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U.S. History Unit 10 Notes World War II.

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1 U.S. History Unit 10 Notes World War II

2 Section 1

3 The Path to War 1930s – Dictatorships came to power in Europe and Asia
Western democracies looked on uneasily - U.S. Great Britain and France couldn’t agree on how to ensure their collective security Unrest could be traced back to WWI peace settlements - Japan, Italy, and Germany weren’t happy

4 Japan’s Expansion in Asia
1st to reveal its territorial ambitions - Depended on foreign sources for raw materials and markets 1921 – Gained control of Manchuria - Established it as an independent state (Manchukuo) - Set up former Chinese emperor Pu Yi as a puppet ruler

5 Japan’s Expansion in Asia
China protested to the League of Nations - It ordered Japan to return Manchuria to China Japan withdrew from the League of Nations - Revealed that the League was powerless - Boosted the expansionist ambitions of Italy and Germany Early 1930s – Japanese military wanted gain control of the East Indies Oil reserves - Needed it for planes and ships

6 Japan’s Expansion in Asia
Japan invaded China and captured major eastern and southern cities - Needed the ports to control the Indies - Engaged in mass brutality in Nanjing (killed over 200,000 civilians)

7 Japan’s Expansion in Asia
Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek retreated inland 1937 – 1945 – The Nationalist, The Chinese Communist, and the Japanese fought for control of China

8 Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia
Italy wanted to gain control of Ethiopia - Thought an Ethiopian colony would enhance its image as a world power

9 Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia
1934 – Italian and Ethiopian forces clashed in a disputed zone on the border of Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland - Benito Mussolini demanded an apology and reparations - Ethiopia asked the League of Nations to investigate the matter - League decided neither side was to blame

10 Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia
October 1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia - Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations for help - League imposed economic sanctions against Italy - Were ineffective because they didn’t include oil, coal, and iron May 1936 – Mussolini formally annexed Ethiopia

11 Spanish Civil War 1931 – King Alfonso abdicated the throne
New Republican government immediately began a program of social reforms - Ended the Catholic Church’s role in educating Spanish youth - Redistributed land from nobles to peasants

12 Spanish Civil War Many right wing groups opposed the republic and wanted to restore the old order 1936 – Right-wing Nationalist revolted against the Republicans - Led by General Francisco Franco Spanish Nationalist battled the Spanish Loyalist for 3 years

13 Spanish Civil War Foreign powers intervened in the beginning
- Soviet Union aided the Loyalist - Germans and Italians aided the Nationalist Volunteers from Great Britain, France and the U.S. went to Spain to join the International Brigade and fight for the Republican Cause against fascism

14 Spanish Civil War Western governments refused to get involved
- Feared a general European war Adolph Hitler viewed Germany’s participation in the war as a way to strengthen ties with Italy and secure a supply of Spanish iron ore, coal and magnesium

15 Spanish Civil War Germany used the war to test new weapons and military tactics - Hermann Goering – Head of the Luftwaffe formed the Condor Legion (an all German air and ground force) 1938 – Soviets stopped sending aid

16 Spanish Civil War March 1939 – Nationalist defeated the Loyalist
- Spain had a fascist government - Country lay in ruins - Franco didn’t ally himself with Italy and Germany

17 Hitler on the Offensive
Hitler made his move in Germany - Convinced that Germany needed more living space for it growing population (lebenstraum)

18 Hitler on the Offensive
March 1936 – Hitler sent troops to occupy the Rhineland (Violated the Versailles Treaty) - Gambled that France and Great Britain would do nothing to stop him - They were afraid of starting another war

19 Hitler on the Offensive
October 1936 – Hitler and Mussolini formed the Rome-Berlin Axis - Hoped world affairs would revolve around their alliance

20 Hitler on the Offensive
Anti-Comintern Pact – Italy and Germany joined Japan in an alliance against the Soviet Union - Stalin urged the west to unite against the Axis - West refused due to fear of another war and distrust of Stalin

21 Seizing Austria Dreamed of joining Austria to Germany (Anschluss)
- “One blood demands one Reich” Hitler attempted to take over Austria - Backed down when Mussolini mobilized troops 1938 – Alliance with Italy made it possible

22 Seizing Austria Bullied the Austrian chancellor into appointing Nazis to key post - Chancellor appealed to West fro help March 1938 – Sent troops into Austria - Claimed that he was promoting political stability by uniting the German - speaking peoples into one country

23 Czechoslovakia Created at the end of WWI
- Held a key strategic location in the region The only democratic nation in eastern Europe - Had a strong army and alliances with France and the USSR

24 Czechoslovakia Minorities began demanding more freedoms
- Hitler used the ethnic problems to destroy the country

25 Czechoslovakia September 5, 1938 – Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be given the right of self-determination - Heavily fortified region in northwestern Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia responded by declaring martial law

