3The Path to War 1930s – Dictatorships came to power in Europe and Asia Western democracies looked on uneasily- U.S. Great Britain and France couldn’t agree on how to ensure their collective securityUnrest could be traced back to WWI peace settlements- Japan, Italy, and Germany weren’t happy
4Japan’s Expansion in Asia 1st to reveal its territorial ambitions- Depended on foreign sources for raw materials and markets1921 – Gained control of Manchuria- Established it as an independent state (Manchukuo)- Set up former Chinese emperor Pu Yi as a puppet ruler
5Japan’s Expansion in Asia China protested to the League of Nations- It ordered Japan to return Manchuria to ChinaJapan withdrew from the League of Nations- Revealed that the League was powerless- Boosted the expansionist ambitions of Italy and GermanyEarly 1930s – Japanese military wanted gain control of the East Indies Oil reserves- Needed it for planes and ships
6Japan’s Expansion in Asia Japan invaded China and captured major eastern and southern cities- Needed the ports to control the Indies- Engaged in mass brutality in Nanjing (killed over 200,000 civilians)
7Japan’s Expansion in Asia Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek retreated inland1937 – 1945 – The Nationalist, The Chinese Communist, and the Japanese fought for control of China
8Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia Italy wanted to gain control of Ethiopia- Thought an Ethiopian colony would enhance its image as a world power
9Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia 1934 – Italian and Ethiopian forces clashed in a disputed zone on the border of Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland- Benito Mussolini demanded an apology and reparations- Ethiopia asked the League of Nations to investigate the matter- League decided neither side was to blame
10Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia October 1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia- Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations for help- League imposed economic sanctions against Italy- Were ineffective because they didn’t include oil, coal, and ironMay 1936 – Mussolini formally annexed Ethiopia
11Spanish Civil War 1931 – King Alfonso abdicated the throne New Republican government immediately began a program of social reforms- Ended the Catholic Church’s role in educating Spanish youth- Redistributed land from nobles to peasants
12Spanish Civil WarMany right wing groups opposed the republic and wanted to restore the old order1936 – Right-wing Nationalist revolted against the Republicans- Led by General Francisco FrancoSpanish Nationalist battled the Spanish Loyalist for 3 years
13Spanish Civil War Foreign powers intervened in the beginning - Soviet Union aided the Loyalist- Germans and Italians aided the NationalistVolunteers from Great Britain, France and the U.S. went to Spain to join the International Brigade and fight for the Republican Cause against fascism
14Spanish Civil War Western governments refused to get involved - Feared a general European warAdolph Hitler viewed Germany’s participation in the war as a way to strengthen ties with Italy and secure a supply of Spanish iron ore, coal and magnesium
15Spanish Civil WarGermany used the war to test new weapons and military tactics- Hermann Goering – Head of the Luftwaffe formed the Condor Legion (an all German air and ground force)1938 – Soviets stopped sending aid
16Spanish Civil War March 1939 – Nationalist defeated the Loyalist - Spain had a fascist government- Country lay in ruins- Franco didn’t ally himself with Italy and Germany
17Hitler on the Offensive Hitler made his move in Germany- Convinced that Germany needed more living space for it growing population (lebenstraum)
18Hitler on the Offensive March 1936 – Hitler sent troops to occupy the Rhineland (Violated the Versailles Treaty)- Gambled that France and Great Britain would do nothing to stop him- They were afraid of starting another war
19Hitler on the Offensive October 1936 – Hitler and Mussolini formed the Rome-Berlin Axis- Hoped world affairs would revolve around their alliance
20Hitler on the Offensive Anti-Comintern Pact – Italy and Germany joined Japan in an alliance against the Soviet Union- Stalin urged the west to unite against the Axis- West refused due to fear of another war and distrust of Stalin
