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U.S. History Chapter 16 Notes Life at the Turn of the 20th Century New technologies improve urban living, and a modern mass culture emerges. Reforms in.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Chapter 16 Notes Life at the Turn of the 20th Century New technologies improve urban living, and a modern mass culture emerges. Reforms in."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History Chapter 16 Notes Life at the Turn of the 20th Century New technologies improve urban living, and a modern mass culture emerges. Reforms in public education raise literacy rates. African Americans work to end legal discrimination.

2 Section 1 Science and Urban Life Advances in science and technology help solve urban problems, including overcrowding.

3 U.S. Cities in the late 1800's Cities Stank Cities Stank Outhouses Outhouses Raw sewage in the rivers Raw sewage in the rivers Piled up garbage Piled up garbage Factories Factories Horse manure Horse manure

4 Size of Cities Size had been limited up until late 1800's Size had been limited up until late 1800's - People had to live within walking distance of job - Lived in buildings that they could comfortably walk up (4 or 5 stories) Electricity enabled the invention of the elevator Electricity enabled the invention of the elevator Steel - made it possible to build tall buildings (skyscrapers) Steel - made it possible to build tall buildings (skyscrapers)

5 Size of Cities Horse drawn wagons were main forms of transportation Horse drawn wagons were main forms of transportation - Tried to move people more efficiently with horse drawn trolleys

6 Size of Cities st practical electrical trolley set up in Richmond Virginia st practical electrical trolley set up in Richmond Virginia Some cities built elevated trains or subways Some cities built elevated trains or subways New bridges helped people get across water New bridges helped people get across water Brooklyn Bridge - most impressive bridge during the late 1800's Brooklyn Bridge - most impressive bridge during the late 1800's - Steel cabled - Connected Brooklyn with island of Manhattan

7 Developments of Suburbs Suburbs - areas at the edge of a city where people live Suburbs - areas at the edge of a city where people live The electric street car enabled people to live farther from work The electric street car enabled people to live farther from work People who could afford it moved to the suburbs People who could afford it moved to the suburbs - Thought the city was unhealthy People lived in single family homes with a yard People lived in single family homes with a yard

8 Developments of Suburbs New inventions made this possible New inventions made this possible - Lawnmower - no longer needed animals to eat the grass - Icebox - ice delivered daily - Indoor plumbing -Iron cooking range

9 Bringing Nature to the Cities People became worried about the loss of greenery and fresh air in the cities People became worried about the loss of greenery and fresh air in the cities Started a movement to build large city parks Started a movement to build large city parks New York became 1 st city to build park (Central Park) New York became 1 st city to build park (Central Park)

10 New Technologies A Revolution in Printing A Revolution in Printing - By 1890, U.S. literacy rate almost 90% - Growing demand for newspapers, magazines, books - Mills produced cheap paper that withstood high-speed presses - Faster production, lowered costs make periodicals more affordable

11 New Technologies Airplanes Airplanes - Orville, Wilbur Wright use engines to fly “heavier-than-air” craft - first successful flight Dec By 1920, first transcontinental air mail established

12 New Technologies Photography Explosion Photography Explosion - Pre-1880s, photography requires heavy equipment, time - George Eastman develops light-weight equipment, studio processing - George Eastman develops light-weight equipment, studio processing introduced Kodak camera (easy to operate) - Millions use Kodak camera - Millions use Kodak camera - Helped create field of photojournalism

13 Section 2 Expanding Public Education Reforms in public education lead to a rise in national literacy and the promotion of public education

14 Importance of Education Many immigrants wanted an education for their children Many immigrants wanted an education for their children American school system grew faster than cities American school system grew faster than cities Began taking over task that had once belonged to parents Began taking over task that had once belonged to parents - Taught children citizenship, proper social behavior, and skills to earn a living

15 Importance of Education 1865 to Cities and states passed laws that required children to attend school until they reached a certain age 1865 to Cities and states passed laws that required children to attend school until they reached a certain age - Kindergartens - originally childcare for working women became popular % white children, 34% black children in elementary school - School populations more than doubled between 1870 and 1900

16 Importance of Education Educators faced problems of teaching children from different backgrounds who spoke different languages Educators faced problems of teaching children from different backgrounds who spoke different languages Schools looked to factory as a model Schools looked to factory as a model - Grades that organized children by age were established - The marking system, textbooks and courses became standardized - The marking system, textbooks and courses became standardized - Added vocational classes to teach children a skill - Added vocational classes to teach children a skill

17 Importance of Education High schools, grew as a result of the Industrial economy’s demand for technical, managerial skills High schools, grew as a result of the Industrial economy’s demand for technical, managerial skills more than half a million students in high school - Expanding education changed American society African-Americans experienced racial discrimination in education African-Americans experienced racial discrimination in education - Small percentage of black teenagers attended high school - Most attended private schools that received no government support

18 Importance of Education Some immigrants resented suppression of their native languages Some immigrants resented suppression of their native languages - Many public school systems had readings from Protestant Bible - Catholics had parochial schools Adults attended night school & some day programs at work Adults attended night school & some day programs at work - unionists objected to employer programs Many families needed the money their children earned Many families needed the money their children earned - They chose not to send their children to school

