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U.S. History Chapter 11 Notes The Civil War

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1 U.S. History Chapter 11 Notes The Civil War
In the bloody Civil War, Union forces devastate the South and defeat the Confederacy. President Lincoln narrowly wins reelection, but is assassinated as the war ends.

2 Section 1 The Civil War Begins .
The secession of Southern states cause the North and the South to take up arms

3 Northern Response to Southern Succession
March 1861 – Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States North said that the Union was older than the states it had created them Believed the Union had to be preserved South believed that majority rule was a threat to their liberty North believed south was pouting because they lost the election

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5 The Failure to Compromise
Lincoln said that the national government would not abandon its property in the south Said that the Union wouldn't use force in the south

6 Crisis at Fort Sumter Confederate soldiers take over government, military installations Fort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harbor Confederates demanded surrender of Fort Sumter Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens needed supplies - supply ships had been forced to turn back after being fired on by South Carolina gunners

7 Crisis at Fort Sumter Lincoln faced tough decision concerning the forts - Withdrawing the troops would be recognizing the Confederacy - Sending supplies meant risking war - Reinforcing the fort with force would also lead rest of slave states to secede

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9 Crisis at Fort Sumter April Lincoln announced that he was sending relief expeditions to the forts Meant he would fight if necessary For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy Jefferson Davis chose to turn peaceful secession into war

10 Other States Secede Lincoln called out the militia (northern states responded) Fall of Fort Sumter unites North; volunteers rush to enlist Angered southern states Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas joined the Confederacy Robert E. Lee became leader of the Confederate army

11 Choosing Sides Border states were the key to the war
North had to have Maryland to keep contact with Washington D.C. - Lincoln ordered the arrest of lawmakers who had supported the south - Federal troops helped a group of western counties break away from Virginia (West Virginia) War caused many families in the border states to spilt

12 Expecting a Short War That war came as no surprise
Both sides had been arguing for years Everyone thought the war would be short Everyone was excited

13 Both Sides Strengths North - Had more people
- Had most of the natural resources (iron, coal, copper) - 86% of the nation’s factories in the north - Union kept almost every ship in the navy - More extensive railroad system - Lincoln’s leadership South - Had better generals - cotton profits - Fighting a defensive war (more of a will to fight)

14 Strategy North - Aimed to conquer south and bring it back into the Union - Didn’t have a strong enough army to invade the south a the beginning - Anaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer South - blockade Southern ports - divide Confederacy in two in west - capture Richmond, Confederate capital South - Only wanted to stay independent - Wanted to avoid major battles (hoped the north would get tired of fighting) - Invade North if opportunity arose - Beginning of the war south withheld cotton from Europe (hoped Europe would help south due to their need for cotton (BIG MISTAKE) - Europe found other places to get cotton

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17 The Two Armies 1861 – Union was unprepared to fight
- Many soldiers were city residents Southern army had organized before the battle of Fort Sumter Southerners were used to shooting guns Neither army had uniforms (created confusion) - Union wore blue - Confederates wore grey

18 The Two Armies Didn’t have antiseptics – germ killing drugs
Didn’t have anesthetics – pain killing drugs - Soldiers had to bite bullets when being operated on

19 First Battle of Bull Run
Union army was marching to Manassas Sightseers and picnickers followed to watch the battle Thomas J. Jackson earned nickname “Stonewall” for firm stand in battle Confederates forced the Union to retreat - Union army got tangled up with the sightseers

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21 Union Armies in the West
Protecting Washington, D.C. After Bull Run, Lincoln called for 1 million additional soldiers Appointed General George McClellan to lead the Union army

22 Union Victories in the West
Union captured New Orleans Feb General Ulysses S. Grant captured Confederate Forts Henry & Donelson Both held strategic locations on the Tennessee & Cumberland Rivers

23 Union Victories in the West
Battle of Shiloh March1862, Confederate troops surprised Union soldiers at Shiloh Grant counterattacked & forced Confederates retreat - Fiercest fighting of the war to that point - Both sides suffered heavy casualties Shiloh taught that preparation was needed, (Scouts, trenches & fortifications Showed that Confederacy was vulnerable in West

24 Union Victories in the West
April David G. Farragut commanded fleet that took New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Natchez Capturing all of the major cities along the lower Mississippi would cut Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, & Tennessee would be cutoff Only Port Hudson, Louisiana & Vicksburg Mississippi stood in the way