26 Czechoslovakia British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain suggested a meeting with Hitler to discuss the matter (wanted to avoid an international crisis) September 15, 1938 – Chamberlain met with Hitler in Germany

27 Czechoslovakia - Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany - Chamberlain accepted Hitler’s demands - Thought policy of appeasement would maintain peace and stabilize Europe - Hitler then demanded that the Sudetenland be united with Germany

28 Munich Conference September 29, 1938 – Chamberlain meet with Hitler for a 3rd time - French Premier Edward Daladier and Benito Mussolini also attended Mussolini offered a compromise -

29 Munich Conference Germany received the Sudetenland in exchange for promising to respect Czechoslovakia’s sovereignty and by promising not to take any more European territory - Great Britain and France accepted the term (Hoped to avoid war) - Czechoslovakia reluctantly accepted it Chamberlain returned home to cheering crowds - Proclaimed that he had ensured “peace in our time” - Mistakenly trusted Hitler

30 The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler

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32 Munich Conference Winston Churchill criticized the policy of appeasement - Said “England has been offered a choice between war and shame. She has chosen shame – and will get war”

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34 Munich Conference March 15, 1939 – Hitler sent troops to take control of the western part of Czechoslovakia - Eastern part became a German puppet state Western nations were no longer able to maintain their illusions about Hitler’s plans - Began preparing for war

35 The Coming of War March 1939 – Hitler forced Lithuania to give up the German-speaking city of Memel

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37 The Coming of War Hitler pressured Poland by threatening to take over the Baltic port of Danzig and the Polish Corridor - France and Great Britain promised to help Poland defend its borders if necessary - Poland accepted the west’s help and rejected

38 The West and the Soviets
West had to consider the Soviet Union when defending Poland - Poland’s neighbor and traditional enemy 1930s – Stalin had urged the west to do something about Hitler - Suspected the Munich agreement was an attempt to turn Hitler’s attention toward the Soviet Union

39 The West and the Soviets
Neville Chamberlain believed that Stalin was trying to extend his influence in Eastern Europe - Wasn’t sure if Communist of Fascist were the greater enemy Chamberlain asked Stalin to join Britain and France in an alliance to contain Nazism

40 The West and the Soviets
- Stalin agreed on the condition that the Western powers recognize the USSR’s right to occupy a stretch of land from Finland to Bulgaria (West refused) - Deepened Stalin’s suspicions that the west wanted to see the Soviet Union and Germany destroy each other

41 Nazi-Soviet Talks August 23, 1939 – Soviet-Nazi Nonaggression Pact
- Agreed to never attack each other and to remain neutral if the other became involved in a war - Agreed to divide Poland

42 Nazi-Soviet Talks It was an alliance of convenience
- Stalin was buying time to prepare for war against Germany - Hitler was securing Germany’s eastern border The pact shocked the west - It destroyed the last barrier to war

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44 Nazi-Soviet Talks September 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland
- Hitler misjudged the western leaders (Didn’t think they would act) - Britain and France declared war on Germany

45 Vocabulary Adolf Hitler - He was a fascist leader during WWII and felt that if Germany could get rid of Jews, Gypsies, and those who were handicap, then their problems would be solved.  Benito Mussolini – Leader od Italy in WWII Joseph Stalin – He was the communist leader of Soviet Russia during WWII, and was part of the Allied Powers.

46 Section 2

47 War in Europe September 1,1939 – Germany invaded Poland
Used Blitzkrieg strategy – Lightning war aimed at taking the enemy by surprise - Luftwaffe – Bombed targets - Panzers swept across the border (tank divisions) - Infantry followed (1.5 million in motorized vehicles)

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49 War in Europe Germany defeated Poland within a few weeks
- Great Britain and France couldn’t mobilize fast enough to help Soviet Union quickly moved into East Poland Stalin forced the Baltic republics of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to accept Soviet military bases War broke out when the Soviets tried to force Finland to do the same March 1940 – Soviets defeated Finland - Moved their frontier border 70 miles west - Made the city of Leningrad less vulnerable to German attack

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52 Hitler Looks West Western Front remained quiet until the spring of 1940 - Germans called it Sitzkrieg (sit-down war) - West called it the phony war (hoped and all out war could still be avoided) April Britain mined the waters off the coast of Norway to prevent it form being conquered

53 Hitler Looks West Hitler used this action to support his claim that the Allies were about to invade Scandinavia - Delivered an ultimatum to Norway and Denmark demanding that they accept protection form the Reich (Denmark accepted Norway didn’t)

54 Invasion of Scandinavia
April Germany invaded Denmark and Norway - Faced little resistance in Denmark Conquered Norway after defeating the British - Hitler won the outlet to the Atlantic he needed - Ensured that the German navy would not be bottle up in the Baltic Sea like it had been in World War I

55 Invasion of Scandinavia
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain stepped down after the fall of Norway - King George VI asked Winston Churchill to form a new government - Had been one the few politicians to war of the Nazi danger in the 1930s

