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U.S. History Notes The Cold War Era 1945-1991 Vs..

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1 U.S. History Notes The Cold War Era Vs.

2 Cold War Conflict between the U.S.A and the Soviet Union Conflict between the U.S.A and the Soviet Union Never fought each other directly Never fought each other directly

3 The United Nations Formed after WWII Formed after WWII Main job is to work for world peace Main job is to work for world peace 1. Also tries to improve people’s lives (food, money and technology) 1947 – UN decided to split Palestine into 2 nations (Palestine ruled by England) 1947 – UN decided to split Palestine into 2 nations (Palestine ruled by England) 1. One Arab and one Jewish (most people in Palestine were Arab) 1948 – Jewish settlers declared the founding of Israel 1948 – Jewish settlers declared the founding of Israel Arab nations immediately attacked it Arab nations immediately attacked it Israel won the war plus others in following years Israel won the war plus others in following years

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6 Soviet Expansion Soviet troops occupied most of Eastern Europe at the end of WWII Soviet troops occupied most of Eastern Europe at the end of WWII Stalin worried that people might elect anti-Soviet governments Stalin worried that people might elect anti-Soviet governments He set up pro-Soviet communist governments in Eastern Europe He set up pro-Soviet communist governments in Eastern Europe Wanted to avoid another invasion form the west Wanted to avoid another invasion form the west U.S. thought communist wanted to take over the world U.S. thought communist wanted to take over the world

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8 Containing the Soviets Truman Gov. used containment policy Truman Gov. used containment policy U.S. would work in military and nonmilitary ways to prevent communism from spreading. U.S. would work in military and nonmilitary ways to prevent communism from spreading.

9 Containing the Soviets Continued U.S. helped Greece and Turkey defeat communist forces U.S. helped Greece and Turkey defeat communist forces Truman Doctrine – said the U.S. would help any free nation attempting to resist communism Truman Doctrine – said the U.S. would help any free nation attempting to resist communism

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11 The Marshall Plan European countries needed help after WWII European countries needed help after WWII 1947 – U.S. announced the Marshall Plan 1947 – U.S. announced the Marshall Plan 1. Named after Secretary of State George Marshall Goal was to rebuild the cities, farms and industries of Europe Goal was to rebuild the cities, farms and industries of Europe U.S. thought that it would help Europe to resist communism U.S. thought that it would help Europe to resist communism

12 The Marshall Plan Continued Offered Marshal Plan to the Soviets and Eastern Europe Offered Marshal Plan to the Soviets and Eastern Europe Stalin turned it down because he feared that it would threaten communist rule Stalin turned it down because he feared that it would threaten communist rule 1. Soviet Union developed own plan for Eastern Europe called COMECON

13 Berlin Airlift 1945 – Germany divided into zones 1945 – Germany divided into zones Parts controlled by U.S., England, and France became West Germany Parts controlled by U.S., England, and France became West Germany Part controlled by Soviets became East Germany Part controlled by Soviets became East Germany Former German capital of Berlin was also divided into halves Former German capital of Berlin was also divided into halves 1. It was located inside the Soviet controlled East Germany

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15 Berlin Airlift Continued Soviets wanted west out of Berlin and East Germany Soviets wanted west out of Berlin and East Germany 1948 – soviets close all ground routes into the city 1948 – soviets close all ground routes into the city U.S. and England flew supplies into West Berlin for nearly a year U.S. and England flew supplies into West Berlin for nearly a year

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18 NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization Western European countries, Canada, U.S. and Iceland promised to defend each Other in case of an attack Western European countries, Canada, U.S. and Iceland promised to defend each Other in case of an attack Warsaw Pact – Eastern Europe formed a similar alliance Warsaw Pact – Eastern Europe formed a similar alliance Europe was divided into two groups Europe was divided into two groups

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21 Cold War in Asia China- Communist gained control China- Communist gained control 1. Led by Mao Zedong Former Chinese Gov. ( led by Chiang Kai-shek) fled to island of Formosa (Modern day Taiwan) Former Chinese Gov. ( led by Chiang Kai-shek) fled to island of Formosa (Modern day Taiwan) Mao Zedong Chiang Kai-shek