21Seizing Austria Dreamed of joining Austria to Germany (Anschluss) - “One blood demands one Reich”Hitler attempted to take over Austria- Backed down when Mussolini mobilized troops1938 – Alliance with Italy made it possible
22Seizing AustriaBullied the Austrian chancellor into appointing Nazis to key post- Chancellor appealed to West fro helpMarch 1938 – Sent troops into Austria- Claimed that he was promoting political stability by uniting the German - speaking peoples into one country
23Czechoslovakia Created at the end of WWI - Held a key strategic location in the regionThe only democratic nation in eastern Europe- Had a strong army and alliances with France and the USSR
24Czechoslovakia Minorities began demanding more freedoms - Hitler used the ethnic problems to destroy the country
25CzechoslovakiaSeptember 5, 1938 – Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be given the right of self-determination- Heavily fortified region in northwestern CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia responded by declaring martial law
26CzechoslovakiaBritish Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain suggested a meeting with Hitler to discuss the matter (wanted to avoid an international crisis)September 15, 1938 – Chamberlain met with Hitler in Germany
27Czechoslovakia- Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany- Chamberlain accepted Hitler’s demands- Thought policy of appeasement would maintain peace and stabilize Europe- Hitler then demanded that the Sudetenland be united with Germany
28Munich ConferenceSeptember 29, 1938 – Chamberlain meet with Hitler for a 3rd time- French Premier Edward Daladier and Benito Mussolini also attendedMussolini offered a compromise-
29Munich ConferenceGermany received the Sudetenland in exchange for promising to respect Czechoslovakia’s sovereignty and by promising not to take any more European territory- Great Britain and France accepted the term (Hoped to avoid war)- Czechoslovakia reluctantly accepted itChamberlain returned home to cheering crowds- Proclaimed that he had ensured “peace in our time”- Mistakenly trusted Hitler
30The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler
34Munich ConferenceMarch 15, 1939 – Hitler sent troops to take control of the western part of Czechoslovakia- Eastern part became a German puppet stateWestern nations were no longer able to maintain their illusions about Hitler’s plans- Began preparing for war
35The Coming of WarMarch 1939 – Hitler forced Lithuania to give up the German-speaking city of Memel
37The Coming of WarHitler pressured Poland by threatening to take over the Baltic port of Danzig and the Polish Corridor- France and Great Britain promised to help Poland defend its borders if necessary- Poland accepted the west’s help and rejected
38The West and the Soviets West had to consider the Soviet Union when defending Poland- Poland’s neighbor and traditional enemy1930s – Stalin had urged the west to do something about Hitler- Suspected the Munich agreement was an attempt to turn Hitler’s attention towardthe Soviet Union
39The West and the Soviets Neville Chamberlain believed that Stalin was trying to extend his influence in Eastern Europe- Wasn’t sure if Communist of Fascist were the greater enemyChamberlain asked Stalin to join Britain and France in an alliance to contain Nazism
40The West and the Soviets - Stalin agreed on the condition that the Western powers recognize the USSR’s right to occupy a stretch of land from Finland to Bulgaria (West refused)- Deepened Stalin’s suspicions that the west wanted to see the Soviet Union and Germany destroy each other
41Nazi-Soviet Talks August 23, 1939 – Soviet-Nazi Nonaggression Pact - Agreed to never attack each other and to remain neutral if the other became involved in a war- Agreed to divide Poland
42Nazi-Soviet Talks It was an alliance of convenience - Stalin was buying time to prepare for war against Germany- Hitler was securing Germany’s eastern borderThe pact shocked the west- It destroyed the last barrier to war
44Nazi-Soviet Talks September 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland - Hitler misjudged the western leaders (Didn’t think they would act)- Britain and France declared war on Germany
45VocabularyAdolf Hitler - He was a fascist leader during WWII and felt that if Germany could get rid of Jews, Gypsies, and those who were handicap, then their problems would be solved. Benito Mussolini – Leader od Italy in WWIIJoseph Stalin – He was the communist leader of Soviet Russia during WWII, and was part of the Allied Powers.