56 War Begins on the Western Front
French and British forces guarded the Maginot Line Maginot Line had one major flaw - 50 mile gap in the Ardennes -

57 War Begins on the Western Front
Tank commander Charles De Gaulle pleaded for more tanks and planes - Germany had invaded through Belgium and the Ardennes during WWI - French believed the swamps, forest, and hill in the region wee s sufficient barrier

58 War Begins on the Western Front
May 10, 1940 Germans parachuted into the Netherlands before dawn - 1st large scale airborne attack in the history of warfare - Caught the Dutch by surprise - Defeated the Netherlands in 5 days

59 War Begins on the Western Front
Britain and France moved their best troops into Belgium when the Germans invaded the Netherlands - German panzers swept through the Ardennes and encircled them - Other divisions drove throve through Luxembourg and headed towards France

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64 Dunkirk Germans pushed the British, French and Belgium forces to the English Channel Trapped the Allied forces in the northwest corner of France - Sea evacuation of 300, 000 soldiers seemed impossible - Hitler ordered his soldiers to halt

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66 Dunkirk May 26, 1940 – British began a rescue operation
- 850 vessels set sail for Dunkirk (Used civilians and anything that would float) - Evacuated the troops under heavy fire over a 9 day period Evacuation saved the British army

67 Fall of France Germans continued to seep into France
French army was unprepared and the government was confused

68 Fall of France June 14, 1940 – France signed an armistice with Germany
- Germany occupied all of northern France and the Atlantic coastline to the Spanish border - Nazis set up a puppet government in the Southern France city of Vichy

69 Fall of France Charles De Gaulle organized the Free French government in Britain - Many people in France joined the French resistance

70 Battle of Britain Britain was all that stood between Hitler and German domination of western Europe Hitler thought the British would seek peace - He misjudged their determination

71 Battle of Britain Germany knew invading Britain depended on winning air supremacy August 1940 – Luftwaffe began bombing the southern coast - Damaged 4 aircraft factories and 5 RAF airfields - RAF shot down 75 German planes

72 Battle of Britain Herman Goering began focusing attacks on the RAF
- August 24 to September – Germany sent over 1000 planes a day - Inflicted heavy losses on the Luftwaffe

73 Battle of Britain Luftwaffe changed tactics and began night bombings of London - September 7 to November – 57 consecutive night - Killed and injured 1000s and destroyed infrastructure

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77 Battle of Britain Britain refused to surrender
Germany failed to achieve air supremacy Hitler failed to invade

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81 Anglo –American Cooperation
U.S.A wanted to remain neutral at the beginning of the war – Neutrality Acts prohibited arms shipments, loans and credit to belligerent nations

82 Anglo –American Cooperation
President Roosevelt became convinced that Germany’s expansion endangered American security - Didn’t think Britain and France could stop Hitler without America’s help – Tried to rally national opinion as he campaigned in the 1940 election - Americans became sympathetic towards Britain

83 Anglo –American Cooperation
After Dunkirk - Roosevelt gave the British 50 old American naval destroyers in exchange for the right to maintain bases in Newfoundland and the British West Indies Cash and Carry Policy - Britain traded cash for supplies - Used their boats to transport - Allowed the U.S. to supply the British without risking its neutrality War drained Britain’s treasury – Britain couldn’t pay for 12,000 planes it ordered

84 Anglo –American Cooperation
Lend-Lease Policy – Authorized the President to loan war materials to any country whose defense he deemed vital to the national; security of the U.S.A August 9, 1941 – Churchill and Roosevelt met off the coast of Newfoundland and issued a joint statement - Atlantic Charter – Upheld the freedom of trade, the right of people to choose their own government and called for the “final destruction of Nazi tyranny”

85 Eastern Europe and Africa
Mussolini wanted Italy to create a Mediterranean Empire June 10, 1940 – Mussolini declared war on France - Italians in Libya were poised to attack British forces guarding Egypt and the Sudan

86 Eastern Europe and Africa
December 9, 1940 – Outnumbered British forces attacked the Italians - Won several victories over the following weeks

87 Eastern Europe and Africa
Churchill halted his advance and diverted troops to stop a German forces in Southeast Europe (Fatal mistake) April 1941 – British army was forced into another Dunkirk - Had to leave behind their tanks and 12,000 men

88 Eastern Europe and Africa
Hitler sent Erwin Rommel to command a tank force in Libya and rescue the Italians - By April 11, 1941 – Rommel had pushed the British out of northern Libya except for a small force at Tobruk

89 In the Spring of 1941, President Franklin D
In the Spring of 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law a bill which allowed him to sell, loan, or give war material to countries for their defense against Axis forces. This bill was known as the A. Lend-Lease Act. B. Cash and Carry Act. C. European Recovery Program. D. Destroyers for Bases Agreement.