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24 Cold War in Asia Continued U.S. saw this a part of a communist plot to rule the world U.S. saw this a part of a communist plot to rule the world Japan – General Macarthur became military ruler Japan – General Macarthur became military ruler 1. Created a new democracy 2. Also kept Japanese Emperor as a symbol of the nation 2. Also kept Japanese Emperor as a symbol of the nation 3. U.S. helped rebuild Japan 3. U.S. helped rebuild Japan 4. U.S. and Japan became close allies 4. U.S. and Japan became close allies

25 Cold War in Asia Continued Korea – had been Japanese colony since 1910 Korea – had been Japanese colony since Split into North and South after WWII 2. June communist North Korea invaded South Korea 2. June communist North Korea invaded South Korea

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27 The Korean War United nations sent troops from 16 countries to defend South Korea United nations sent troops from 16 countries to defend South Korea Gen. Macarthur appointed to lead the U.N. forces Gen. Macarthur appointed to lead the U.N. forces Landed forces behind enemy lines Landed forces behind enemy lines Retook South Korean capital within weeks Retook South Korean capital within weeks U.S. decided to free North Korea from communist rule U.S. decided to free North Korea from communist rule

28 The Korean War Tried to cut it off from China Tried to cut it off from China China entered the war China entered the war Macarthur wanted to bomb China Macarthur wanted to bomb China Truman was afraid that it would start World War III Truman was afraid that it would start World War III Macarthur publicly said that Truman was denying him the tools he needed to win the war Macarthur publicly said that Truman was denying him the tools he needed to win the war Truman fired Macarthur Truman fired Macarthur

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30 End of the Korean War War became unpopular in America War became unpopular in America Truman retired Truman retired Dwight Eisenhower becomes president Dwight Eisenhower becomes president

31 End of the Korean War Continued Eisenhower went to Korea let China Know he would compromise to end the war Eisenhower went to Korea let China Know he would compromise to end the war Also let China know he would use atomic bomb if war continued Also let China know he would use atomic bomb if war continued

32 Balance of Terror 1950’s U.S. and Russia develop Hydrogen Bomb and missiles to carry nuclear weapons 1950’s U.S. and Russia develop Hydrogen Bomb and missiles to carry nuclear weapons Threat of nuclear war becomes possibility Threat of nuclear war becomes possibility

33 Cold War “Thaw” Mid 1950s – Both American and Soviet leaders wanted to reduce cold war tensions Mid 1950s – Both American and Soviet leaders wanted to reduce cold war tensions Khrushchev called for peaceful coexistence (Soviets would compete with the west but avoid war) Khrushchev called for peaceful coexistence (Soviets would compete with the west but avoid war)

34 Cold War “Thaw” Stated that the USSR would surpass the west economically Stated that the USSR would surpass the west economically Tried to make the USSR more economically competitive Tried to make the USSR more economically competitive 1. Tied to improve working conditions and housing and to increase consumer goods 1. Tied to improve working conditions and housing and to increase consumer goods 2. Emphasized technological research

35 Cold War “Thaw” 1957 – Soviet launched the worlds 1st space satellite (Sputnik I) 1957 – Soviet launched the worlds 1st space satellite (Sputnik I) - Stunned the U.S.A. and boosted the Soviet’s prestige - Stunned the U.S.A. and boosted the Soviet’s prestige Both superpowers continued a massive military buildup Both superpowers continued a massive military buildup

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37 Cold War “Thaw” - Late 1950s – Successfully tested intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM’s) - Late 1950s – Successfully tested intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM’s) Both sides sought peace as they continued arms race (Summit meetings) Both sides sought peace as they continued arms race (Summit meetings) – Khrushchev and Eisenhower met in Geneva Switzerland – Khrushchev and Eisenhower met in Geneva Switzerland – They met at Camp David in Maryland – They met at Camp David in Maryland