25 A Revolution in Warfare
New ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant, Farragut - Ironclads splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon, resist burning March 1862, North’s Monitor, South’s Merrimack fought to a draw - 1st ever battle between two ironclad warships - The new ships were not a decisive factor in the war

26 A Revolution in Warfare
New Weapons - Rifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than muskets - Minié ball (more destructive bullet), grenades, land mines were used - Fighting from trenches, barricades new advantage in infantry attacks

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28 The War for the Capitals
3rd part of Anaconda plan called for the capture of Richmond McClellan waited to attack Richmond (Too cautious) - Drilled troops for 5 months Spring Robert E. Lee took command of Southern army - Excellent general who had declined an offer to head the union army at the beginning of the war

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30 Seven Days Battles June 25 to July 1, Lee & McClellan fought series of battles known collectively as the Seven Days’ Battle - South lost more men but forced north to retreat Lee’ determination and unorthodox tactics caused McClellan leave Richmond Lee decided to invade the north - Hoped a victory in the north would convince Lincoln to talk peace - Hoped a victory would also persuade Europe to side with the south

31 Second Battle of Bull Run
August 29 & Lee won Second Battle of Bull Run & marched into Maryland - Put Washington D.C. in danger - Union troops had to withdraw to protect it

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33 Battle of Antietam Union army found a copy of Lee’s battle plans
Bloodiest single-day battle of the war - 23,000 men died (more than the war of 1812 & war with Mexico combined) Ended in a draw - Confederates retreat - McClellan does not pursue - Lincoln fired McClellan Considered a political victory for the north - Caused Europe to delay plans to help the south

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35 Section 2 The Politics of War
By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war

36 Britain Remains Neutral
Britain didn’t need the South had cotton inventory & new sources Britain needed Northern wheat & corn (replaced cotton as the essential import) Britain Chose neutrality

37 The Trent Affair South made a 2nd attempt to gain English & French support Confederate diplomats traveled abroad a British merchant ship (Trent) James Mason & John Sidell U.S. Navy arrests them (Capt. Charles Wilkes)

38 The Trent Affair England threatened war against the union mobilized 8,000 troops to Canada Lincoln freed the prisoners and publicly claimed the Wilkes acted without orders Averted war with Britain (Both sides relieved)

39 Proclaiming Emancipation
Lincoln’s didn’t believe the Federal government had no power to abolish slavery where it existed Lincoln decided army could emancipate slaves who labored for Confederacy ( Seizing supplies) Emancipation discouraged Britain from supporting the South Abolitionist movement was strong in England

40 Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation - President Lincoln’s announcement that he would free the slaves in the rebelling states (military strategy) Proclamation had symbolic value by giving the war a high moral purpose (Slavery)

41 Emancipation Proclamation
Northern Democrats claimed it would antagonize South & prolong war Changed the character of the war (The Old South was to be destroyed) - Confederacy became more determined to preserve way of life - Compromise was no longer possible

42 Emancipation Proclamation
Didn’t free he slaves in the loyal border states - Didn’t have the power under the constitution Also declared that African Americans could enter the army - Free blacks welcome ability to fight against slavery - 54th regiment gained fame attacking Fort Wagner in South Carolina

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44 Both Sides Face Political Problems
Neither side was completely unified Both sides had sympathizers Lincoln suspended habeas corpus: - order to bring accused to court & name charges Seized telegraph offices to prevent them from being used for subversion

45 Both Sides Face Political Problems
Copperheads - Northern Democrats advocating peace were among those arrested Lincoln ignored Supreme court ruling that stated he had overstepped his constitutional boundaries Davis denounced Lincoln, then suspended habeas corpus in South Lincoln expands presidential powers & sets precedent (War time)

46 Conscription Both sides relied on volunteers in the beginning
Casualties & desertions led to conscription - draft to serve in army Both armies allowed draftees to hire substitutes to serve for them Planters with more than 20 slaves were exempted “Rich mans war poor mans fight” 90% eligible Southerners served 92% of the Northern soldiers were volunteers

47 Draft Riots Poor white workers thought it was unfair they should have to fight a war to free slaves - Lived in disease ridden slums White workers feared Southern blacks would move North & compete for jobs Mobs rampaged through New York City after they began being drafted