90 Vocabulary Winston Churchill - Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII. Battle of Britain – Germany's attempt to take over Great Britain. Allied Powers – This was the group made up of France, Great Britain, United States, and the Soviet Union. Axis Powers - Alliance consisting of Germany, Japan, Italy, and Spain during WWII. Lend-Lease Act – Act passed by Congress in which we agreed to loan countries in Europe money, but they didn’t have to repay it until after the war.

91 Section 3

92 A Global Conflict Spring 1941 – Britain stood alone against Nazi Germany Germany controlled almost all of Africa General Rommel had pushed the British out of North Africa

93 A Global Conflict Japanese held Manchuria and controlled much of China
Soviet Union and the United States would enter the war by the end of 1941

94 Invasion of the Soviet Union
Hitler turned his attention to the Soviet Union after failing to invade Britain - Believed conquering the Soviet Steppe would provide Germany with living space vital to its future - Wanted wheat from the Ukraine and oil from the Caucasus region

95 Invasion of the Soviet Union
June 22, 1941 – Hitler launched a massive attack on the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) - Took the Soviet Union by surprise - Germany destroyed 1000s of Soviet tanks and ½ million prisoners

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100 Invasion of the Soviet Union
Stalin issued scorched-earth-policy - Soviets destroyed everything that could be of use to the invaders as they retreated November 1941 – German forces reached the outskirts of Moscow - Controlled 40% of the population - Had captured Kiev and begun the siege of Leningrad Soviets refused to surrender - Young soldiers rallied to the cry “Behind us is Moscow there is no room left for retreat”

101 Invasion of the Soviet Union
December 2, 1941 – German troops began attack on Moscow - Reached to within site of the city’s center the 1st day - As far as they ever got - Soviets launched a counterattack and forced the Germans to retreat - Russian winter also helped the Soviets

102 The Nazi Order Hitler’s plan was to create an “New Order” in Europe
The Nazis would rule Europe and exploit its resources They would enslave the conquered people and force them to work for the German “Master Race” Undesirable elements such as the Slavs, Jews & Gypsies would be exterminated Nazis drove millions of people into forced labor and concentration camps Massacred millions more

103 The Holocaust Mid 1940 – Nazi began persecuting Jews in the lands they had conquered - Forced them to wear a yellow badge showing the Star of David - Those who failed to flee Europe were sent to concentration labor camps

104 The Holocaust Largest number of Jews in Nazi occupied Europe lived in Poland and the USSR - Forced to move into specially designated areas called ghettos - Largest was in Warsaw - Many died from starvation and diseases Beginning in

105 The Holocaust 1941 – Carried out a plan aimed the complete extermination of all Jews in Europe

106 The Holocaust June 1941 – Invasion of the Soviet Union was the turning point in the Nazi mistreatment of Jews - Turned from forced emigration and imprisonment to mass murder - Special units of Nazi soldiers traveled with the German army and killed Jews (SS)

107 The Holocaust January 1942 – Nazi party and German government leaders secretly agreed to what they called the “the final solution” - Code word for the destruction of all European Jews - 1st time a modern state had set out on a campaign of genocide

108 The Holocaust Began rounding up and transporting Jews to death camps
- Many were killed in gas chambers - Others starved to death or died from cruel experiments

109 The Holocaust 6 million Jews were killed
Another 6 million people including the Slavs and Gypsies were also killed Anti-Semitic feelings hurt the Jews - People in occupied territories helped turn them in Most people in the occupied areas did nothing - Felt that the plight of the Jews didn’t concern them

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113 Japanese Expansion Conquered much of China during the 1930s
Wanted to gain control of the European colonies in East and Southeast Asia - Needed raw materials

114 Japanese Expansion Took advantage of Hitler’s offensive to acquire the colonies - French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies were left defenseless after he collapse of France and the Low Countries - Britain left Singapore defenseless as a result of Germany’s attempt to invade

115 Japanese Expansion July 1940 – Japan announced its plan to create a “new order in greater East Asia” - Proclaimed “Asia for the Asiatics” Moved to create the Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere - An appeal to Asians who were tired of European rule Japan asked France for the right to build airfields and station troops in northern Indochina

116 Japanese Expansion United States placed an embargo on the sale of scrap iron to Japan September 27, 1940 – Japan signed the Tripartite with Germany and Italy - Affirmed the right of every nation to “receive the space to which it is entitled and pledged to cooperate to reach that goal as well as to come to one another’s aid if attacked

117 Pearl Harbor July 24, 1941 – Japan invaded Southern Indochina
President Roosevelt demanded that they withdraw from both Indochina and China - Placed an embargo on oil and froze all Japanese assets in the United States - Negotiated with the Japanese government throughout the summers Japan decided to go to war with the United States - Believed that the U.S.A stood in the way of its plans for expansion in the East