38 Cold War “Thaw” Planned a four-power summit for Paris in May 1960 Planned a four-power summit for Paris in May Soviets shot down an American U-2 spy plane and captured its pilot shortly before the summit - Soviets shot down an American U-2 spy plane and captured its pilot shortly before the summit - Khrushchev denounced the U.S.A and cancelled the summit - Khrushchev denounced the U.S.A and cancelled the summit

39 Trouble in Berlin 1960 – John F Kennedy became president 1960 – John F Kennedy became president East Germans went to West Berlin to escape communism East Germans went to West Berlin to escape communism Communist built the Berlin Wall Communist built the Berlin Wall 1. Guards shot anyone tying to escape

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43 Berlin Wall

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46 Bay of Pigs Fidel Castro took over Cuba Fidel Castro took over Cuba Began taking over American owned businesses Began taking over American owned businesses

47 Bay of Pigs Continued Kennedy approved plan for anti- Castro Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro (American help) Kennedy approved plan for anti- Castro Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro (American help) 1. Invaders were crushed at the Bay of Pigs

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49 Cuban Missile Crisis

50 Cuban Missile Crises Russia began putting nuclear missiles in Cuba Russia began putting nuclear missiles in Cuba U.S. responded by blockading Cuba U.S. responded by blockading Cuba Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if U.S. promised not to invade Cuba Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if U.S. promised not to invade Cuba Closest we ever came to nuclear war Closest we ever came to nuclear war Both sides began trying to improve relations Both sides began trying to improve relations

51 The Brezhnev Era Mid 1970s - Leonid Brezhnev emerged as the dominant leader Mid 1970s - Leonid Brezhnev emerged as the dominant leader Reversed Khrushchev’s de- Stalinization policies Reversed Khrushchev’s de- Stalinization policies - Clamped down on intellectuals and dissidents - Clamped down on intellectuals and dissidents

52 The Brezhnev Era Increased the Soviet nuclear arsenal and conventional weapons Increased the Soviet nuclear arsenal and conventional weapons - Felt military power gave the USSR a stronger position in world diplomacy

53 The Brezhnev Era Military spending stifled growth in other sectors Military spending stifled growth in other sectors 1. Many industries technology was outdated by 20 years 1. Many industries technology was outdated by 20 years 2. Farmers were only 1/6 as productive as American counterparts 3. Forced to again import grain from the West 3. Forced to again import grain from the West

54 The Brezhnev Era Brezhnev introduced policy of détente Brezhnev introduced policy of détente 1. Improvement of American- Soviet relations Brezhnev wanted to reduce military spending without falling behind Brezhnev wanted to reduce military spending without falling behind - Also needed access to western technology, grain, and consumer goods - Also needed access to western technology, grain, and consumer goods Brezhnev – Nixon summit led to the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitations Agreement Treaty (SALT) Brezhnev – Nixon summit led to the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitations Agreement Treaty (SALT) Détente lasted from 1972 to 1979 Détente lasted from 1972 to 1979

55 The Brezhnev Era 1979 – Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to reinforce local Communist control 1979 – Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to reinforce local Communist control

56 Chapter 30 Section 2 Notes The Vietnam War

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58 Background of the Vietnam War France wanted U.S. to help it keep Vietnam France wanted U.S. to help it keep Vietnam Ho Chi Minh led Vietnamese communist to victory against the French Ho Chi Minh led Vietnamese communist to victory against the French

59 The Geneva Accords Meeting held in Geneva Switzerland Meeting held in Geneva Switzerland Divided Vietnam into two halves Divided Vietnam into two halves 1. North was communist – led by Ho Chi Minh 2. South was noncommunist – led by Ngo Dinh Diem 2. South was noncommunist – led by Ngo Dinh Diem Accords called for free elections to in 1956 Accords called for free elections to in Diem refused to hold elections in the south (knew he would lose) U.S. sent military advisors to help him keep control U.S. sent military advisors to help him keep control

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61 Vietcong Vietcong South Vietnamese communist South Vietnamese communist Goal was to drive Diem and the Americans out and reunite Vietnam Goal was to drive Diem and the Americans out and reunite Vietnam 1961 – JFK becomes president and sends more military advisors 1961 – JFK becomes president and sends more military advisors 1. Let the military overthrow Diem 1. Let the military overthrow Diem 2. Believed a better leader could win the war 2. Believed a better leader could win the war