19 Expanding Higher Education By turn of century, 2.3% of youth attend college By turn of century, 2.3% of youth attend college 1880–1920, college enrollment more than quadruples 1880–1920, college enrollment more than quadruples Research universities emerged, & offered new curriculum Research universities emerged, & offered new curriculum Professional law & medical schools established Professional law & medical schools established Private universities had entrance exams Private universities had entrance exams - Some state colleges want high school diploma

20 Higher Education for African Americans Not enough black college graduates to meet needs of communities Not enough black college graduates to meet needs of communities Booker T. Washington—racism will end if blacks get labor skills Booker T. Washington—racism will end if blacks get labor skills Headed Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, now a university Headed Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, now a university

21 Higher Education for African Americans W. E. B. Du Bois, first African American to get Harvard doctorate W. E. B. Du Bois, first African American to get Harvard doctorate - disagreed with Washington Founded Niagara Movement to encourage liberal arts study Founded Niagara Movement to encourage liberal arts study - believed well-educated future leaders needed - Formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

22 Section 3 Segregation and Discrimination African Americans lead the fight against voting restrictions and Jim Crow laws.

23 African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination For at least 10 years after Reconstruction, Southern blacks could vote For at least 10 years after Reconstruction, Southern blacks could vote By 1900, all Southern states restricted voting & denied equality By 1900, all Southern states restricted voting & denied equality Some limited vote to those who could read (officials gave literacy tests) Some limited vote to those who could read (officials gave literacy tests) Some had poll tax that must be paid annually to vote Some had poll tax that must be paid annually to vote Some add grandfather clause to constitution to let poor whites vote Some add grandfather clause to constitution to let poor whites vote - Could vote if self, father, grandfather voted before 1867

24 Jim Crow Laws 1870s, s, Supreme Court allowed poll tax & grandfather clause 1870s, s, Supreme Court allowed poll tax & grandfather clause Racial segregation laws separated races in private & public places Racial segregation laws separated races in private & public places Segregation laws called Jim Crow laws after old minstrel song Segregation laws called Jim Crow laws after old minstrel song 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson - segregation legal in public places 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson - segregation legal in public places - Allowed “separate but equal” doctrine if provide equal service

25 Turn-of-the-Century Race Relations Racial etiquette—informal rules for black-white relations Racial etiquette—informal rules for black-white relations - enforce second-class status for blacks Moderate reformers, like Booker T. Washington, received white support Moderate reformers, like Booker T. Washington, received white support W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells thought problems were too urgent to postpone W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells thought problems were too urgent to postpone Born a slave, Ida B. Wells becames teacher, newspaper editor Born a slave, Ida B. Wells becames teacher, newspaper editor - campaigned for racial justice African Americans who do not follow etiquette were punished or lynched African Americans who do not follow etiquette were punished or lynched more than 1,400 killed 1882–1892 more than 1,400 killed 1882–1892

26 Discrimination in the North Many blacks migrated North for better paying jobs & social equality Many blacks migrated North for better paying jobs & social equality were forced into segregated neighborhoods were forced into segregated neighborhoods Rejected by labor unions; hired last, fired first by employers Rejected by labor unions; hired last, fired first by employers Competition between blacks, working-class whites sometimes violent Competition between blacks, working-class whites sometimes violent

27 Discrimination in the West More Mexicans built railroads in Southwest than other ethnic groups More Mexicans built railroads in Southwest than other ethnic groups - forced to work for less than other groups Mexicans major force in Southwest agricultural industries Mexicans major force in Southwest agricultural industries Some Southwest Mexicans & African Americans forced into debt peonage: Some Southwest Mexicans & African Americans forced into debt peonage: - system of slavery to work off debt to employer , Supreme Court declared debt peonage unconstitutional Whites feared job competition Whites feared job competition - Pushed Chinese to separate areas, schools - Opposition to Chinese immigration led to Chinese Exclusion Act

28 Section 4 The Dawn of Mass Culture As Americans have more time for leisure activities, a modern mass culture emerges.

29 American Leisure Despite poverty and poor working conditions, people had more leisure time than ever before Despite poverty and poor working conditions, people had more leisure time than ever before - Caused a growth of a new city culture in which everyone could share

30 Amusement Parks Cities begin setting aside green space for recreation Cities begin setting aside green space for recreation Amusement parks built on outskirts with picnic grounds, rides Amusement parks built on outskirts with picnic grounds, rides 1884 – Many Americans rode rollercoaster at Coney Island 1884 – Many Americans rode rollercoaster at Coney Island 1883 – World’s 1 st Ferris wheel was introduced at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago 1883 – World’s 1 st Ferris wheel was introduced at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago

31 Sports Both amateur and pro sports become popular Both amateur and pro sports become popular st pro baseball team formed (Cincinnati Red Stockings) st pro baseball team formed (Cincinnati Red Stockings) The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs was organized The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs was organized Baseball replaced horse racing as America's favorite spectator sport Baseball replaced horse racing as America's favorite spectator sport - Immigrants loved it - It was a game of rules they could understand, wasn't confusing like American life - It was a game of rules they could understand, wasn't confusing like American life - National League formed 1876; American League formed National League formed 1876; American League formed Discrimination led to Negro National, Negro American Leagues - Discrimination led to Negro National, Negro American Leagues