47War in Europe September 1,1939 – Germany invaded Poland Used Blitzkrieg strategy – Lightning war aimed at taking the enemy by surprise- Luftwaffe – Bombed targets- Panzers swept across the border (tank divisions)- Infantry followed (1.5 million in motorized vehicles)
49War in Europe Germany defeated Poland within a few weeks - Great Britain and France couldn’t mobilize fast enough to helpSoviet Union quickly moved into East PolandStalin forced the Baltic republics of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to accept Soviet military basesWar broke out when the Soviets tried to force Finland to do the sameMarch 1940 – Soviets defeated Finland- Moved their frontier border 70 miles west- Made the city of Leningrad less vulnerable to German attack
52Hitler Looks WestWestern Front remained quiet until the spring of 1940- Germans called it Sitzkrieg (sit-down war)- West called it the phony war (hoped and all out war could still be avoided)April Britain mined the waters off the coast of Norway to prevent it form being conquered
53Hitler Looks WestHitler used this action to support his claim that the Allies were about to invade Scandinavia- Delivered an ultimatum to Norway and Denmark demanding that they accept protection form the Reich (Denmark accepted Norway didn’t)
54Invasion of Scandinavia April Germany invaded Denmark and Norway- Faced little resistance in DenmarkConquered Norway after defeating the British- Hitler won the outlet to the Atlantic he needed- Ensured that the German navy would not be bottle up in the Baltic Sea like it had been in World War I
55Invasion of Scandinavia British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain stepped down after the fall of Norway- King George VI asked Winston Churchill to form a new government- Had been one the few politicians to war of the Nazi danger in the 1930s
56War Begins on the Western Front French and British forces guarded the Maginot LineMaginot Line had one major flaw- 50 mile gap in the Ardennes-
57War Begins on the Western Front Tank commander Charles De Gaulle pleaded for more tanks and planes- Germany had invaded through Belgium and the Ardennes during WWI- French believed the swamps, forest, and hill in the region wee s sufficient barrier
58War Begins on the Western Front May 10, 1940 Germans parachuted into the Netherlands before dawn- 1st large scale airborne attack in the history of warfare- Caught the Dutch by surprise- Defeated the Netherlands in 5 days
59War Begins on the Western Front Britain and France moved their best troops into Belgium when the Germans invaded the Netherlands- German panzers swept through the Ardennes and encircled them- Other divisions drove throve through Luxembourg and headed towards France
64DunkirkGermans pushed the British, French and Belgium forces to the English ChannelTrapped the Allied forces in the northwest corner of France- Sea evacuation of 300, 000 soldiers seemed impossible- Hitler ordered his soldiers to halt
66Dunkirk May 26, 1940 – British began a rescue operation - 850 vessels set sail for Dunkirk (Used civilians and anything that would float)- Evacuated the troops under heavy fire over a 9 day periodEvacuation saved the British army
67Fall of France Germans continued to seep into France French army was unprepared and the government was confused
68Fall of France June 14, 1940 – France signed an armistice with Germany - Germany occupied all of northern France and the Atlantic coastline to the Spanish border- Nazis set up a puppet government in the Southern France city of Vichy
69Fall of FranceCharles De Gaulle organized the Free French government in Britain- Many people in France joined the French resistance
70Battle of BritainBritain was all that stood between Hitler and German domination of western EuropeHitler thought the British would seek peace- He misjudged their determination
71Battle of BritainGermany knew invading Britain depended on winning air supremacyAugust 1940 – Luftwaffe began bombing the southern coast- Damaged 4 aircraft factories and 5 RAF airfields- RAF shot down 75 German planes
72Battle of Britain Herman Goering began focusing attacks on the RAF - August 24 to September – Germany sent over 1000 planes a day- Inflicted heavy losses on the Luftwaffe
73Battle of BritainLuftwaffe changed tactics and began night bombings of London- September 7 to November – 57 consecutive night- Killed and injured 1000s and destroyed infrastructure
81Anglo –American Cooperation U.S.A wanted to remain neutral at the beginning of the war– Neutrality Acts prohibited arms shipments, loans and credit to belligerent nations
82Anglo –American Cooperation President Roosevelt became convinced that Germany’s expansion endangered American security- Didn’t think Britain and France could stop Hitler without America’s help– Tried to rally national opinion as he campaigned in the 1940 election- Americans became sympathetic towards Britain
83Anglo –American Cooperation After Dunkirk - Roosevelt gave the British 50 old American naval destroyers in exchange for the right to maintain bases in Newfoundland and the British West IndiesCash and Carry Policy - Britain traded cash for supplies- Used their boats to transport- Allowed the U.S. to supply the British without risking its neutralityWar drained Britain’s treasury– Britain couldn’t pay for 12,000 planes it ordered
84Anglo –American Cooperation Lend-Lease Policy – Authorized the President to loan war materials to any country whose defense he deemed vital to the national; security of the U.S.AAugust 9, 1941 – Churchill and Roosevelt met off the coast of Newfoundland and issued a joint statement- Atlantic Charter – Upheld the freedom of trade, the right of people to choose their own government and called for the “final destruction of Nazi tyranny”
85Eastern Europe and Africa Mussolini wanted Italy to create a Mediterranean EmpireJune 10, 1940 – Mussolini declared war on France- Italians in Libya were poised to attack British forces guarding Egypt and the Sudan
86Eastern Europe and Africa December 9, 1940 – Outnumbered British forces attacked the Italians- Won several victories over the following weeks
87Eastern Europe and Africa Churchill halted his advance and diverted troops to stop a German forces in Southeast Europe (Fatal mistake)April 1941 – British army was forced into another Dunkirk- Had to leave behind their tanks and 12,000 men
88Eastern Europe and Africa Hitler sent Erwin Rommel to command a tank force in Libya and rescue the Italians- By April 11, 1941 – Rommel had pushed the British out of northern Libya except for a small force at Tobruk
89In the Spring of 1941, President Franklin D In the Spring of 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law a bill which allowed him to sell, loan, or give war material to countries for their defense against Axis forces. This bill was known as theA. Lend-Lease Act.B. Cash and Carry Act.C. European Recovery Program.D. Destroyers for Bases Agreement.
