Presentation on theme: "The civil War 1860-1865 Union vs confederacy Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:
The civil War Union vs confederacy Reconstruction
Mexican War Ends- opens new lands to the settlers and the debate increased over the slavery issue David Wilmot- Northern Democrat – bill that proposed that slavery not be allowed in any territory gained from Mexico- Wilmot proviso Angered southerners –house passes bill, senate refused it.
Popular Sovereignty- gave new citizens of territory the right to decide the slavery issue in the territory Election of 1848: Zachary Taylor wins avoids slavery issue but he doesn’t think slavery survival depends on expanding west
1848: gold discovered in California- rush of people to the west. (Forty-Niners) transcontinental Rail Road- to the west.
Gadsden Purchase: Mexico sells parts of Arizona and New Mexico to the united states
Compromise of 1850 1. California to union as free states. 2. unorganized western territory free 3. Utah and New Mexico popular sovereignty 4. Fugitive Slave Act: required that northern states forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the south. Northern had to help or could go to jail. Angered Northern.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Beecher Stowe- Horrors of slavery, stirs strong feeling in north. Underground Railroad: Harriet Tubman, famous conductor Kansas –Nebraska act: bill proposed to allow popular sovereignty in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, repelled to Missouri compromise. Bleeding Kansas – pro slavery settlers attacked antislavery settlers.
Violence on the senate floor senator Charles Sumner beaten. Kansas Nebraska act ended the Whig party (spilt) Nothern whigs joined anti slavery democrats and others to form Republican Party – republican party- did not want slavery in new territory (undecided on slavery) American Party of Know-nothings –anti immigrant /catholic dissolved
1856 Election : Southern Democrats nominate James Buchanan who wins election Dred Scott vs. Sandford- enslaved man sues for freedom, supreme court- rules that slaves were not citizens and could not sue in courts. Northerners disliked decision, southerners call for northerners to obey or south will leave the union.
Lincoln and Douglas Debates- Lincoln established a positive nation reputation for himself but losses the election. John Brown’s Raid: abolitionist planned to take over arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Va. Free the slaves, insurrection. Seized the arsenal- stopped by Robert E. Lee and was tried, convicted and sentenced to death. Brown was seen as hero in the north- south against the north.
Abraham Lincoln (republicans) won the 1860 Presidential election. Southerners see this as an end to their way of life. There is no choice but to secede. South Carolina- 1 st to secede followed by Lower south States. ..
State Date of Secession South Carolina December 20, 1860 MississippiJanuary 9, 1861 FloridaJanuary 10, 1861 AlabamaJanuary 11, 1861 GeorgiaJanuary 19, 1861 LouisianaJanuary 26, 1861 TexasFebruary 1, 1861 VirginiaApril 17, 1861* ArkansasMay 6, 1861* North Carolina May 20, 1861* TennesseeJune 8, 1861*
South seize all federal property in their states. Except for fort Sumter and fort Pickens Lincoln decides to resupply fort Sumter Battle of Fort Sumter was the beginning of the civil war South Declares New Nation Confederate States of America. Capital of confederacy moved to Va. Who is the president of the Confederacy : Jefferson Davis
Lincoln works to keep middle states from seceding and places Baltimore under martial law. He suspend Habeas Corpus.
Robert E Lee- He was from Virginia Commander of the confederacy’s army of northern Virginia. Surrendered to Grant
Ulysses S. Grant – lead the union army and served two terms as president. Know for winning at the battle at Vicksburg General of the union in the west. He eventually took over the entire Union army in 1864 Accepted Gen. Lee surrender at Appomattox court house
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson- confederate. Got name during battle of bull run. Some believed the south would have won if he wouldn’t have died Used geography to his advantage
William T. Sherman- Union General Victoria at the battle of Atlanta. Burned Atlanta down March to the sea
Opposing Sides: Comparison of North and South SouthNorth Strong military tradition, Large # of trained officers, military colleges in the north Strong naval tradition, strong navy, ship yard 9 million people22 million people Strong agriculture, 20% of factories, producing only 10% of clothing and 7% of pig Iron Strong industrial economy, has 80% of factories, 90% production of clothing and 93% of pig iron. One factory producing cannons, few manufactures of guns/gunpowder Almost all firearms & gunpowder factories located in the North Modest rail system, one main lineTwice as much as in the South Small banks with few reserves available to loan to government Large banks with large reserves located in the North. Politically unitedSomewhat politically divided
Lincoln’s goal - preserve the Union Conscription – military draft – democrats oppose and riot suspends writs of Habeas Corpus – not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime
southern Government: States Rights, Central government weak Diplomatic Challenges Union(U.S.) did not want European country in the war, the south needed help, US blockades the south. South stopped selling to Europe to pressure them into the war. Confederacy sends James Mason and John Slidell to Europe on the ship called the Trent. It was captured. The TRENT AFFAIR
Modern War- new technology – new tactics cone shaped bullets – more accurate / faster to fire trenches and barricades now used Ironclads (Monitor and Merrimack 1 st iron clad battle)
Anaconda Plan: Union ( Winfield Scott) blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down Mississippi to divide the south. Surrounding the confederacy and cutting off all supply lines.