62 Deeper U.S. involvement 1963 Lyndon B Johnson became president 1963 Lyndon B Johnson became president 1. 1 st President to send combat troops to Vietnam

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66 Deeper U.S. Involvement Continued Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – gave President Johnson the power to take all necessary measures to protect Americans in Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – gave President Johnson the power to take all necessary measures to protect Americans in Vietnam Johnson used this as a declaration of war Johnson used this as a declaration of war 1. Began bombing North Vietnam 1. Began bombing North Vietnam

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73 Debate over war Most people supported the war in the beginning Most people supported the war in the beginning Military leaders told everyone that the war was going well Military leaders told everyone that the war was going well Some people wanted the U.S. to launch a full scale of North Vietnam Some people wanted the U.S. to launch a full scale of North Vietnam Some people wanted the U.S. to pull out Some people wanted the U.S. to pull out 1. Soldiers had little support among the Vietnamese people 2. Couldn’t tell who the enemy was 2. Couldn’t tell who the enemy was

74 The Tet Offensive January 1968 – Vietcong launched surprise attacks on all cities in South Vietnam January 1968 – Vietcong launched surprise attacks on all cities in South Vietnam Supposed to be a holiday ceasefire (Tet is Vietnamese new year) Supposed to be a holiday ceasefire (Tet is Vietnamese new year)

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76 The Tet Offensive Continued Tet Offensive showed the American people that the war was far from over Tet Offensive showed the American people that the war was far from over People found it hard to believe the Government People found it hard to believe the Government Ending the war became more important than winning Ending the war became more important than winning

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79 Nixon Ends the War 1968 – Richard Nixon elected president 1968 – Richard Nixon elected president 1. Promised to end the war 1. Promised to end the war

80 Nixon Ends the War Continued Withdrew American soldiers and turned the war over to the South Vietnamese army Withdrew American soldiers and turned the war over to the South Vietnamese army 1972 – last American troops were withdrawn 1972 – last American troops were withdrawn More bombs dropped on Vietnam than in all of WWII More bombs dropped on Vietnam than in all of WWII MIAs – remained MIAs – remained 1. Vietnam remained a painful scar in American history

81 Chapter 30 Section 3 Notes The End of the Cold War

82 Nixon Eases the Cold War Nixon thought of foreign policy in terms of power not morals Nixon thought of foreign policy in terms of power not morals 1. Believed the enemies of your enemies were your friends Tried to divide China and Russia Tried to divide China and Russia

83 Nixon Eases the Cold War Continued Nixon Traveled to Russia for Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) Nixon Traveled to Russia for Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) Signed 1 st agreement with Russia to limit the growth of nuclear missiles Signed 1 st agreement with Russia to limit the growth of nuclear missiles Both sides were allowed 4,000 missiles between them Both sides were allowed 4,000 missiles between them

84 Nixon Eases the Cold War Continued President Gerald Ford continued Nixon’s policy of detente President Gerald Ford continued Nixon’s policy of detente

85 Carter’s Foreign Policy Jimmy Carter served as president from 1977 to 1981 Jimmy Carter served as president from 1977 to 1981 Wanted to help 3rd world countries Wanted to help 3rd world countries Worried about human rights – peoples basic rights because they are human Worried about human rights – peoples basic rights because they are human

86 Carter’s Foreign Policy Continued Signed a treaty that gave the Panama Canal back to Panama in the Signed a treaty that gave the Panama Canal back to Panama in the 2000

87 Carter’s Foreign Policy Continued 1979 – Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan (Attempting to save a failing communist government) 1979 – Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan (Attempting to save a failing communist government) 1. U.S. imposed an embargo on grain shipments to the Soviet Union 2. U.S. boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow 2. U.S. boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow

88 Carter’s Foreign Policy in the Middle East President Carter experienced both his greatest achievement and worst setback in the Middle East President Carter experienced both his greatest achievement and worst setback in the Middle East Camp David Accords – Egypt became the 1 st of Israel’s neighbors to recognize its right to exist Camp David Accords – Egypt became the 1 st of Israel’s neighbors to recognize its right to exist

89 Carter’s Foreign Policy in the Middle East Continued 1979 – Group of Iranians seized the American embassy and hold hostages for over a year 1979 – Group of Iranians seized the American embassy and hold hostages for over a year 1. American hostages were freed in January 1981

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91 Ronald Reagan Became president in 1980 Became president in 1980 Called Soviet Union an Evil Empire Called Soviet Union an Evil Empire Began most expensive arms build up in history Began most expensive arms build up in history Defense system “star wars” Defense system “star wars”

92 Ronald Reagan Reagan challenged communist everywhere Reagan challenged communist everywhere Smuggled weapons to the rebels in Afghanistan Smuggled weapons to the rebels in Afghanistan Backed the Contra rebels in Nicaragua (Iran Contra Affair) Backed the Contra rebels in Nicaragua (Iran Contra Affair) Backed the Government in El Salvador against communist rebels Backed the Government in El Salvador against communist rebels Invaded the Caribbean Island nation of Grenada to overthrow a communist government Invaded the Caribbean Island nation of Grenada to overthrow a communist government

93 Reforming the Soviet Union 1985 – Soviet Union was in trouble 1985 – Soviet Union was in trouble Top leaders were old and sick Top leaders were old and sick Communist economy was falling apart Communist economy was falling apart Soviet Union was bogged down in a no win situation in Afghanistan Soviet Union was bogged down in a no win situation in Afghanistan People didn’t have comfortable lives or freedom People didn’t have comfortable lives or freedom Eastern Communist nations became restless due to seeing how prosperous the West was Eastern Communist nations became restless due to seeing how prosperous the West was

94 Reforming the Soviet Union Continued Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of Soviet Union Wanted stop arms race (Bankrupting Country) Wanted stop arms race (Bankrupting Country) Wanted to reform system Wanted to reform system Allowed people to criticize government Allowed people to criticize government

95 Reforming the Soviet Union Continued Reagan and Gorbachev Liked and trusted each other Reagan and Gorbachev Liked and trusted each other Soviet Union agreed not to use force to control Eastern Europe and to end the war in Afghanistan in exchange for the U.S. ending the arms race Soviet Union agreed not to use force to control Eastern Europe and to end the war in Afghanistan in exchange for the U.S. ending the arms race 1987 Reagan and Gorbachev signed an agreement to destroy all of their medium range nuclear missiles 1987 Reagan and Gorbachev signed an agreement to destroy all of their medium range nuclear missiles

96 The Soviet Union Collapses 1988 – George Bush became president 1988 – George Bush became president Soviet Union pulled the last troops out of Afghanistan Soviet Union pulled the last troops out of Afghanistan 1989 – Berlin Wall was torn down 1989 – Berlin Wall was torn down East and West Germany officially reunited East and West Germany officially reunited Eastern European freed themselves from Communism Eastern European freed themselves from Communism

97 The Soviet Union Collapses Continued August 1991 – Hard line Communist leaders tried to seize control of the government August 1991 – Hard line Communist leaders tried to seize control of the government Boris Yeltsin led the fight to defeat the communist and became very popular Boris Yeltsin led the fight to defeat the communist and became very popular 1. He was wiling to break completely with communism 1. He was wiling to break completely with communism

98 The Soviet Union Collapses Continued Gorbachev lost power as a result of not being trusted by either the people or the communist Gorbachev lost power as a result of not being trusted by either the people or the communist December 25, 1991 – The Soviet flag was lowered for the last time in the Kremlin December 25, 1991 – The Soviet flag was lowered for the last time in the Kremlin Collapse of the Soviet Union meant the end of the Cold War Collapse of the Soviet Union meant the end of the Cold War

99 Cold War Simliarites Marshal Plan Marshal Plan NATO NATO Vietnam Vietnam COMECON Warsaw Pact Afghanistan


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