90VocabularyWinston Churchill - Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII.Battle of Britain – Germany's attempt to take over Great Britain.Allied Powers – This was the group made up of France, Great Britain, United States, and the Soviet Union.Axis Powers - Alliance consisting of Germany, Japan, Italy, and Spain during WWII.Lend-Lease Act – Act passed by Congress in which we agreed to loan countries in Europe money, but they didn’t have to repay it until after the war.
92A Global ConflictSpring 1941 – Britain stood alone against Nazi GermanyGermany controlled almost all of AfricaGeneral Rommel had pushed the British out of North Africa
93A Global Conflict Japanese held Manchuria and controlled much of China Soviet Union and the United States would enter the war by the end of 1941
94Invasion of the Soviet Union Hitler turned his attention to the Soviet Union after failing to invade Britain- Believed conquering the Soviet Steppe would provide Germany with living space vital to its future- Wanted wheat from the Ukraine and oil from the Caucasus region
95Invasion of the Soviet Union June 22, 1941 – Hitler launched a massive attack on the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa)- Took the Soviet Union by surprise- Germany destroyed 1000s of Soviet tanks and ½ million prisoners
100Invasion of the Soviet Union Stalin issued scorched-earth-policy - Soviets destroyed everything that could be of use to the invaders as they retreatedNovember 1941 – German forces reached the outskirts of Moscow- Controlled 40% of the population- Had captured Kiev and begun the siege of LeningradSoviets refused to surrender- Young soldiers rallied to the cry “Behind us is Moscow there is no room left for retreat”
101Invasion of the Soviet Union December 2, 1941 – German troops began attack on Moscow- Reached to within site of the city’s center the 1st day- As far as they ever got- Soviets launched a counterattack and forced the Germans to retreat- Russian winter also helped the Soviets
102The Nazi Order Hitler’s plan was to create an “New Order” in Europe The Nazis would rule Europe and exploit its resourcesThey would enslave the conquered people and force them to work for the German “Master Race”Undesirable elements such as the Slavs, Jews & Gypsies would be exterminatedNazis drove millions of people into forced labor and concentration campsMassacred millions more
103The HolocaustMid 1940 – Nazi began persecuting Jews in the lands they had conquered- Forced them to wear a yellow badge showing the Star of David- Those who failed to flee Europe were sent to concentration labor camps
104The HolocaustLargest number of Jews in Nazi occupied Europe lived in Poland and the USSR- Forced to move into specially designated areas called ghettos- Largest was in Warsaw- Many died from starvation and diseases Beginning in
105The Holocaust1941 – Carried out a plan aimed the complete extermination of all Jews in Europe
106The HolocaustJune 1941 – Invasion of the Soviet Union was the turning point in the Nazi mistreatment of Jews- Turned from forced emigration and imprisonment to mass murder- Special units of Nazi soldiers traveled with the German army and killed Jews (SS)
107The HolocaustJanuary 1942 – Nazi party and German government leaders secretly agreed to what they called the “the final solution”- Code word for the destruction of all European Jews- 1st time a modern state had set out on a campaign of genocide
108The Holocaust Began rounding up and transporting Jews to death camps - Many were killed in gas chambers- Others starved to death or died from cruel experiments
109The Holocaust 6 million Jews were killed Another 6 million people including the Slavs and Gypsies were also killedAnti-Semitic feelings hurt the Jews- People in occupied territories helped turn them inMost people in the occupied areas did nothing- Felt that the plight of the Jews didn’t concern them
113Japanese Expansion Conquered much of China during the 1930s Wanted to gain control of the European colonies in East and Southeast Asia- Needed raw materials
114Japanese ExpansionTook advantage of Hitler’s offensive to acquire the colonies- French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies were left defenseless after he collapse of France and the Low Countries- Britain left Singapore defenseless as a result of Germany’s attempt to invade
115Japanese ExpansionJuly 1940 – Japan announced its plan to create a “new order in greater East Asia”- Proclaimed “Asia for the Asiatics”Moved to create the Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere- An appeal to Asians who were tired of European ruleJapan asked France for the right to build airfields and station troops in northern Indochina
116Japanese ExpansionUnited States placed an embargo on the sale of scrap iron to JapanSeptember 27, 1940 – Japan signed the Tripartite with Germany and Italy- Affirmed the right of every nation to “receive the space to which it is entitled and pledged to cooperate to reach that goal as well as to come to one another’s aid if attacked