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119 Pearl Harbor Japanese Military leaders knew they had destroy the American Pacific fleet based at Pearl Harbor in order to defeat the U.S.A - Most American and Japanese leaders thought Pearl Harbor was safe from attack -

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121 Pearl Harbor Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto believed it could be attacked by launching planes off aircraft carriers and using new weapons called torpedoes - November 1941 – Japanese fleet set sail for Hawaii

122 Pearl Harbor Negotiations between the two countries broke down
- Roosevelt knew the Japanese were ready to attack - Convinced Japan’s move would be in Southeast Asia - Sent all the aircraft carriers and ½ the army’s planes from Pearl Harbor as a precautionary move

123 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 – Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor
- Sank or damaged 19 American ships - Killed more than 2,400 people and wounded 1,100

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137 Pearl Harbor United States declared war on Japan

138 The Allies December 11, 1941 – Italy and Germany declared war on the United States Great Britain declared war on Japan The West and the Soviet Union put aside differences to defeat their common enemy

139 The Allies Stalin urged the west to open a second front in France
Roosevelt favored second front Churchill didn’t favor a second front - Knew Great Britain would have to bear the brunt of a second front operation

140 The Allies Roosevelt and Churchill postponed a second front and laid out plans for military campaigns in North Africa and the Mediterranean area - Created more distrust between USSR and the West

141 Vocabulary Concentration camps – Areas where Jews and other prisoners were either immediately put to death or forced to provide slave labor before finally being executed or dying of disease. Holocaust - Actions taken during WWII in which German SS Troops and Nazi Troops tried to execute all Jews. This was part of Hitler’s final solution.  Pearl Harbor – Attack on the Pacific fleet in the United States. This was the final event that drew the United States into WWII. This occurred December 7, 1941.

142 Section 4

143 The poster is an attempt to encourage women to
62) The poster is an attempt to encourage women to A) demand their right to vote. B) enlist in the U.S. armed forces. C) participate in the anti-war movement. D) get involved in the effort to win World War II.

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145 Preparing for war Selective Service Act allowed the Gov. to start drafting men for the armed Forces - 1st peace time draft FDR decided to run for 3rd term ( 1st time anyone served more than 2 terms) - Americans agreed that U.S. needed experienced leader with the world in crises

146 The Home Front December 7, rumors spread that Japanese planes had been seen over San Francisco - Mayor sent troops to protect bridges, tunnels, and factories Next day 1000's of men signed up for the army

147 The Wartime Boom Armed forces were enlarged
Women went to work in the factories - Over 50,000 women joined the army A popular song of the day was called Rosie the Riveter. This described a woman who worked in the factory as a riveter while her boyfriend served in the marines.

148 The Wartime Boom Army needed supplies which created jobs
War Production Board directed private industry to produce war materials - U.S. produced more than anyone else

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150 New Opportunities 1000's of African Americans moved north to work in the factories Were discriminated against at 1st

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153 New Opportunities Phillip Randolph threatened to lead a protest in Washington D.C. - FDR issued an Executive Order it outlawed job discrimination in industries that had government contracts Roosevelt supported the Fair Employment Act, which prohibited discrimination in the national defense industry. This convinced Randolph and his colleagues to cancel their march.

154 Diversity in the Military
Nearly 1 million African Americans served in the armed forces Accepted into the Marines and Air Corps for the 1st time - Faced discrimination War department integrated some units

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157 Diversity in the Military
300,000 Mexican Americans served in the army - Faced discrimination

158 Japanese Americans Most lived in California, Oregon, and Washington
Feb FDR signed order that called for Japanese Americans to be moved away from coast Roosevelt ordered more than 100,000 Japanese American’s from their homes and businesses during the war, and placed them in various internment camps.

159 Japanese Americans Were moved to internment camps
- Forced to sell their homes and possessions (lost money) - 2/3 were Nisei - Japanese Americans born in the United States

160 Internment of Japanese, German and Italian Americans
This was meant to keep potentially threatening citizens in an isolated location to keep a close eye. German and Italian immigrants faced the same treatment, but not to the extent of Japanese Americans.

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163 Response to Internment Camps
In 1944 the Supreme Court ruled that the internment camps was lawful and justified due to “the military urgency of the situation”. In 1983, the United States government formally recognized the injustice that had been done and authorized payments of $20,000 each to all living Japanese Americans who had suffered under this policy.

164 Shortages at Home Most resources went to armed forces
No autos were made between 1942 and 1945 Gas was in short supply Government set up a system of rationing - Everyone got a book of stamps - Had to give up stamps when you purchased items such as gas, meats, shoes, and sugar

165 The War Time Economy Jobs gave people money to buy goods they couldn't afford in the depression Wasn't anything to buy due to shortages Caused inflation Government started Office of Price Administration to control prices

166 The War Time Economy Gov. raised income tax to pay for the war
The number of people required to pay income taxes greatly increased during the war years. To help improve this the government implemented the idea of “withholding income tax”, or asking employers to withhold taxes. (payroll deduction) - Easier to pay than lump sum at the end year - Also sold war bonds

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168 A. Philip Randolph's proposed "March on Washington" in 1941 was going to protest racially discriminatory hiring practices in the defense industry, but was called off after President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued the A) New Deal. B) Desegregation Act. C) Fair Employment Act. D) "Four Freedoms" speech.

