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Unit 6 Ups and Downs: World War I, the Jazz Age and the Great Depression In this unit, students will understand the involvement of the United States in.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 6 Ups and Downs: World War I, the Jazz Age and the Great Depression In this unit, students will understand the involvement of the United States in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 6 Ups and Downs: World War I, the Jazz Age and the Great Depression In this unit, students will understand the involvement of the United States in World War I, the impact of the Great Depression, and the cultural developments of the early 20th century. Students will explore the connecting themes of beliefs and ideals; conflict and change; individuals, groups, and institutions; location; movement and migration; scarcity; and technological innovations. These themes will enable students to make connections to a broader understanding of patterns that continue to occur over time.

2 Vocabulary alliance Lusitania armistice Margaret Mitchell Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) militarism Duke Ellington nationalism Dust Bowl New Deal emigration reparations Franklin Roosevelt soup kitchens Great Depression Stock Market Crash of 1929 Herbert Hoover Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) immigration Treaty of Versailles imperialism U-boats Jesse Owens Woodrow Wilson Works Progress Administration

3 Background Information An alliance is when countries agree to help each other if one of them is attacked. In 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated. This is considered an act of nationalism, extreme love of country. All of Europe was at war, this is considered militarism; the use of war to solve a problem. Germany and Austria- Hungary formed an alliance called Central Powers. Russia, Great Britain, and France became the leaders of an alliance called Triple Entente. Germany was taking over smaller countries to add to their empire, this is called imperialism.

4 This assassination started WWI. President Woodrow Wilson vowed to keep the U.S. out of the war, but a number of things happened.

5 Germany used U-boats. They stayed hidden beneath the surface of the water and fired torpedoes that sank enemy ships and ships from other nations. German submarines sank a U.S. passenger ship called the Lusitania and over 100 people died. This made the U.S. furious even though the U.S. government was secretly using the Lusitania and other passenger ships to sneak military supplies to Great Britain and its allies.

6 Before the U.S. entered the war they sent weapons to Britain, food and supplies to war torn areas in Europe, and helped block food from getting to Germany. When several American merchant ships we sunk in February and March of 1917, the United States entered the war as an ally of Britain and France in April After joining the war effort, the United States drafted four million men and was sending thousands of men to France every day. The U.S. Navy sent battle ships to help the British, U.S. Marines to France, and supplies to Europe.

7 The U.S. soldiers reached Europe in The presence of Americans made it clear that Germany had no hope to win. It signed an armistice, and agreement to stop fighting, in November 1918.

8 President Wilson and the other allied leaders met and drafted a treaty. The treaty is called the Treaty of Versailles. It forced Germany to take total blame for the war. It also made Germany pay for the war and greatly decrease the size of its military. This made many German’s bitter. Many in the U.S. feared that the treaty would lead the U.S. into alliances with foreign countries.

9 The Senate refused to ratify it, claiming it feared the Treaty of Versailles could lead to future wars.

10 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I

11 Assassination Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated and Serbia was blamed. Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated and Serbia was blamed.

12 MILITARISM A nation’s policy to maintain strong armed forces A nation’s policy to maintain strong armed forces –Great Britain and Germany raced to have the largest navies. –France, Russia, and Germany competed in building powerful armies.

13 ALLIANCES The formation of military agreements among nations. The formation of military agreements among nations. –Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in –Great Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente in 1907.

14 IMPERIALISM A nation’s attempt to gain control of weaker nations. A nation’s attempt to gain control of weaker nations. –European nations divided much of Africa into colonies in order to obtain raw material and sell goods –European nations forced China to grant them trading rights

15 NATIONALISM Extreme loyalty to a nation and concern for its welfare. Extreme loyalty to a nation and concern for its welfare. –National groups in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) wanted independence. –European nations sought to regain lost territories and/or add land.

16 The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was the peace treaty that put an official end to World War I. The treaty was ratified on Jan. 10, 1920 and required that Germany accept responsibility for the war. Like many other treaties, it is named for the place of its signing: the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles. On Jan. 18, 1919 a peace conference opened in Versailles, France, to work on the treaty. The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was the peace treaty that put an official end to World War I. The treaty was ratified on Jan. 10, 1920 and required that Germany accept responsibility for the war. Like many other treaties, it is named for the place of its signing: the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles. On Jan. 18, 1919 a peace conference opened in Versailles, France, to work on the treaty.

