and India. She in-directly ruled India, Hong Kong, and other colonies from England and imposed British laws over local native cultures and laws.

32 Gamal Abdel Nasser President of Egypt. He modernized Egypt, took control of the Suez Canal for Egypt away from Great Britain, and built the Aswan Dam and the Aswan High Dam to create a reservoir along the Nile.

33 Anwar Sadat President of Egypt. He was the first leader of an Arab country to sign a peace treaty with Israel. He did this to gain back lost land from Israel, including the Sinai Peninsula, to protect the Suez Canal. However, he was assassinated by an Egyptian member of the Muslim Brotherhood.

34 Lawrence of Arabia British general during WWI who promised the Arabs that if they fought against the Ottoman Empire (their own rulers) that Britain would reward them with the “Promised Land” they called Palestine. (Jews call it Israel.) He didn’t know that Britain promised the same thing to the Jews.

35 Saddam Hussein Former dictator of Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war, Persian Gulf War, and was assassinated in 2006 by his people for crimes against humanity. He was thought to have hid weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, thus prompting UN sanctions against Iraq.

36 Osama Bin Laden Saudi Arabian man who is the leader of Al Qaeda. He lead an attack against the U.S. by attacking the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9/11/2001. He was later captured and executed in Pakistan.

37 WWII War involving numerous world powers throughout Europe and Asia, as well as the United States. The U.S. became involved when Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese.

38 Iran-Iraq War Eight year war between Iran and Iraq. Iraq invaded Iran in order to get oil and beachfront property. The U.S. helped Sadaam Hussein (Iraq) by providing money and weapons, but Iran won this war.

39 Six Day War Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt on June 5, By June 10th, Israel had taken control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt.

40 Persian Gulf War War waged against Iraq after Sadaam Hussein invaded Kuwait. President George H.W. Bush deployed American troops and other countries joined with the U.S. to drive Iraq out of Kuwait.

41 Korean War A military conflict from by which Korea was divided at the 38th parallel between a Communist government to the North and a democratic government to the South.

42 Zionism The return of the Jews to Jerusalem after the Holocaust because Britain honored the Balfour Declaration. This led to several thousands of people migrating to Israel, causing over crowding, homelessness, and fighting between Palestinians and the Jews.

43 Anti-Semitism The hatred or prejudice against Jews. This attitude led to the European’s participation in the Holocaust and the reason why so many Jews followed Zionism to the “Holy Land.”

44 Balfour Declaration The British promised the Jews that if they helped the British during WWI, then they would reward them with the “Holy Land” then called Palestine. The British didn’t uphold the promise until after WWII and the Holocaust. They had to take away land from Palestine and gave it to the Jews. One cause of the Palestinian and Israeli conflict.

45 Genocide The systematic and intentional killing of a group

46 Refugees A person who has been forced to leave home for life or death reasons. This may include war, famine, or natural disasters. Most people live in camps & remain poor and live below poverty line

47 Hirohito Last emperor of Japan. He ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor, thus forcing the U.S. to enter in WWII with Japan. Goal: divided front. Upon defeat, the U.S. took away his power and made him a symbolic figure.

48 Bedouins Nomadic herders in Northern Africa, they roam from oasis to oasis. Mostly raise camels, sheep, and goats. Mostly Arabs and Muslim.

49 Afrikaners/ Boers The Dutch descent South Africans (whites) who discriminated against the Bantu (black) South Africans through Apartheid. Their ethno-centralism led to the complete segregation of South Africa.

50 Middle Eastern Traders
Arab traders who, because there were not enough natural resources in the Middle East, traveled between Europe, Africa and Asia trading goods. They also spread the Islamic religion wherever they went.

51 Swahili The cultural diffusion between the Middle Eastern Arab traders and the East African Bantu people. New language was created to make trade easier. Some inhabitants of the coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique

52 Red Guard Name of Mao’s army that he used to enforce his Cultural Revolution. Consisted of even children. He provided his philosophies in a “Little Red Book” to which this enforced his philosophies on the Chinese people Red Guards on the cover of an elementary school textbook from Guangxi 1971

53 Shia Branch of Islam that believes that a bloodline relative should succeed Muhammad and lead the Muslim people. Saddam Hussein claimed his right to rule Iraq because he was this type of Muslim.