117Pearl Harbor July 24, 1941 – Japan invaded Southern Indochina President Roosevelt demanded that they withdraw from both Indochina and China- Placed an embargo on oil and froze all Japanese assets in the United States- Negotiated with the Japanese government throughout the summersJapan decided to go to war with the United States- Believed that the U.S.A stood in the way of its plans for expansion in the East
119Pearl HarborJapanese Military leaders knew they had destroy the American Pacific fleet based at Pearl Harbor in order to defeat the U.S.A- Most American and Japanese leaders thought Pearl Harbor was safe from attack-
121Pearl HarborAdmiral Isoroku Yamamoto believed it could be attacked by launching planes off aircraft carriers and using new weapons called torpedoes- November 1941 – Japanese fleet set sail for Hawaii
122Pearl Harbor Negotiations between the two countries broke down - Roosevelt knew the Japanese were ready to attack- Convinced Japan’s move would be in Southeast Asia- Sent all the aircraft carriers and ½ the army’s planes from Pearl Harbor as a precautionary move
123Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 – Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor - Sank or damaged 19 American ships- Killed more than 2,400 people and wounded 1,100
137Pearl HarborUnited States declared war on Japan
138The AlliesDecember 11, 1941 – Italy and Germany declared war on the United StatesGreat Britain declared war on JapanThe West and the Soviet Union put aside differences to defeat their common enemy
139The Allies Stalin urged the west to open a second front in France Roosevelt favored second frontChurchill didn’t favor a second front- Knew Great Britain would have to bear the brunt of a second front operation
140The AlliesRoosevelt and Churchill postponed a second front and laid out plans for military campaigns in North Africa and the Mediterranean area- Created more distrust between USSR and the West
141VocabularyConcentration camps – Areas where Jews and other prisoners were either immediately put to death or forced to provide slave labor before finally being executed or dying of disease.Holocaust - Actions taken during WWII in which German SS Troops and Nazi Troops tried to execute all Jews. This was part of Hitler’s final solution. Pearl Harbor – Attack on the Pacific fleet in the United States. This was the final event that drew the United States into WWII. This occurred December 7, 1941.
143The poster is an attempt to encourage women to 62)The poster is an attempt to encourage women toA)demand their right to vote.B)enlist in the U.S. armed forces.C)participate in the anti-war movement.D)get involved in the effort to win World War II.
145Preparing for warSelective Service Act allowed the Gov. to start drafting men for the armed Forces- 1st peace time draftFDR decided to run for 3rd term ( 1st time anyone served more than 2 terms)- Americans agreed that U.S. needed experienced leader with the world in crises
146The Home FrontDecember 7, rumors spread that Japanese planes had been seen over San Francisco- Mayor sent troops to protect bridges, tunnels, and factoriesNext day 1000's of men signed up for the army
147The Wartime Boom Armed forces were enlarged Women went to work in the factories- Over 50,000 women joined the armyA popular song of the day was called Rosie the Riveter.This described a woman who worked in the factory as a riveter while her boyfriend served in the marines.
148The Wartime Boom Army needed supplies which created jobs War Production Board directed private industry to produce war materials- U.S. produced more than anyone else
153New OpportunitiesPhillip Randolph threatened to lead a protest in Washington D.C.- FDR issued an Executive Order it outlawed job discrimination in industries that had government contractsRoosevelt supported the Fair Employment Act, which prohibited discrimination in the national defense industry.This convinced Randolph and his colleagues to cancel their march.
154Diversity in the Military Nearly 1 million African Americans served in the armed forcesAccepted into the Marines and Air Corps for the 1st time- Faced discriminationWar department integrated some units
157Diversity in the Military 300,000 Mexican Americans served in the army- Faced discrimination
158Japanese Americans Most lived in California, Oregon, and Washington Feb FDR signed order that called for Japanese Americans to be moved away from coastRoosevelt ordered more than 100,000 Japanese American’s from their homes and businesses during the war, and placed them in various internment camps.
159Japanese Americans Were moved to internment camps - Forced to sell their homes and possessions (lost money)- 2/3 were Nisei - Japanese Americans born in the United States
160Internment of Japanese, German and Italian Americans This was meant to keep potentially threatening citizens in an isolated location to keep a close eye.German and Italian immigrants faced the same treatment, but not to the extent of Japanese Americans.
