2World War II begins in Europe World War II started in 1939 when Germany invaded PolandAdolf Hitler was trying to unite all countries with Germans living in them under his Nazi governmentThere were 2 groups fighting each other during the warThe Axis Powers were Germany, Italy, and JapanThe Allied Powers were Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union
3The U.S. in WWIIJust like with WWI, the U.S. remained neutral at the start of World War IIHowever, President Franklin Roosevelt wanted to help our ally, Great BritainThere were laws, however, stating that the U.S. could not sell any weapons to any warring nationsIn 1939, Roosevelt asked for and received a new law that allowed Allied Powers to buys weapons if they paid cash and carried them on their own ships
4Lend-LeaseIn 1941, the British ran out of cash to buy American supplies.In response, the U.S. began lending or leasing weapons to themAlso in 1941, Roosevelt gave lend-lease aid to the Soviet Union
5American-Japanese Relations To protest Japanese expansion in the Pacific Ocean, Roosevelt stopped exporting aviation supplies, including fuel, to JapanRoosevelt also seized all property owned by Japanese in the U.S.In retaliation, Japan decided to strike at the U.S. Navy stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
6Pearl HarborAround 8 am, on December 7, 1941, sailors stationed at Pearl Harbor began hearing machine gun fire and low-level bombingJapanese war planes were flying in, dropping bombs, and flying out againThe attack lasted less than 2 hours, but the damage was incredible to the U.S Navy’s Pacific fleet
7Damage at Pearl HarborThere were 8 battleships in port at the time, and all were destroyed or severely damagedMore than 180 planes were destroyedOver 2000 people were killed and over 1000 were woundedAlmost half of the U.S. casualties were on board the U.S.S. Arizona, which sank with most of the crew on boardToday, a national monument is in place over the site of the Arizona’s sinking
8The U.S. enters World War II On December 8, 1941, the U.S. declared war on JapanA few days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.The U.S. joined the Allied PowersThis meant they had to fight on two frontsThey faced Germany and Italy in Europe and North AfricaThey faced Japan in the Pacific
9World War II ends the Great Depression In order to fight a war, weapons and other supplies are neededWhen the U.S. began spending heavily in 1941 for defense, new plants and factories were openedJobs were created, helping many who were still unemployed find a jobOthers joined the militaryThis allowed for business recovery and unemployment numbers to go down and the economy recovered
10Georgia in WWII Georgia played a large role in WWII Not only did Georgia have military bases that played a part, but new factories were opened in Georgia to build military suppliesGeorgia also had respected leaders, both in state government as well as federal government
11Bell AircraftWhen the federal government decided to build more B-29 bomber airplanes, new plants were neededOne of these was built in MariettaWhen the plant first opened, only 1200 people were employedBy 1945, 27,000 employees built planes a monthThe plant closed after the war, but was reopened in 1950 by the Lockheed Martin Corporation and is still open today
12Military Bases in Georgia Major military bases in Georgia played a role in WWIIFort Benning trained new infantry soldiersFort McPherson received new draftees from all over the countryAirmen from Glynco Naval Air Station, on the coast, patrolled for German submarinesA military hospital operated in Atlanta, Fort Gillem was used for storage, and prisoners of war were held at Fort Benning, as well as others around the state
13Savannah and Brunswick Shipyards Cargo ships, called “Liberty ships” for WWII were built at the shipyards at Savannah and Brunswick, on the Georgia coastThe first was launched in 1942 – the U.S.S. James OglethorpeAll together, both shipyards had produced 187 ships by the end of the war
14Richard B. Russell Russell became Georgia’s governor in 1931 He tried to run the state as a successful business, which helped ease some of the problems brought on by the DepressionIn 1932, he was elected to the U.S. Senate, where he supported strong national defense during WWIIHe went on to become an advisor to 6 future presidents
15Carl VinsonCarl Vinson served 25 consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1914 to 1965Vinson represented Georgia’s interest in the military during WWI and WWIIHe helped promote a strong national defense, both during WWII and afterHe retired to his farm in Milledgeville in 1965
16The HolocaustMeanwhile, in Europe, Hitler believed that the German people were superior to everyone elseHe wanted to destroy others who he believed to be inferiorHe particularly hated people of the Jewish raceIn 1942, Hitler ordered the destruction of Europe’s entire population of JewsJews were captured and put into concentration camps, like Auschwitz and DachauThe Holocaust is the mass murder of millions of Jews and other people by the Nazis during WWII
17Georgia Remembers the Holocaust In 1986, the Georgia Commission on the Holocaust was establishedThe Commission tries to foster tolerance, good citizenship, and character development in young GeorgiansIt hopes to lead a new generation beyond racism
18Franklin Roosevelt’s Connection to Georgia Roosevelt suffered from polio, which is a disease that damages the nervous system and can cause paralysisIn 1924, Roosevelt began visiting Warm Springs, GA as treatment for his polioWhen he became president, his Warm Springs house became known as the Little White HouseOn April 24, 1945, Roosevelt died while at the Little White House after suffering a stroke
19The End of WWIIRoosevelt’s vice-president, Harry Truman, became president after Roosevelt’s deathHe guided the U.S. through the end of the war in Europe, with the death of Hitler and Germany’s surrender in May 1945He also made the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan, ending the war in the Pacific in September 1945.
20Questions… 1) Who were the 2 sides in WWII? 2) Who were Axis Powers in WWII?3) Who were Allied Powers in WWII?4) How was the U.S. helping the Allied Powers before entering the war?5) Describe the Lend-Lease program.6) Why did the Japanese decide to attack Pearl Harbor?7) When was the attack at Pearl Harbor?8) Describe the damage after the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor.9) Which side did the U.S. fight on in WWII?10) How did WWII end the Great Depression?11) What type of plant was built in Marietta and what specifically did it build?
21More Questions…12) How were different military bases used in Georgia? Be specific!13) What was built at the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards during WWII?14) How did Richard Russell ease the Depression while he was governor?15) What did Russell support while he was in the U.S. Senate?16) What interest did Carl Vinson represent for Georgia during the WWI and WWII?17) What is the Holocaust?18) How does Georgia remember the Holocaust?19) Where did Roosevelt go in Georgia to ease his polio symptoms?