48 Section 3 The Civil War brings about dramatic social and economic changes in American society.

49 African Americans Fight for Freedom
African-American Soldiers African Americans 1% of North’s population Made up 10% of army by the end of the war Received lower pay than white troops for most of war& limited on military rank Suffered high mortality from disease POWs were killed or returned to slavery Fort Pillow, TN - Confederates massacred over 200 African-American POWs

50 Slave Resistance in the Confederacy
Slaves sought freedom behind Union army lines On plantations - They destroyed property & refused to go with fleeing owners

51 Southern Shortages South experienced food shortages from lost manpower, Union occupation& loss of slaves Caused inflation $6.65 for food per month 1865 $68 for food per month if available Blockade created other shortages (salt, sugar, coffee, nails needles, & medicine) Some Confederates traded with enemy Smuggled cotton into the north in exchange for food, gold or other goods

52 Northern Economic Growth
Industries that supplied army boomed Contractors made huge profits Many workers’ standard of living dropped Wages do not keep up with prices Women replaced men on farms, city jobs & government jobs Congress established first income tax on earnings to pay for war

53 Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides
Lack of sanitation, personal hygiene lead to disease in camp (Body lice & diarrhea) Diets were unvaried, limited, unappealing North ate beans, bacon and hard square biscuits South ate a stew of small cubes of beef, crumbled cornbread mixed with bacon grease South had to use substitutes for coffee (peanuts, dried apples, & corn)

54 Civil War Medicine U.S. Sanitary Commission worked to improve hygiene in army camps It hired & trained nurses Dorothea Dix served superintendent of women nurses Only hired women over 30 years old to avoid romance - Union death rate drops Surgeon general ordered at least 1/3 of Union nurses be women Union nurse Clara Barton served on front lines Southern women also volunteered as Confederate nurses

55 Prisons Living conditions in prisons worse than in army camps
Andersonville - worst Confederate prison, in Georgia Had no shelter or sanitation (men drank from same stream that served as sewer) Housed 33,000 prisoners on 26 acres (34 sq. ft. per man) 1/3 of prisoners died Camp commander Henry Witz was executed for war crimes after war

56 Prisons Northern prisons were only a little better
Had more space , food & shelter than Southern Prisoners were housed with little or no heat (died of pneumonia) 12% of Confederate prisoners & 15% of Union prisoners died

57 Section 4 The North Takes Charge
Key victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg help the Union wear down the Confederacy

58 Road to Gettysburg Both sides were tired of the war
Blockade was killing the south’s economy ($1 to $7 ) Northerners angry over the draft May South defeated North at Chancellorsville - Stonewall Jackson mistakenly shot by own troops - Died 8 days later of pneumonia Lee led his army north to get supplies Also hoped for a peace settlement

59 Battle of Gettysburg Neither General intended to fight
- Troops ran into each other (Confederates go to find shoes; meet Union cavalry) July 1, Confederates drove Union back,& took town The Second Day - South attacked Union army - Union army was Led by General George Meade on Cemetery Ridge - North repulsed repeated attacks on Little Round Top - Many exhausted Confederates surrendered & Union line held

60 Battle of Gettysburg The Third Day
- Armies exchange vicious artillery fire - Lee orders attack on Union lines (Pickett’s Charge) - North cut down Confederates - Meade didn’t counterattack -Lee retreated to Virginia Both sides suffered staggering losses Considered the single greatest battle of the war Three-day battle at Gettysburg crippled the South Battle of Gettysburg is considered the turning point of war General Lee wouldn’t never again have sufficient forces to invade the North

61 Battle of Vicksburg Confederate Vicksburg prevents Union from controlling Mississippi Spring Union destroyed MS rail lines & sacked Jackson May Grant’s began siege on Vicksburg July 4, Starving Confederates surrendered (same day as Pickett’s charge) Port Hudson, LA fells 5 days later Grant’s seizing Vicksburg gave the Union control of the Mississippi River Cut the Confederacy in half

62 The Gettysburg Address
November ceremony held to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg Edward Everett, noted speaker, gave flowery two-hour speech Lincoln’s two-minute Gettysburg Address asserted unity of U.S. - honored dead soldiers - called for living to dedicate themselves to preserve Union & freedom