163Response to Internment Camps In 1944 the Supreme Court ruled that the internment camps was lawful and justified due to “the military urgency of the situation”.In 1983, the United States government formally recognized the injustice that had been done and authorized payments of $20,000 each to all living Japanese Americans who had suffered under this policy.
164Shortages at Home Most resources went to armed forces No autos were made between 1942 and 1945Gas was in short supplyGovernment set up a system of rationing- Everyone got a book of stamps- Had to give up stamps when you purchased items such as gas, meats, shoes, and sugar
165The War Time EconomyJobs gave people money to buy goods they couldn't afford in the depressionWasn't anything to buy due to shortagesCaused inflationGovernment started Office of Price Administration to control prices
166The War Time Economy Gov. raised income tax to pay for the war The number of people required to pay income taxes greatly increased during the war years.To help improve this the government implemented the idea of “withholding income tax”, or asking employers to withhold taxes. (payroll deduction)- Easier to pay than lump sum at the end year- Also sold war bonds
168A. Philip Randolph's proposed "March on Washington" in 1941 was going to protest racially discriminatory hiring practices in the defense industry, but was called off after President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued theA)New Deal.B)Desegregation Act.C)Fair Employment Act.D)"Four Freedoms" speech.
169During World War II, a widely adopted means of solving labor shortage problems in U.S. industry was toA)employ women.B)use forced labor.C)enact welfare reform.D)raise the immigration quotas.
170EOCT REVIEWSSUSH19: The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government.Explain A. Philip Randolph’s proposed March on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response.1. Who was A Philip Randolph? What did his March on Washington seek to do?2. How did FDR respond?
171EOCT REVIEW Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese- Americans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans.3. How did Americans treat Japanese-Americans after Pearl Harbor4. How were German-Americans and Italian-Americans treated?
172EOCT REVIEWDescribe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of women in war industries.9. What is War Mobilization?10. What is Rationing?11. What is war-time conversion?12. What was the role of women during the war?
173VocabularyWar Production Board (WPB) – This board re-directed raw materials and resources from the production of civilian consumer goods, to the production of materials needed for war.A. Philip Randolph – Civil Rights leader that planned a march on Washington D.C. until Roosevelt passed the Fair Employment Act.Fair Employment Act – Act passed by Congress allowing equal access in the military for all races.Internment camps – These were used to house Japanese immigrants during WWII after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
174In the late 1930s and during World War II, millions of American men were drafted into military service. This meant that there were millions of jobs - many of them industrial and agricultural - that were left vacant and in need of being filled. How did MOST American businesses attempt to deal with the labor shortages that potentially affected their businesses?A. They hired increased numbers of women and African Americans.B. They decided to declare bankruptcy and receive government funds.C. They lowered the pay of other workers and increased their hours.D. They hired increased numbers of child workers and Asian Americans.
176Sea and Air BattlesGerman U-Boats threatened Great Britain’s supply lines- U.S. had been shipping supplies under the Lend-Lease Plan before it entered theMay 1941 – New German battleship Bismarck entered the war along with a new cruiser Prinz Eugen- British hastily dispatched several ship to intercept the Nazis
177Sea and Air BattlesMay 23, 1941 – British ships met the German ships in the Denmark Strait between Ice land and Greenland
178Sea and Air BattlesBismarck sank the British cruiser Hood and damaged another ship in the battle- May 26, 1941 – British patrol plane spotted the Bismarck about 600 miles off the French Coast- Bismarck was finally sank by the British navy after sustaining at least 8 torpedo hits- Battle ended the German effort to win control of the Atlantic with surface Ships
179Sea and Air BattlesAllies carried out an air offensive against Germany- Directed at factories, railroads, dockyards, cities, and towns- Aimed to destroy the German war industries and weaken the will of the civilian population to continue the war
189Battle of Stalingrad February 1943 – Germany finally surrendered - Germany lost its best troops- 100,000 were killed and 80,000 captured- Soviets seized large quantities of military equipment
190Battle of StalingradStalingrad considered the turning point of the war in Europe- Broke the back of the German military machine
191War in the DesertJanuary 1942 – Allied forces struggled to regain land lost to GermanyErwin Rommel applied blitzkrieg tactic s to desert warfare (The Desert Fox)Spring 1942 – Rommel had pushed the British 2/3 of then way back to the Egyptian Frontier