32 Sports 1870's - Americans took English game of Rugby and turned it into Football 1870's - Americans took English game of Rugby and turned it into Football 1891 – Basketball was invented in Massachusetts as a game to play indoors during the winter 1891 – Basketball was invented in Massachusetts as a game to play indoors during the winter Tennis was imported from Britain; became popular Tennis was imported from Britain; became popular By turn of century, boxing & baseball had became profitable businesses By turn of century, boxing & baseball had became profitable businesses Women began playing sports as they became more popular Women began playing sports as they became more popular - Challenged the idea that sports were for men only

33 Impact of Bicycles 1800s – Invention set off a craze that would last 2 decades 1800s – Invention set off a craze that would last 2 decades Early bicycles were dangerous; at first, bicycling was male-only sport Early bicycles were dangerous; at first, bicycling was male-only sport

34 Impact of Bicycles Safer bicycles increased popularity of sport & women began riding too Safer bicycles increased popularity of sport & women began riding too - Women wore baggy pants “bloomers” when riding Tandem bikes were built for two Tandem bikes were built for two Offered a fun and easy way to get around Offered a fun and easy way to get around Cheaper than keeping or feeding a horse Cheaper than keeping or feeding a horse

35 Vaudeville Theater Variety Show that included a little bit of everything Variety Show that included a little bit of everything - Songs - Skits - Dances - Comic routines - Juggling and gymnastics Both rich and poor attended the theater Both rich and poor attended the theater Used Songs and comedy to explore the social problems of the day Used Songs and comedy to explore the social problems of the day

36 Early Movies 1890s- part of the Vaudeville show was a short moving picture 1890s- part of the Vaudeville show was a short moving picture By 1900 – People were paying 5 cents to watch short silent films (Nickelodeons) By 1900 – People were paying 5 cents to watch short silent films (Nickelodeons) Filmmakers began using several roles of film to create more complex stores (Birth of the modern movie industry) Filmmakers began using several roles of film to create more complex stores (Birth of the modern movie industry)

37 Mass Circulation Newspapers Newspapers used sensational headlines, stories to capture readers Newspapers used sensational headlines, stories to capture readers Joseph Pulitzer - bought New York World, pioneers popular innovations Joseph Pulitzer - bought New York World, pioneers popular innovations - Became champion of the poor - Used simple language that most people could read - Used simple language that most people could read - Included human interest stories as well as news - Included human interest stories as well as news He was the 1st person to put sections together in a newspaper He was the 1st person to put sections together in a newspaper - Sports - Womens - Womens - Comics - Comics

38 Mass Circulation Newspapers He also connected the city and people to each other He also connected the city and people to each other - Raised the money to pay for the Statue of Liberty base after the Gov. refused $100,000 in donations from readers $100,000 in donations from readers

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40 Mass Circulation Newspapers William Randolph Hearst—NY, San Francisco papers exaggerated stories William Randolph Hearst—NY, San Francisco papers exaggerated stories

41 Popular Fiction By 1900, thousands of free circulating libraries in country By 1900, thousands of free circulating libraries in country Most people liked dime novels - glorified adventure tales of the West Most people liked dime novels - glorified adventure tales of the West Some wanted more serious, realistic portrayal of ordinary people & life Some wanted more serious, realistic portrayal of ordinary people & life Novelist, humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens, or Mark Twain: Novelist, humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens, or Mark Twain: - rejected high culture yet wrote American classics Art galleries & libraries tried to raise cultural standards Art galleries & libraries tried to raise cultural standards

42 New Ways to Sell Goods first shopping center opened in Cleveland first shopping center opened in Cleveland Retail shopping districts formed near public transportation Retail shopping districts formed near public transportation Marshall Field opened first U.S. department store in Chicago Marshall Field opened first U.S. department store in Chicago - stressed personal service - Paid close attention to women customers - pioneered bargain basement “ selling goods that were less expensive but reliable”

43 New Ways to Sell Goods The Chain Store The Chain Store - Chain stores offer same merchandise under same owners for less - bought in quantity, limited personal service

44 Advertising Advertising explosion: $10 million spent 1865, $95 million 1900 Advertising explosion: $10 million spent 1865, $95 million 1900 Advertising in periodicals, billboards, sides of buildings Advertising in periodicals, billboards, sides of buildings Department Stores also attracted customers through newspaper ads and window displays Department Stores also attracted customers through newspaper ads and window displays - Salesmen were expected to be nice to the poor as well as rich a. people of all classes began shopping together Changed downtown area Changed downtown area - Became a place for everyone not just the working people

45 Catalogs and RFD Montgomery Ward, Sears Roebuck catalogs brought goods to small towns Montgomery Ward, Sears Roebuck catalogs brought goods to small towns

46 Catalogs and RFD 1896 – Post office introduced Rural free delivery (RFD) - post office delivers direct to every home 1896 – Post office introduced Rural free delivery (RFD) - post office delivers direct to every home


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