169 During World War II, a widely adopted means of solving labor shortage problems in U.S. industry was to A) employ women. B) use forced labor. C) enact welfare reform. D) raise the immigration quotas.

170 EOCT REVIEW SSUSH19: The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government. Explain A. Philip Randolph’s proposed March on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response. 1. Who was A Philip Randolph? What did his March on Washington seek to do? 2. How did FDR respond?

171 EOCT REVIEW  Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese- Americans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. 3. How did Americans treat Japanese-Americans after Pearl Harbor 4. How were German-Americans and Italian-Americans treated?

172 EOCT REVIEW Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of women in war industries. 9. What is War Mobilization? 10. What is Rationing? 11. What is war-time conversion? 12. What was the role of women during the war?

173 Vocabulary War Production Board (WPB) – This board re-directed raw materials and resources from the production of civilian consumer goods, to the production of materials needed for war. A. Philip Randolph – Civil Rights leader that planned a march on Washington D.C. until Roosevelt passed the Fair Employment Act. Fair Employment Act – Act passed by Congress allowing equal access in the military for all races. Internment camps – These were used to house Japanese immigrants during WWII after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

174 In the late 1930s and during World War II, millions of American men were drafted into military service. This meant that there were millions of jobs - many of them industrial and agricultural - that were left vacant and in need of being filled. How did MOST American businesses attempt to deal with the labor shortages that potentially affected their businesses? A. They hired increased numbers of women and African Americans. B. They decided to declare bankruptcy and receive government funds. C. They lowered the pay of other workers and increased their hours. D. They hired increased numbers of child workers and Asian Americans.

175 Section 5

176 Sea and Air Battles German U-Boats threatened Great Britain’s supply lines - U.S. had been shipping supplies under the Lend-Lease Plan before it entered the May 1941 – New German battleship Bismarck entered the war along with a new cruiser Prinz Eugen - British hastily dispatched several ship to intercept the Nazis

177 Sea and Air Battles May 23, 1941 – British ships met the German ships in the Denmark Strait between Ice land and Greenland

178 Sea and Air Battles Bismarck sank the British cruiser Hood and damaged another ship in the battle - May 26, 1941 – British patrol plane spotted the Bismarck about 600 miles off the French Coast - Bismarck was finally sank by the British navy after sustaining at least 8 torpedo hits - Battle ended the German effort to win control of the Atlantic with surface Ships

179 Sea and Air Battles Allies carried out an air offensive against Germany - Directed at factories, railroads, dockyards, cities, and towns - Aimed to destroy the German war industries and weaken the will of the civilian population to continue the war

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185 Battle of Stalingrad July 1942 – Germany had the Soviets in full retreat Stalin Pressed the Allies for a second front - August 1942 – Churchill told Stalin there would be no second front in 1942

186 Battle of Stalingrad August 2, 1942 – Germans attacked Stalingrad
- Tried to destroy Soviet morale - Stalin ordered the city held at all cost

187 Battle of Stalingrad September 1942 – Soviets launched a counter attack and encircled the Germans - Cutoff German supply lines Hitler refused to retreat although winter and Soviets were closing in

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189 Battle of Stalingrad February 1943 – Germany finally surrendered
- Germany lost its best troops - 100,000 were killed and 80,000 captured - Soviets seized large quantities of military equipment

190 Battle of Stalingrad Stalingrad considered the turning point of the war in Europe - Broke the back of the German military machine

191 War in the Desert January 1942 – Allied forces struggled to regain land lost to Germany Erwin Rommel applied blitzkrieg tactic s to desert warfare (The Desert Fox) Spring 1942 – Rommel had pushed the British 2/3 of then way back to the Egyptian Frontier

192 War in the Desert July 1942 – British General Bernard Montgomery stopped Rommel at El Alamein October 1942 – Montgomery launched a counter attack and forced the Germans back across the Egyptian- Libyan frontier

193 War in the Desert January 1943 – British captured the capital of Libya (Tripoli) Allied force began trying to trap Rommel moving east to west (pincer strategy) - Montgomery moved west - Allied troops landed in Morocco and Algeria and moved east

194 War in the Desert Allied forces were met with heavy resistance from the Vichey French who governed North Africa - Dwight D. Eisenhower struck a deal with a Vichy official Admiral Francois Darlan to end the fighting - Darlan ordered an end to resistance in exchange for allied support of his claim to French North Africa- -