192War in the DesertJuly 1942 – British General Bernard Montgomery stopped Rommel at El AlameinOctober 1942 – Montgomery launched a counter attack and forced the Germans back across the Egyptian- Libyan frontier
193War in the DesertJanuary 1943 – British captured the capital of Libya (Tripoli)Allied force began trying to trap Rommel moving east to west (pincer strategy)- Montgomery moved west- Allied troops landed in Morocco and Algeria and moved east
194War in the DesertAllied forces were met with heavy resistance from the Vichey French who governed North Africa- Dwight D. Eisenhower struck a deal with a Vichy official Admiral Francois Darlan to end the fighting- Darlan ordered an end to resistance in exchange for allied support of his claim to French North Africa- -
195War in the DesertNovember 1942 – Free French under Charles de Gaulle joined Allies in North Africa
196War in the Desert Allies began closing the pincers on Rommel - He flew to Berlin and told Hitler there was no hope- Hitler barred Rommel from returning to AfricaMay 1943 – German forces surrendered in Tunisia- Allies controlled all of North Africa
197Pacific War Japan took over most of Southeast Asia and the Pacific - Welcomed as liberator- Local began hating them after they killed civilians and seized propertyAllies couldn’t stop Japanese advancesExpected the Japanese to invade Australia
199Bataan Death March January 1942 – Japanese captured Manila General Douglass MacArthur led a retreat of American and 65,000 Filipino troopsFebruary 1942 – President Roosevelt ordered Macarthur to Australia to take command of the Allies in the Pacific (“I shall return”)
201Bataan Death MarchMay 1942 – Japanese forced the Allies to surrender on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines- Soldiers were forced to march 60 miles to a prison camp-Thousands collapsed of starvation along the way- Many were shot, beaten, or bayoneted to death
203Battle of the Coral Sea1st time two enemy ships fought a battle without coming within sight of each other- Warplanes launched form the carriers fought the battleMay 1942 – Allies were finally able to stop the Japanese advances
204Battle of Midway June 1942 - Allies defeated the Japanese Sank four Japanese carriers- Crippled Japan’s navy- Ended Japanese naval superiority in the PacificJapan lost its best pilotsTurning point of the war in the Pacific
210GuadalcanalAllied victory at Guadalcanal was the beginning of a series of battles- Allies island-hopped their way north to Japan (only attacked Islands that weren’t heavily defended- Cutoff supply lines to islands they bypassedAllied forces paused to build up their Pacific forces after Guadalcanal
211Guadalcanal November 1943 – Japanese began using Kamikaze pilot - Far from ready to surrenderSummer 1944 – Allies captured the Mariana Islands- Within striking distance of Japan- Began building airfields from which B29 bombers could attack Japan
213VocabularyBataan Death March – Event where more than 75,000 American and Filipino troops were captured and forced to march sixty miles, during which many died.Battle of Midway – This was known as the turning point during the war in the Pacific.Island hopping – This was a series of small battle in hopes of pushing Japan back to their mainland.
215Allied Victories Democracies geared their economies for war production - Rationed goods, and regulated prices and wagesWartime emergency limited citizens rightsWar ended unemployment- Women worked in factories while men joined the military
216Invasion of ItalyEarly 1943 – British and American leaders decided to invade SicilyJuly 1943 – General Eisenhower led a combined air and sea attack- Forced the Germans to retreat into Italy
217Invasion of Italy Sicily invasion caused the downfall of Mussolini - July 25, King Victor Emmanuel fired him and had him arrestedNew Italian Prime Minister dissolved the Fascist Party- September 3, 1943 – He signed a secret act surrender- Caught the Germans by surprise- Allied forces landed on in Italy on the day of the treaty
218Invasion of Italy Germans recovered and to occupy Rome - Forced the king and Prime Minister to withdraw to the south- Rescued Mussolini and put him in control of Northern Italy
219Invasion of ItalyAllied Forces fought their way up the Italian Peninsula- Took the Allies 5 months to penetrate the Axis defenses at Monte Cassino- 6th century monastery located on a mountain topJune 4, 1944 – Allied forces entered Rome
220D-Day 1943 – Allied leader meet in Tehran Iran - Churchill and Roosevelt told Stalin about their plan to open a 2nd front the following spring
221D-Day Operation Overlord – Allied Invasion of France - General Eisenhower assembled a force of 176,000 soldiers, 600 warships and 10,000 aircraft in England
223D-Day June 6, 1944 – Allied Forces land Normandy, France (D-Day) - British bombers bombed German coastal defenses- Allied airborne troops parachuted into France- Allied soldiers fought their way onto the beaches
227D-DayAugust 1944 – American tank commander General George Patton leads forces across Northern FranceFrench resistance fighters rose up against the GermansGerman forced to retreat
228D-DayAugust 25, 1944 – Free French forces led the Allied troops into Paris