17 League of Nations The treaty provided for the creation of the League of Nations, a major goal of US president Woodrow Wilson. The purpose of the organization was to discuss problems between nations before they lead to war. The Treaty of Versailles also greatly restricted Germany’s armed forces. The treaty provided for the creation of the League of Nations, a major goal of US president Woodrow Wilson. The purpose of the organization was to discuss problems between nations before they lead to war. The Treaty of Versailles also greatly restricted Germany’s armed forces. The treaty established a commission which was to decide the exact amount to be paid by Germany. In 1921, this number was officially put at $33 billion. The treaty established a commission which was to decide the exact amount to be paid by Germany. In 1921, this number was officially put at $33 billion. 1921

18 The United States never ratified the treaty. The elections of 1918 had seen the Republicans gain control of the United States Senate, some favoring isolationism. As a result, the U.S. never joined the League of Nations and later negotiated a separate peace treaty with Germany. The United States never ratified the treaty. The elections of 1918 had seen the Republicans gain control of the United States Senate, some favoring isolationism. As a result, the U.S. never joined the League of Nations and later negotiated a separate peace treaty with Germany.Republicans United States Senate isolationismRepublicans United States Senate isolationism

19 A Compromise A Compromise The "Big Three" consisted of Prime Minister of Great Britain, Prime Minister of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of America. Each had been treated differently by Germany during the War. The "Big Three" consisted of Prime Minister of Great Britain, Prime Minister of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of America. Each had been treated differently by Germany during the War.

20 France had suffered most of the casualties during the War, and much of it had been fought on French soil. The country was in ruins, with much damage done to historic and important buildings and resources. France wanted money from Germany to rebuild and repair the damage done by the Germans. France had suffered most of the casualties during the War, and much of it had been fought on French soil. The country was in ruins, with much damage done to historic and important buildings and resources. France wanted money from Germany to rebuild and repair the damage done by the Germans.

21 Great Britain was never invaded, but many any soldiers died on the front line in France, and so the people in Britain wanted revenge as much as the French. They also wanted money from Germany. Great Britain was never invaded, but many any soldiers died on the front line in France, and so the people in Britain wanted revenge as much as the French. They also wanted money from Germany.

22 Woodrow Wilson had very different views about how to punish Germany. The American people had been in the war only since April President Wilson wanted to institute a world policy that ensured that nothing like this could ever happen again. In order to maintain peace, the first attempt at a world court was created- the League of Nations. Woodrow Wilson had very different views about how to punish Germany. The American people had been in the war only since April President Wilson wanted to institute a world policy that ensured that nothing like this could ever happen again. In order to maintain peace, the first attempt at a world court was created- the League of Nations.

23 When the Treaty of Versailles had been concluded, Germany was forced to pay the Allies over 6 billion dollars; hand over all its colonies, accept all blame for the war; reduce the size of its armed forces (six warships, 100,000 infantry, and no air force); and give land to many countries. When the Treaty of Versailles had been concluded, Germany was forced to pay the Allies over 6 billion dollars; hand over all its colonies, accept all blame for the war; reduce the size of its armed forces (six warships, 100,000 infantry, and no air force); and give land to many countries.

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25 What caused the Great Depression? Stock market Crash of 1929 Stock market Crash of 1929 Banks failed Banks failed Reduction in spending Reduction in spending Tariffs Tariffs Dust Bowl Dust Bowl

26 The Roaring 20’s The new concept of “credit” The new concept of “credit” People were buying: People were buying: –Automobiles –Appliances –Clothes Fun times reigned Fun times reigned –Dancing –Flappers –Drinking

27 Why was this bad? Credit system Credit system –People didn’t really have the money they were spending WWI WWI –The U.S. was a major credit loaner to other nations in need –Many of these nations could not pay us back

28 The Stock Market People bought stocks on margins People bought stocks on margins –If a stock is $100 you can pay $10 now and the rest later when the stock rose Stocks fall Stocks fall –Now the person has less than $100 and no money to pay back