54 Sunni Muslim Branch of Islam that believes that the leader of Islam should be one of Muhammad’s disciples, called Caliphs. This branch of Islam ruled the Ottoman Empire. Most Muslims are this branch.

55 Persians The ethnic group of most of the Iranian people. They were part of a large empire. They are mostly Shia Muslims.

56 Peninsula Land that is surrounded by water on three sides.

57 Micro-lending Small loans to people in order to give them the capitol that they need to start up small businesses or improve their current job. The goal is to help pull people out of poverty by providing a means for them to do it themselves.

58 Monsoons Seasonal winds that either blow over ocean currents or land that either bring in humidity (rain) or dry air. They influence the climate of the region.

59 Nomads People who migrate from place to place (usually herders) to find food for themselves or their livestock. Usually lives in desert or semi-desert regions.

60 Oasis A small piece of land where the aquifer reaches the surface, providing water in the middle of the desert. Usually has small grasses, shrubs, and palm/date trees. Nomads migrate here during the driest seasons.

61 Landlocked A country that does not have a border that touches an ocean or a sea Afghanistan is _________. Laos is ________________.

62 Conflict Diamonds Diamonds that were mined using slave labor. Most of these were mined in Western and Central Africa.

63 Dowry Money, jewelry and other items given to the husband’s family upon the marriage of their daughter. This is suppose to offset the cost of living expenses; however, sometimes women are killed because the husband’s family wants more. It’s now illegal in India, but still practiced.

64 The Golden Stool Religious symbol of the Ashanti in Western Africa. The gods are suppose to be the only ones to sit on it.

65 Plantation Farming Large farms that grow cash crops to export to other countries. These farms usually specialize in just a few types of crops. Harvesting palm buds from a mature palm tree in Malaysia.

66 Women bringing palm buds to the side of the road for collection.
Cash Crops Crops that are grown to export to other countries.                                                                                                                                 Women bringing palm buds to the side of the road for collection.

67 Bantu Migration The migration of the Bantu people. They spread religion, culture, food, and agriculture.

68 Triangle of Trade The trading of Slaves, Manufactured Goods, Whale Oil, Lumber, Rice, Silk, Sugar, and Tobacco. Europe, South America, Africa, and North America all participated.

69 Mandate System A country is ruled by another country until the original country can establish a working government. After WWI European countries ruled most of the Middle Eastern countries under this until they were established. The UN also ruled Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein until Iraq had free elections, a police, and working government.

70 Silk Road One of the worlds most historically important trade routes for its influence on China and Central Asia. The Middle Eastern traders took this land route (included several routes) across Asia. This is how culture and religion was able to spread from one area to another.

71 Spice Route The Sea Route that the Middle Eastern traders took between the Middle East and Asia. This is how culture and religion spread throughout the Eastern world.

72 Economic Tigers Countries that have increased their economies very quickly. They’ve moved from a 3rd world (developing) country to a developed country.

73 Imperialism The act of one country taking complete control and ruling another country, establishing their own laws and economy. Europeans were known for this, although Japan did occupy most of SE Asia during and prior to WWII for natural resources

74 PLO: Palestine Liberation Organization
An organization made up of several Arab groups that tried to restore Palestine. They want the Jews/Israelis to give up their land. Yasser Arafat was their leader until his death.

75 UN: United Nations Confederation where countries come together for peace keeping purposes. They impose sanctions, including economic sanctions, to keep countries from taking advantage of other or their own people. They ordered Saddam Hussein to allow them in to inspect for weapons of mass destruction, which he refused…these soldiers invaded

76 ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African states.
They work together as African countries to try and improve trade between them. The goal is to improve their economies and raise the standard of living.

