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U.S. History Chapter 17 Notes

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1 U.S. History Chapter 17 Notes
The Progressive Era Amid great political and social change, women gain a larger public role and lead the call for reform. President Theodore Roosevelt dubs his reform policies a Square Deal.

2 Section 1 The Origins of Progressivism
Political, economic, and social change in late 19th century America leads to broad progressive reforms

3 The Progressives Early 1900s, middle-class reformers addressed problems of 1890s Different reform efforts collectively called progressive movement Reformers aimed to restore economic opportunity & correct injustice by: - protecting social welfare & promoting moral improvement - creating economic reform & fostering efficiency

4 The Progressives Progressives had four major goals
- Protecting Social Welfare - Promoting Moral Improvement - Creating Economic Reform - Fostering Efficiency

5 Protecting Social Welfare
Wanted to help people deal with the harsh conditions of industrialization - Social Gospel & settlement houses inspired other reform groups Florence Kelley – became a political activist advocate for women & children - Helped pass law prohibiting child labor & limiting women’s hours

6 Protecting Social Welfare
Some believed that morality rather than the workplace held the key to improving the lives of the poor - Felt poor should uplift selves by improving own behavior Prohibition - banning of alcoholic drinks - Woman’s Christian Temperance Union spearheaded prohibition crusade

7 Creating Economic Reform
panic prompted many people to doubt capitalism Many became socialists Eugene V. Debbs helped organize the American Socialist Party

8 Creating Economic Reform
Journalists who exposed corruption in politics & business became known as Muckrakers - Ida Tarbell attacked John D. Rockefeller & Standard Oil for using cut throat businesses practices to eliminate competition

9 Fostering Efficiency Many progressive leaders used experts & science to make society & the workplace more efficient Louis D. Brandeis used social scientists’ & data to argue the cost of working long hours for the both the individual & society

10 Fostering Efficiency Business leaders began using Scientific management studies to improve efficiency in the workplace - Scientific management - time and motion studies applied to workplace

11 Fostering Efficiency Assembly lines were used to speed up production
- Made people work like machines - Caused higher worker turnover Henry Ford reduced workday to 8 hours & paid employees $5 a day to prevent turnover


13 Cleaning Up Local Government
Reformers tried to make government efficient & responsive to voters Some cities adopted government by commission of experts Many used council-manager - people elected council that appoints manager

14 State Reformers Many reforms were made at the state level
Robert M La Follette led the way after he was elected governor of Wisconsin - Passed laws to regulate railroads and banks - Also passed civil service laws Other states followed Wisconsin's example


16 Protecting Working Children
Child workers received lower wages - Small hands handled small parts better - Families need children’s wages National Child Labor Committee gathered evidence of harsh conditions - Accidents & diseases caused by overwork

17 Protecting Working Children
Labor unions argue children’s wages lower all wages Groups pressed government to ban child labor & cut hours Convinced most states to pass legislation banning child labor and setting maximum hours

18 Efforts to Limit Working Hours
Muller v. Oregon -Court upheld limiting women to 10-hour workday Bunting v. Oregon - upheld 10-hour workday for men Reformers won workers’ compensation for families of injured & killed

19 Reforming Elections Oregon adopted secret ballot, initiative, referendum, recall Initiative—bill proposed by people, not lawmakers, put on ballots Referendum—voters, not legislature, decide if initiative becomes law Recall—voters remove elected official through early election Primaries allow voters, not party machines, to choose candidates Direct Election of Senators Became law in 1913 (17th amendment

20 Section 2 Women in Public Life As a result of social and economic change, many women enter public life as workers and reformers.

21 Women in the Work Force Only middle-, upper-class women could devote themselves to home & family Poor women usually had to work for wages outside home Roles of Farm Women on Southern, & Midwestern farms remained the same - Performed household tasks, raised livestock, & help with crops

22 Women in the Work Force After 1900 – 20 % of women held jobs
- 25% in manufacturing - 50% industrial workers in garment trade - Earned half of men’s wages - Jobs in offices, stores, classrooms require high school education - Business schools trained bookkeepers, stenographers, & typists

23 Women in the Work Force 1870 - 70% of employed women did domestic work
- Many African-American, immigrant women do domestic labor - married immigrants took in piecework, or cared for boarders

24 Women Lead Reform Many female industrial workers sought to reform working conditions Women formed cultural clubs that sometimes became reform groups Many women who were active in public life had attended new women’s colleges 50% college-educated women never married & many work on social reforms