195 War in the Desert November 1942 – Free French under Charles de Gaulle joined Allies in North Africa

196 War in the Desert Allies began closing the pincers on Rommel
- He flew to Berlin and told Hitler there was no hope - Hitler barred Rommel from returning to Africa May 1943 – German forces surrendered in Tunisia - Allies controlled all of North Africa

197 Pacific War Japan took over most of Southeast Asia and the Pacific
- Welcomed as liberator - Local began hating them after they killed civilians and seized property Allies couldn’t stop Japanese advances Expected the Japanese to invade Australia

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199 Bataan Death March January 1942 – Japanese captured Manila
General Douglass MacArthur led a retreat of American and 65,000 Filipino troops February 1942 – President Roosevelt ordered Macarthur to Australia to take command of the Allies in the Pacific (“I shall return”)

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201 Bataan Death March May 1942 – Japanese forced the Allies to surrender on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines - Soldiers were forced to march 60 miles to a prison camp -Thousands collapsed of starvation along the way - Many were shot, beaten, or bayoneted to death

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203 Battle of the Coral Sea 1st time two enemy ships fought a battle without coming within sight of each other - Warplanes launched form the carriers fought the battle May 1942 – Allies were finally able to stop the Japanese advances

204 Battle of Midway June 1942 - Allies defeated the Japanese
Sank four Japanese carriers - Crippled Japan’s navy - Ended Japanese naval superiority in the Pacific Japan lost its best pilots Turning point of the war in the Pacific

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208 Guadalcanal August 1942 – Allies began attacking Guadalcanal
- General Douglass MacArthur led ground forces - Admiral Chester Nimitz led the sea attack

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210 Guadalcanal Allied victory at Guadalcanal was the beginning of a series of battles - Allies island-hopped their way north to Japan (only attacked Islands that weren’t heavily defended - Cutoff supply lines to islands they bypassed Allied forces paused to build up their Pacific forces after Guadalcanal

211 Guadalcanal November 1943 – Japanese began using Kamikaze pilot
- Far from ready to surrender Summer 1944 – Allies captured the Mariana Islands - Within striking distance of Japan - Began building airfields from which B29 bombers could attack Japan

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213 Vocabulary Bataan Death March – Event where more than 75,000 American and Filipino troops were captured and forced to march sixty miles, during which many died. Battle of Midway –  This was known as the turning point during the war in the Pacific. Island hopping – This was a series of small battle in hopes of pushing Japan back to their mainland.

214 Section 6

215 Allied Victories Democracies geared their economies for war production
- Rationed goods, and regulated prices and wages Wartime emergency limited citizens rights War ended unemployment - Women worked in factories while men joined the military

216 Invasion of Italy Early 1943 – British and American leaders decided to invade Sicily July 1943 – General Eisenhower led a combined air and sea attack - Forced the Germans to retreat into Italy

217 Invasion of Italy Sicily invasion caused the downfall of Mussolini
- July 25, King Victor Emmanuel fired him and had him arrested New Italian Prime Minister dissolved the Fascist Party - September 3, 1943 – He signed a secret act surrender - Caught the Germans by surprise - Allied forces landed on in Italy on the day of the treaty

218 Invasion of Italy Germans recovered and to occupy Rome
- Forced the king and Prime Minister to withdraw to the south - Rescued Mussolini and put him in control of Northern Italy

219 Invasion of Italy Allied Forces fought their way up the Italian Peninsula - Took the Allies 5 months to penetrate the Axis defenses at Monte Cassino - 6th century monastery located on a mountain top June 4, 1944 – Allied forces entered Rome

220 D-Day 1943 – Allied leader meet in Tehran Iran
- Churchill and Roosevelt told Stalin about their plan to open a 2nd front the following spring

221 D-Day Operation Overlord – Allied Invasion of France
- General Eisenhower assembled a force of 176,000 soldiers, 600 warships and 10,000 aircraft in England

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223 D-Day June 6, 1944 – Allied Forces land Normandy, France (D-Day)
- British bombers bombed German coastal defenses - Allied airborne troops parachuted into France - Allied soldiers fought their way onto the beaches

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227 D-Day August 1944 – American tank commander General George Patton leads forces across Northern France French resistance fighters rose up against the Germans German forced to retreat

228 D-Day August 25, 1944 – Free French forces led the Allied troops into Paris

229 Victory over Germany Summer 1944 – Soviets had pushed the Germans back into Eastern Europe Hitler thought a surprise offensive in the west would reverse the Allied advance (Battle of the Bulge) - December 1944 – German troops cut through the center of the Allied forces - Created a bulge in the line - Allies finally defeated the Germans at Bastogne, Belgium

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231 Victory over Germany March 1945 – Allied forces crossed the Rhine River in the west - Germany’s historic defense barrier

232 Victory over Germany Soviets fought their way into Berlin in the east
- Inflicted savage revenge on the German population April 1945 – American and Soviet troops met on the Elbe River