29 And then…. With people panicking about their money investors tried to sell their stocks With people panicking about their money investors tried to sell their stocks –This leads to a huge decline in stocks –Stocks were worthless now People who bought on “margins” now could not pay People who bought on “margins” now could not pay Investors were average people that were now broke Investors were average people that were now broke

30 Why did banks fail in 1929? Banks make money by charging interest on the loans they give. People go to them and ask them to purchase a house or a car and in return, they will pay the bank a little at a time alone with a little extra (interest) until all is paid off. Banks make money by charging interest on the loans they give. People go to them and ask them to purchase a house or a car and in return, they will pay the bank a little at a time alone with a little extra (interest) until all is paid off. In 1929 as is today, they loaned out more money than they had coming in. People got scared and withdrew their savings, leaving the banks with only the money they were counting on from the interest rates they were charging. In 1929 as is today, they loaned out more money than they had coming in. People got scared and withdrew their savings, leaving the banks with only the money they were counting on from the interest rates they were charging.

31 Why did banks fail in 1929? When people began to default on their loans not only did the bank lose money from the interest it was no longer getting, but then they had to foreclose on the defaulted home loans. It then became a matter of reselling (usually at a loss) the homes they took back. Because no one was buying (homes), the asking price for the homes dropped (meaning the banks would get even less) and if they could not sell, they were stuck with a property that was not bringing in any money. When people began to default on their loans not only did the bank lose money from the interest it was no longer getting, but then they had to foreclose on the defaulted home loans. It then became a matter of reselling (usually at a loss) the homes they took back. Because no one was buying (homes), the asking price for the homes dropped (meaning the banks would get even less) and if they could not sell, they were stuck with a property that was not bringing in any money.

32 Why did banks fail in 1929? People began pulling their money out of savings and suddenly, there simply was no more money. The banks had used people's money (savings) to buy the homes they'd loaned money for and so, the money was non-existent, it was tied up in the homes that were now in foreclosure. People wanted to withdraw their money, but there was no money left. People began pulling their money out of savings and suddenly, there simply was no more money. The banks had used people's money (savings) to buy the homes they'd loaned money for and so, the money was non-existent, it was tied up in the homes that were now in foreclosure. People wanted to withdraw their money, but there was no money left.

33 F D I C Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent agency of the United States government that protects the funds depositors place in banks and savings associations. FDIC insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. Since the FDIC was established in 1933, no depositor has ever lost a single penny of FDIC-insured funds.

34 F D I C Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation The standard insurance amount is $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. The standard insurance amount is $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. FDIC insurance does not cover other financial products and services that banks may offer, such as stocks, bonds, mutual fund shares, life insurance policies, annuities or securities. FDIC insurance does not cover other financial products and services that banks may offer, such as stocks, bonds, mutual fund shares, life insurance policies, annuities or securities.

35 Herbert Hoover was president at the start Herbert Hoover was president at the start Philosophy: We’ll make it! Philosophy: We’ll make it! What He Did: Nothing What He Did: Nothing The poor were looking for help and no ideas on how to correct or help were coming The poor were looking for help and no ideas on how to correct or help were coming

36 Farmers were already feeling the effects Farmers were already feeling the effects –Prices of crops went down –Many farms foreclosed People could not afford luxuries People could not afford luxuries –Factories shut down –Businesses went out Banks could not pay out money Banks could not pay out money People could not pay their taxes People could not pay their taxes –Schools shut down due to lack of funds Many families became homeless and had to live in shanties Many families became homeless and had to live in shanties

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38 Many waited in unemployment lines hoping for a job.

39 People in cities would wait in line for bread to bring to their family.

40 Some families were forced to relocate because they had no money.

41 “Hooverville” Some families were forced to live in shanty towns Some families were forced to live in shanty towns –A grouping of shacks and tents in vacant lots They were referred to as “Hooverville” because of President Hoover’s lack of help during the depression. They were referred to as “Hooverville” because of President Hoover’s lack of help during the depression.