25 Women's Suffrage Women reformers targeted workplace, housing, education, food, & drugs National Association of Colored Women (NACW) - Goal was the moral education of the race was with which they were identified -Managed nurseries reading rooms, & kindergartens Susan B. Anthony of National American Woman Suffrage Assoc. (NAWSA) - worked for woman suffrage, or right to vote

26 Women's Suffrage A Three-Part Strategy for Suffrage
Convince state legislatures to give women right to vote Test 14th Amendment - states lost representation if they denied men vote Push for constitutional amendment to give women the vote

27 Section 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal .
As president, Theodore Roosevelt works to give citizens a Square Deal through progressive reforms

28 New Reformers Led by Republican Teddy Roosevelt (man of action)
1st challenged the power of corrupt money - Called Jay Gould a crook (no one else had the courage) - Gould was one of the most powerful men in America - Made fortune with crooked railroad deals This gained Roosevelt popularity

29 Roosevelt's Career Fought against Spain in Cuba (Rough Riders)
Became governor of New York - Tried to clean up government - Pushed through a civil service law - Hired qualified people NY political bosses couldn’t control him,& urged him to run for vice-president 1900 – William McKinley won reelection - Roosevelt became Vice President


31 Roosevelt Becomes President
McKinley shot in Buffalo Teddy Roosevelt became youngest person to hold office (age 42) His leadership & publicity campaigns helped create modern presidency Supports federal government role when states do not solve problems concerning national welfare

32 Roosevelt Becomes President
Public loved Roosevelt (1st to use bully pulpit) - Called him Teddy - He refused to shoot a bear cub while on a hunting trip - Resulted in new toy (the teddy bear)

33 The Square Deal Square Deal - Roosevelt’s progressive reforms
Roosevelt felt the government should act as an umpire - Make sure everyone got a "square deal"

34 Using Federal Power Trust busting 1902 Coal Strike
- Coal reserves were low - Roosevelt forced both sides to accept arbitration (3rd party decides dispute) - Each side received some of what it wanted - Sets principle of federal intervention when strike threatens public - Other presidents had sent troops to end strikes

35 Using Federal Power Railroad Regulation
– Interstate Commerce Act established the Interstate Commerce Commission to prevent railroads from colluding to fix high prices (ICC too weak to enforce law) - Roosevelt pushed for federal regulation to control abuses - Elkins Act -stopped rebates & sudden rate changes - Hepburn Act - limited free railroad passes & enabled ICC to set maximum railroad rates

36 Trust Busting Many big businesses had formed trust - Controlled prices
This had continued in spite of the Sherman Antirust Act of 1890 - Act made it illegal for corporations to gain complete control of a type of business - Had not been enforced By 1900, - trusts control about 80 % of U.S. industries Roosevelt wanted to curb trusts that

37 Trust Busting hurt public interest
Roosevelt began to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act - 1st target was the railroads Biggest target was Standard Oil Supreme Court ordered that it be broken up into smaller companies

38 Attack on laissez Faire
Laissez faire - hands off approach towards business Business leaders were shocked by Roosevelt's actions - They felt that government should not interfere with the economy - That the economy performed best when people were left free to create businesses and hire workers Progressives felt that laissez faire created high prices and low wages

39 The Muckrakers Food, drug advertisements made false claims& medicines were often unsafe Muckrakers - Writers who exposed corruption in American society Exposed unhappy practices in the food industry Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle - unsanitary conditions in meatpacking Roosevelt commission investigates, backs up Sinclair’s account Forced government to pass the laws

40 The Muckrakers Pure Food and Drug Act halted sale of
contaminated food & medicine - required truth in labeling FDA Roosevelt pushes for Meat Inspection Act - dictated sanitary requirements - Created federal meat inspection program (USDA) These laws gave government inspectors the power to enforce safety and health standards in the making and selling of food and medicine

41 Conservation Conservation - the controlled use natural resources
Roosevelt believed that water and timber resources should be maintained for the benefit of all people He transferred 150 million acres of federal land into the national parks system He urged the creation of national parks - Yellowstone, Yosemite, & The Grand Canyon

42 The Progressives and Race
Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to the White House Other than that the Progressive's record on racism was terrible - They worked to keep Jewish out of universities - Japanese immigrants were denied the right to own land in California - Racism resulted in increased segregation in the south

43 African Americans Organize
African Americans looked to new leaders to help them fight discrimination W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African Americans should focus on legality - Met with other black leader at Niagara Falls (Niagara Movement) - Formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

44 African Americans Organize
The National Urban League was formed - It focused on improving economic conditions for urban African Americans

45 Section 4 Progressivism Under Taft
Taft’s ambivalent approach to progressive reform leads to a split in the Republican Party and the loss of the presidency to the Democrats.