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234 Victory over Germany May 7, 1945 – German surrendered unconditionally
- Celebrated as V-E Day western Democracies - May 9 celebrated as V-E Day in the Soviet Union

235 Victory over Germany End came for the Fascists dictators
- Italian partisans shot Mussolini - Hitler committed suicide in an under ground bunker

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238 Yalta Conference February Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt met at the Black Sea resort Proposed that France and China join their countries in forming the United Nations

239 Yalta Conference Agreed to Divide Germany as well as Berlin into 4 zones Stalin promised to hold free elections in Soviet-occupied Eastern Europe Stalin promised to declare war on Japan - Received the Kuril Islands and the southern part of Sakhalin Island in exchange

240 Potsdam Conference August 1945- Allied leaders met in Germany
Harry S. Truman became President after F.D.R died in April. Clement Attlee replaced Churchill midway through the conference - Labour Party defeated the Conservative Party in the general election

241 Potsdam Conference Made plans for the occupation of Germany
Issued an ultimatum to Japan for unconditional surrender Tensions between the Allied begin to pull the wartime alliance apart

242 Victory over Japan Seemed inevitable by the end of 1944
American planes bombed Japanese cities General Douglass MacArthur reclaimed the Philippines

243 Victory over Japan Americans won two bloody battles on the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa British forces Destroyed the Japanese forces in Southeast Asia Japan’s military leaders refused to surrender

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245 Victory over Japan President Truman decided to use an new secret weapon (Atomic Bomb) -

246 Victory over Japan Had been developed under the code name “Manhattan Project” - Said it would end the war quickly and avoid the loss of lives that would have resulted from an American invasion (Estimated 1 million) - May have also used the bomb to impress the Soviets

247 Victory over Japan August 6, 1945 – Dropped 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima - Heard no response August 9, 1945 – Dropped a 2nd bomb on Nagasaki

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252 Victory over Japan Two bombs killed 200,000 people
- Many more would die from radiation exposure August 14, Japan unconditionally surrendered

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255 Victory over Japan September 2, 1945 – Proclaimed V-J Day
- Japanese officials signed the official surrender onboard the American battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay - Ended WWII

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257 Effects of the War Over 70 million people fought in the war
55 million people died as a result of the war - Soviet Union lost 22 million - Germany lost 8 million - Japan lost 2 million - U.S.A lost 300,000

258 · Fought in February and March, 1945 · Involved roughly 110,000 U. S
· Fought in February and March, · Involved roughly 110,000 U.S. and 18,000 Japanese forces · Some of the fiercest fighting in all of World War II · U.S. forces eventually took Japanese airbases on this Island All of these are describing the World War II battle of A. Midway. B. Iwo Jima. C. Leyte Gulf. D. Guadalcanal.

259 · Fought in February and March, 1945 · Involved roughly 110,000 U. S
· Fought in February and March, · Involved roughly 110,000 U.S. and 18,000 Japanese forces · Some of the fiercest fighting in all of World War II · U.S. forces eventually took Japanese airbases on this Island All of these are describing the World War II battle of

260 Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations

261 Effects of the War Allied Powers began to address the wrongs committed by the Axis Powers Nuremburg Trials – Brought Nazi leaders to justice for crimes they had committed during the war - Upheld the idea that people are responsible for their actions even during wartime Trials were also held in Italy and Japan

262 Effects of the War New weapons made WWII the most destructive war in history - Many people were left homeless - Food, medicine, and clothing were in short supply

263 The "Manhattan Project" was the code name for the
A. U.S. plan to invade Japan. B. German use of jet aircraft. C. Allied plan to invade Europe. D. U.S. plans to make an atomic bomb.

264 Military and political leaders in the United States during World War II publicly justified the use of atomic weapons on Japan because they argued that A. Japan had first attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor four years earlier. B. the sites chosen for bombing were military bases, absent of civilian population. C. it would save perhaps a million lives that would be lost in an amphibious assault on Japan. D. the Japanese already had an atomic bomb and were preparing to deploy it against the United States.

265 EOCT REVIEW Explain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin. 5. What was the Lend-Lease program? 6. Why was the Battle of Midway important? 7. What was D-Day? 8. What was the significance of the Battle of Berlin

266 EOCT REVIEW Describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb. 13. What was atomic bomb? 14. How did it affect the US in scientific, economic, and military sectors?

267 Vocabulary General Dwight D. Eisenhower – He was appointed supreme commander of allied forces during WWII. D-Day – June 6, 1944 when the largest invasion by sea was launched. The nickname given the plan for this was Operation Overlord.  Los Alamos, New Mexico – Place where the atomic bomb was tested Atomic bomb - New weapon technology used to end the war in the Pacific that caused mass destruction and high civilian casualties. Harry S. Truman – Became President of the United States after FDR’s death. This man would oversee the ending of WWII, and major military programs.


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