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43 The South and the Dust Bowl

44 A drought in the South lead to dust storms that destroyed crops. “The Dust Bowl”

45 The South Was Buried Crops turned to dust=No food to be sent out Crops turned to dust=No food to be sent out Homes buried Homes buried Fields blown away Fields blown away South in state of emergency South in state of emergency Dust Bowl the #1 weather crisis of the 20th century Dust Bowl the #1 weather crisis of the 20th century

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47 Two Families During the Depression

48 A Farm Foreclosure

49 Some families tried to make money by selling useful crafts like baskets.

50 Apple Sellers People would buy apples for a penny a piece and try to sell them for a nickel a piece.

51 Apple Sellers Many tried apple- selling to avoid the shame of panhandling. In New York City, there were over 5,000 apple sellers on the street. Many tried apple- selling to avoid the shame of panhandling. In New York City, there were over 5,000 apple sellers on the street.

52 *FDR* When he was inaugurated unemployment had increased by 7 million. When he was inaugurated unemployment had increased by 7 million. Poor sections (like Harlem) had 50% of the pop. unemployed Poor sections (like Harlem) had 50% of the pop. unemployed Instated the “New Deal” Instated the “New Deal”

53 People everywhere were effected by the depression People everywhere were effected by the depression It wasn’t till President Roosevelt took over and tried to put the economy back together that people even saw a glimmer of hope It wasn’t till President Roosevelt took over and tried to put the economy back together that people even saw a glimmer of hope

54 54 The “Old Deal” What? President Hoover’s reaction to the Great Depression was to do nothing. Let the natural course of things work itself out. President Herbert Hoover

55 55 The “Old Deal” What did he want to do? Refused to create government programs until it was too late Let the business cycle take care of things Children in one of the Bonus Army Camps

56 56 The Bonus Army ,000 WWI veterans 25,000 WWI veterans Who? Marched to Washington D.C. to get a $ bonus they were supposed to get in 1945 What?

57 57 The Bonus Army 1932 Called out the troops and dispersed the army Called out the troops and dispersed the army What did Hoover do?

58 58 The Election of 1932 Roosevelt offers a “New Deal” for America Roosevelt wins with 60% of the vote What?

59 59 Think about it and Discuss Why do many people say that Herbert Hoover was a terrible president and put the blame on him for the financial crisis of the 1930s?

60 60 Roosevelt’s New Deal What? What? Programs meant to help the country by getting the government involved in the economy 1. Relief - help people out in the short term 2. Recovery - get the economy back on its feet 3. Reform - keep this from happening again Meant to do 3 things

61 61 Bank Holiday - First Step Why? Why? Many banks had failed, wiping out families’ savings People lost confidence in the banks Depositors Congregate Outside Closed Bank

62 62 Bank Holiday - First Step How? How? Closed banks for four days to reorganize President explains in a “fireside chat” Confidence restored

63 63 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” In the first 100 days of his administration Roosevelt passes tons of legislation In the first 100 days of his administration Roosevelt passes tons of legislation Hundred Days The agencies he creates (like AAA) Alphabet Soup

64 64 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” year old guys get jobs and send money home to their families year old guys get jobs and send money home to their families CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps CCC workers in Lassen National Forest, California

65 65 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Government pays farmers not to farm Government pays farmers not to farm AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration Meant to cause prices to rise and halt overproduction

66 66 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Government runs a hydroelectric power plant Government runs a hydroelectric power plant TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority Provides cheap power & fertilizer to the poor region Construction at Norris Dam, which was being built by the TVA on the Clinch River in Northeastern Tennessee

67 67 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Insurance for the $ you put in banks Insurance for the $ you put in banks FDIC - Federal Department Insurance Corp. Protected people’s savings Bank Employee Checks Depositor's Account

68 68 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Watchdog agency for the stock market Watchdog agency for the stock market SEC - Securities and Exchange Commission New York Stock Exchange

69 69 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Gave direct relief ($) to those who needed it Gave direct relief ($) to those who needed it FERA - Federal Emergency Relief Admin. Beginnings of a welfare program

70 70 Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Taxed people working now to give payments to the elderly Taxed people working now to give payments to the elderly Social Security Social Security Information Poster

71 71 The New Deal - Pros and Cons Pros Restored optimism and hope to Americans Cons Did not really fix the depression Left the nation with much debt Provided necessary relief to many Left people too dependent on government


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