77 OAU (Organization of African Unity
Its purpose was to promote unity among African people. They fought against apartheid and for equal rights throughout Africa

78 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries)
This is an organization that was formed to make exporting policies and set prices. The price of oil is determined by supply and demand. The organization sets quotas to their members so not to flood the international market with more supply than demand, thus driving down the price of oil.

79 Yasser Arafat Arab leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). He was a weapons engineer and a bomb maker for the Egyptian army, which made him a deadly leader of the PLO.

80 Arabs Largest ethnic group of the Middle East and North Africa. Mostly Muslim, although some are Christian. They tend to side with the PLO and the Palestinians in disputes.

81 Kurds Ethnic nomadic group in Northern Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Mostly Sunni Muslims, and want their own country. However, the other countries do not want to give up land to them.

82 Ottoman Empire Muslim Empire ruled by the Caliphs, the Sunni branch of Islam. The Sultans ruled the empire and expanded it across the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe, also spreading Islam

83 Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)
Turkish leader who defeated the Ottoman Empire during WWI. He became the first president of Turkey. He modernized the government, threw out Sharia, and gave women more rights, power, and vote. He created the first democracy in the region.

84 Taliban Fundamentalist Muslim group that ruled Afghanistan, enforcing Sharia. Was forced out of power by the U.S. because they refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden for the 9/11 attack on the U.S.

85 Ayatollah A high-ranking Shiite religious leader regarded as worthy of interpretation of matters of religious law. Enforces Sharia. Iran has one ruling over the daily life and a president who deals with political matters.

86 Euphrates and Tigris Rivers
Two rivers that make up the only water source in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. These countries have built dams along these rivers for reservoirs and have fought wars between each other for control of the rivers. Rivers are also used for irrigation and trade.

87 Great Rift Valley Very deep valley that was created by the Indian and African plate separating during tectonic drift. It has caused large and deep lakes, which is a source of transportation and food for the region.

88 Congo River Long river that runs through the rainforests of central Africa. It has so many waterfalls that it’s not navigable; however, it is a large food source for the region. The waterfalls and rapids kept the Europeans from sailing up the river, thus kept the exporting of slaves out of the Congo. (However, the Dutch did use slave labor for mining in the region.)

89 Nile River Longest river in the world. It is the transportation route and food/water source for Sudan, South Sudan, and Egypt. The water is extremely important for irrigation purposes and most people live along its banks.

90 Suez Canal Man-made transportation route between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea through Egypt. It keeps prices of goods down because shipment is cheaper and quicker.

91 Aswan High Dam Dam built on the Nile river to create a reservoir for drinking water, irrigation, and a food source. It also creates hydroelectricity which Egypt sells to other countries in the region.

92 Lake Nasser Lake that was created by the Aswan High Dam. It is a reservoir that is used for food, drinking water, and irrigation. This lake has a large amount of silt that builds up, thus making the lake more shallow and causes additional issues in the region.

93 9/11/2001 Al Qaeda attacked the U.S. using commercial airplanes, flying them into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and attempted the White House. This was the cause of the U.S. invasion of Iraq (who funded the attacks) and Afghanistan.

94 India’s first attempt for independence from Great Britain
India’s first attempt for independence from Great Britain. Sparked by British soldiers switching the grease for the Indian army’s weapons, the Indians killed 200+ women and children as retaliation. India learned from this that they couldn’t defeat Britain's army in a battle. Led to Non-violent protesting. Sepoy Rebellion

95 Vietnam War Vietnam’s fight for independence with France, which asked the U.S. to help. The U.S. was afraid of the Domino Theory, that countries would fall to communism, so the U.S. helped France. France left, we stayed and lost the war.

96 Domino Theory The fear that if one country fell to communism, then surrounding countries would also fall to communism.

97 Chinese Revolution China was once a corrupt republic. The communist party overthrew the republic in a 40 year war, thus making China a communist country. The Republic party fled to Formosa and created Taiwan. Sun Yat-sen Mao

98 Chinese Cultural Revolution
Mao’s plan to force modernization on the Chinese people. He believed people wouldn’t modernize if given a choice, so he ordered everything “old” destroyed, including religion and Tibet.