229Victory over GermanySummer 1944 – Soviets had pushed the Germans back into Eastern EuropeHitler thought a surprise offensive in the west would reverse the Allied advance (Battle of the Bulge)- December 1944 – German troops cut through the center of the Allied forces- Created a bulge in the line- Allies finally defeated the Germans at Bastogne, Belgium
238Yalta ConferenceFebruary Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt met at the Black Sea resortProposed that France and China join their countries in forming the United Nations
239Yalta ConferenceAgreed to Divide Germany as well as Berlin into 4 zonesStalin promised to hold free elections in Soviet-occupied Eastern EuropeStalin promised to declare war on Japan- Received the Kuril Islands and the southern part of Sakhalin Island in exchange
240Potsdam Conference August 1945- Allied leaders met in Germany Harry S. Truman became President after F.D.R died in April.Clement Attlee replaced Churchill midway through the conference- Labour Party defeated the Conservative Party in the general election
241Potsdam Conference Made plans for the occupation of Germany Issued an ultimatum to Japan for unconditional surrenderTensions between the Allied begin to pull the wartime alliance apart
242Victory over Japan Seemed inevitable by the end of 1944 American planes bombed Japanese citiesGeneral Douglass MacArthur reclaimed the Philippines
243Victory over JapanAmericans won two bloody battles on the islands of Iwo Jima and OkinawaBritish forces Destroyed the Japanese forces in Southeast AsiaJapan’s military leaders refused to surrender
245Victory over JapanPresident Truman decided to use an new secret weapon (Atomic Bomb)-
246Victory over JapanHad been developed under the code name “Manhattan Project”- Said it would end the war quickly and avoid the loss of lives that would have resulted from an American invasion (Estimated 1 million)- May have also used the bomb to impress the Soviets
247Victory over JapanAugust 6, 1945 – Dropped 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima- Heard no responseAugust 9, 1945 – Dropped a 2nd bomb on Nagasaki
257Effects of the War Over 70 million people fought in the war 55 million people died as a result of the war- Soviet Union lost 22 million- Germany lost 8 million- Japan lost 2 million- U.S.A lost 300,000
258· Fought in February and March, 1945 · Involved roughly 110,000 U. S · Fought in February and March, · Involved roughly 110,000 U.S. and 18,000 Japanese forces · Some of the fiercest fighting in all of World War II · U.S. forces eventually took Japanese airbases on this IslandAll of these are describing the World War II battle ofA. Midway.B. Iwo Jima.C. Leyte Gulf.D. Guadalcanal.
259· Fought in February and March, 1945 · Involved roughly 110,000 U. S · Fought in February and March, · Involved roughly 110,000 U.S. and 18,000 Japanese forces · Some of the fiercest fighting in all of World War II · U.S. forces eventually took Japanese airbases on this IslandAll of these are describing the World War II battle of
260Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations
261Effects of the WarAllied Powers began to address the wrongs committed by the Axis PowersNuremburg Trials – Brought Nazi leaders to justice for crimes they had committed during the war- Upheld the idea that people are responsible for their actions even during wartimeTrials were also held in Italy and Japan
262Effects of the WarNew weapons made WWII the most destructive war in history- Many people were left homeless- Food, medicine, and clothing were in short supply
263The "Manhattan Project" was the code name for the A. U.S. plan to invade Japan.B. German use of jet aircraft.C. Allied plan to invade Europe.D. U.S. plans to make an atomic bomb.
264Military and political leaders in the United States during World War II publicly justified the use of atomic weapons on Japan because they argued thatA. Japan had first attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor four years earlier.B. the sites chosen for bombing were military bases, absent of civilian population.C. it would save perhaps a million lives that would be lost in an amphibious assault on Japan.D. the Japanese already had an atomic bomb and were preparing to deploy it against the United States.
265EOCT REVIEWExplain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin.5. What was the Lend-Lease program?6. Why was the Battle of Midway important?7. What was D-Day?8. What was the significance of the Battle of Berlin
266EOCT REVIEWDescribe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb.13. What was atomic bomb?14. How did it affect the US in scientific, economic, and military sectors?
267VocabularyGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower – He was appointed supreme commander of allied forces during WWII.D-Day – June 6, 1944 when the largest invasion by sea was launched. The nickname given the plan for this was Operation Overlord. Los Alamos, New Mexico – Place where the atomic bomb was testedAtomic bomb - New weapon technology used to end the war in the Pacific that caused mass destruction and high civilian casualties.Harry S. Truman – Became President of the United States after FDR’s death. This man would oversee the ending of WWII, and major military programs.