63 The Confederacy Wears Down
Defeats at Gettysburg & Vicksburg cost the south much of its limited fighting power South was no longer able to unable attack Only hoped to hang on and destroy North’s morale to get armistice Civilian morale plummeted & public called for peace Discord in government prevented Davis from governing effectively

64 Grant Appoints Sherman
Lincoln wanted someone who would attack General Lee March Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant commander of all Union armies Lincoln liked Grant because he could get things done Grant appointed William Tecumseh Sherman commander of the military division of the Mississippi

65 Grant Appoints Sherman
Grant planned to attack the south on all fronts - He would pursue Lee - Admiral Farragut would attack Mobile - William Tecumseh Sherman would lead an army southeast from Chattanooga to Atlanta Grant & Sherman believed in total war to destroy South’s will to fight

66 Grant and Lee in Virginia
Grant’s strategy was to immobilize Lee in VA while Sherman raided Georgia May 1864–April Grant and Lee fought many battles Both sides suffered heavy losses North 60,000 South 32,000 North could replace soldiers but South couldn’t

67 Sherman’s March September 1864 - Sherman took Atlanta
South tried to cut supply lines (railroads) Sherman changed strategies (Abandoned supply lines & burned Atlanta)

68 Sherman’s March Sherman cut a wide path of destruction in Georgia & lived off the land 1st general to wage total war - Destroyed everything in his path Made no apologies for his actions - Said “We are not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war”

69 Sherman’s March December 1864 – Sherman reached Savannah
Turned north to help Grant fight Lee Inflicted even more destruction in South Carolina (1st state to secede) Followed by 25, 00 former slaves who were eager for freedom Burned almost every house in his path Stopped destroying private homes when he reached North Carolina (last state to secede) Began handing out food & supplies (realized the war was almost over)

70 Atlanta Before & After

71 The Election of 1864 Lincoln faced heavy opposition in the election
Democrats wanted immediate armistice - Nominated George McClellan Radical Republicans- wanted harsh conditions for readmission to Union Nominated John C. Fremont Republicans changed name to National Union Party Andrew Johnson was chosen as Lincoln’s running mate (pro-Union Democrat) Lincoln was pessimistic about his chances Northern victories & troops’ votes gave him the win

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73 The Surrender at Appomatox
March 1865 – Clear that the south was going to lose Union forces were closing in on Richmond Grants forces defeated Lee’s at Petersburg April Davis’s government left Richmond, set it afire

74 The Surrender at Appomatox
April 9, 1865 – Lee and Grant work out the terms of surrender at Appomattox Court House Lee’s soldiers paroled on generous terms (Lincoln’s request) - Were given them food - allowed to return to their homes and keep their horses

75 Section 5 The Legacy of the War
The Civil War settles long-standing disputes over states’ rights and slavery.

76 Political Changes caused by the War
War ended threat of secession& increases power of federal government Ended Slavery Changed the way Americans thought about their nation - People accepted that the Union was more important than individual states Helped the Federal Government Expand - Placed new demands on the Gov. – establish the 1st income tax to pay for the war - Funded transcontinental railroad and gave land to settlers Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in all states

77 Economic Changes Caused by the War
National Bank Act of Established federal system of chartered banks - Set requirements for loans & called banks to be inspected Spurred industry - Aided the growth of several postwar industries such as petroleum, steel, food and processing - Government subsidized the construction of a national railroad system Gap between North and South widened - North: industry booms; commercial agriculture takes hold - South: industry, farms destroyed The war was a disaster for the South - Nation was faced with job of rebuilding the South

78 Costs of the War Hundreds of thousands dead, wounded; lives disrupted
- 620,000 men died in the war Financially, war costs the government estimated $3.3 billion

79 Civilians Follow New Paths
Some soldiers stayed in army others become civilians, many went west Robert E. Lee lost his home at Arlington - Became president of Washington College in Virginia - His citizenship wasn’t restored until 1975 Clara Barton helped found American Red Cross in 1881

80 The Assassination of Lincoln
April 14, Shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre 1st president to be assassinated Assassin John Wilkes Booth escaped but was trapped by Union cavalry 12 days later & shot in Virginia 7 million people paid respects to Lincoln’s funeral train (almost 1/3 of population


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