99 Mao’s Little Red Book Mao’s philosophies written down and given to everyone during the Cultural Revolution. It was used to brainwash the ideas of Mao to every Chinese individual. Children were taught at a very young age the teachings.

100 Arab-Israeli War The conflict over the land called Palestine or Israel between the Jews and the Palestinians. Both claim the land as theirs and are willing to fight to the death for it.

101 Wailing Wall Part of King David’s temple in Jerusalem. It’s the only part of the temple that Jews have access to because it is in the Muslim district. Jews come there to pray. Source of conflict in the region.

102 Dome of the Rock Muslim temple that is built on top of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. Since the Jews and Muslims do not get along, only Muslims are allowed access to it. Source of conflict in the region

103 Jerusalem Capitol city in Israel. Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believe that it’s a holy city and all three lay claim on the city. The city is split into four districts. Source of conflict in the region.

104 Mecca (Saudi Arabia) Holiest city to Muslims because Muhammad was born there and received the words of the Koran. Muslims pray towards the city no matter where they are. It’s also the site of the Hajj, or pilgrimage.

105 Diaspora the scattering of Jews to countries outside of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity. They migrated to Europe, Asia, and the Americas. (reason they were in Europe during the holocaust) This is the first one. From there, the Jews continued to migrate across Europe, Asia, and took boats to the Americas.

106 Grameen Bank International bank created to give micro-loans to women to boost their standard of living. Women take out loans to use as capital to create personal businesses or to support their families. Prof. Muhammad Yunus and this bank win Nobel Prize 2006

107 Berlin Conference The European countries met together to partition Africa. They didn’t take in consideration ethnic groups, religious groups, or the wants/needs of the native Africans. Source of conflict in the region. Ok, gentlemen. Let’s agree which European country is going to get what land. Be fair… divide up the natural resources fairly by interest and need!

108 I think I’m better than everyone else here
Ethnocentrism Belief that your ethnic group is better or more “civilized” than others. This thought has started many wars/discrimination against people: Reason for Apartheid, Europeans treatment of people in Africa and India, Chinese Isolation, Japanese erasing Korean culture prior to WWII, etc. I think I’m better than everyone else here

109 Company Rule Where a business is ruling the country rather than a foreign government. Ex: British East India Company ruled India for Queen Victoria until the Sepoy Rebellion.

110 Indirect Rule You are now to rule my colony as I would if I were there. Where a foreign ruler sends a governor or a viceroy to rule and enforce the laws of the foreign ruler. Example: The British East India Company ruled India for Queen Victoria.

111 Direct Rule I need to make a second copy of my laws to send to my colony overseas so my trustee will enforce my law. Where a foreign ruler creates and enforces laws in a colony from the parent country.

112 Apartheid The intentional segregation of non-European people in South Africa. Complete segregation of towns, businesses, schools, and denial of voting rights.

113 Colonization A foreign country that invades and occupies a land in order to get the natural resources. The goal is to send the natural resources back to the foreign country to use to manufacture products.

114 Kibbutz A Jewish farming community where it is self sustaining. Everyone works together to provide for the needs of the whole group. Meals are even shared together.

115 Fellahin An Egyptian farmer. Usually poor and uneducated.

116 Ho Chi Minh Leader of the communist party in Vietnam during the Vietnam war. Won the war and was the first communist leader of Vietnam.

117 Ho Chi Minh Trail Series of roads and paths that the Vietcong used to move from north and south Vietnam. Sometimes it swung out into Cambodia. Goal was to get food, supplies, and troupes behind the U.S. to attack from behind.

118 Animist A person who believes that spirits
are found in natural objects and surroundings.

119 Desalination The process of removing salt and other chemicals
from the sea water.

120 Famine Extreme and general scarcity of food.

121 Green Line The place where the Cultivated land ends
And the desert begins

122 The Long March The name given to the 6000 mile journey that Mao Zedong and his army took to avoid capture by the Chinese Government during the Communist Revolution. It allowed them to build up followers and expand the army, thus making it larger than the Nationalist’s army.

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