46 Changes in Leadership Progressives agenda became America’s plan
William Howard Taft elected as president - Roosevelt's hand picked successor


48 Taft’s Presidency Had cautious progressive agenda
- Chose to consolidate ratter than expand Roosevelt’s reforms Received gets little credit for successes - Busted over 90 trusts during his 4-year term Didn’t not use presidential bully pulpit to arouse public opinion Angered progressives when he signed the The Payne-Aldrich Tariff - compromise bill that called for moderate tariffs - Progressives thought he abandoned low tariffs & progressivism

49 Taft’s Presidency Disputing Public Lands
Angered conservationists when he appointed Richard A. Ballinger as secretary of the interior - Ballinger put reserved lands in public domain Interior official who protested action was fired Gifford Pinchot head of U.S. Forest Service - testified against Ballinger - He was also fired by Taft

50 The Republican Party Splits
Republicans split over Taft’s support of House Speaker Joseph Cannon Cannon weakened progressive agenda Many Progressives allied with Democrats Democrats gained control of the House of Representatives in the 1910 midterm election

51 The Bull Moose Party Roosevelt decided to run for president again
Taft people outmaneuvered Roosevelt’s for nomination in the 1912 Republican convention Progressives formed Bull Moose Party & nominated Roosevelt Progressives called for: - More voter participation in government - Woman suffrage - Labor legislation, business controls

52 The Bull Moose Party Roosevelt & Taft ran against Democrat Woodrow Wilson, - Wilson was a reform governor from NJ

53 Election of 1912 Wilson endorsed progressive platform called the New Freedom - Wanted stronger antitrust laws, banking reform, & lower tariffs - called all monopolies evil Roosevelt wanted oversight of big business - Didn’t think all monopolies were bad Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs wanted to end capitalism Wilson won great electoral victory & got majority in Congress


55 Section 5 Wilson’s New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson establishes a strong reform agenda as a progressive leader.

56 Wilson and Big business
Woodrow Wilson shared the same views as Roosevelt He felt that "good trust" didn't exist He focused on attacking trusts, tariffs, & high finance Clayton Antitrust Act - stopped companies from buying stock to form a monopoly - Stated that labor unions & farming organizations had the right to exist - Strikes & peaceful protest and the collection of strike benefits became legal - Ended injunctions against strikers unless threaten irreparable damage Federal Trade Commission Act of Established new “watchdog” agency FTC - investigated regulatory violations - ended unfair business practices

57 A New Tax System Wilson pushed for Underwood Act to substantially reduce tariffs Businesses tried to get Congress to vote it down Set precedent of giving State of the Union message in person Used bully pulpit to gain passage Government had to replace revenue lost by lowering tariffs Sixteenth Amendment legalized graduated federal income tax - 1% to 6% - Government earned a lot more money from income tax than it ever earned from tariffs

58 Federal Reserve System
Nation needed a way to strengthen the way banks were run as well as control the amount of money in circulation 1913 – Federal Reserve Act divided the nation into 12 banks and established a regional bank in each district These banks loaned served other banks in the region - Issued paper money - loaned money to banks in trouble Federal Reserve System - Brought private banking system under federal control

59 Women Win Suffrage College-educated women spread suffrage message to working-class College Equal Suffrage League went door-to-door, took trolley tours & gave speeches at stops Carrie Chapman Catt, head of NAWSA, stressed organization & lobbying

60 Women Win Suffrage National Woman’s Party aggressively pressured for suffrage amendment Work of patriotic women in war effort influenced politicians Nineteenth Amendment granted women right to vote

61 The Limits of Progressivism
Wilson disappointed Progressives who wanted social reforms concerning civil rights Won support of NAACP for favoring civil rights when he was a candidate running for president Opposed anti -lynching legislation after he became president Appointed fellow white Southerners to cabinet who extended segregation Segregated white and black federal employees NAACP felt betrayed which resulted in a rift with he president

62 The Twilight of Progressivism
Outbreak of World War I distracted most Americans Reform efforts stalled

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