The Emancipation Proclamation: September 22, 1862 Democrats opposed ending slavery. Republicans were split on the Issue. As the way pushed on and casualties increased, many began to agree that slavery had to end. This proclamation was decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after Jan. 1, Changed the purpose of the war from preserving the Union to ending slavery.
Life During the War: Economics: South’s transportation system gone. Food shortages, southerners questioning the cause. North had economic boom –supplying troops. African Americans join the Union Army and Navy. (54 th Massachusetts ) Military Life: both sides endured hardships. Food was scarce for South – bread made of cornmeal, North potatoes, beans and hardtack. Medical Care: Many casualties and injuries – but soldiers suffered form diseases such as smallpox, dysentery, and pneumonia. Elizabeth Blackwell - first female physician – nurses training. Clara Barton – battle field nurse.
Prisoners of War: Early in war, none. Andersonville Prison GA – Henry Wirz head of the prison, 110 men a day died. Wirz only person executed for war crimes
Antietam Creek – McClellan beat Lee – bloodiest one day battle in the war Battle of Gettysburg- key turning point in the civil war. Bloodiest battle of the war. 51,000 causalities. Last time the south tried to invade the north **Vicksburg – union(Gen. Grant) took total control of the Mississippi River. Split the south into two pieces Grant laid siege: residents ate horses, mules, dogs and rats.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war; testing whether our nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure.
The War Ends: (See Battle Chart) Final conflicts: Grant gives command to Sherman in the West – Grant goes to Washington to face General Lee in the North. Grant has a hard time breaking the confederacy, Union has heavy losses – Grant puts Petersburg under siege. General Sherman forces move South and East to Atlanta, they encircle the city and on September 1, 1864 Atlanta is taken. Battle of Atlanta. Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground. Sherman tangles the rail lines making them into Sherman's Neckties. On Nov. 15, 1864 – Sherman’s forces start their March to the Sea. The troop burn, pillage and destroy everything through Georgia, cutting a 60 mile wide path through the state.
The South Surrenders:The War 1864 election – Lincoln vs. McClellan Lincoln 55% of the vote mandate – a clear sign from the voters to end slavery. Jan. 31 st, 1865 – 13 th Amendment – banning slavery in the US General Lee withdrew from Petersburg, stopped in Appomattox. Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. Apr. 9, Grant assures US not to prosecute confederate troops for treason. Lincoln assassinated at the Ford Theater. John Wilkes Booth – Nation is shocked. South is destroyed, changed American society by ending slavery, saved the Union and strengthened the power of the Federal Government.
Republican Rule in the South : By 1870’s all the Southern States had rejoined the Union many northerners moved south after civil war and supported republican – Carpetbaggers. Scalawags – Southern whites that worked with Republican after the civil war. 1 st African Americans take offices: Joseph Rainey – House of Representatives Hiram Revels – Senate Republican government repelled the Black codes and improved conditions for all. Freedmen’s Bureau – education
Joseph RaineyHiram Revels House of Representatives Senate South Carolina Mississippi
Religion plays a big role in their lives: African Americans work to establish their own churches and organizations to help each other. Southern Resistance: Not all was well for the African American. Southern whites resented African Americans – Ku Klux Klan – their goal was to drive Union troops and carpet baggers out of the South and have the Democratic take control. To Control the Klan: The Enforcement Acts 1. Federal Crime to interfere in voting rights 2. Federal Elections under supervision 3. Ku Klux Klan Act – Outlawed Klan acts, member arrested
Reconstruction Collapses: Grant becomes president – Union War General – Little experience in politics. Grants 1 st Term was good, congress kept up the push for reconstruction. Grants 2 nd Term is marred by scandal: Whiskey Ring – cheating of taxes on alcohol Panic of 1873 – Smaller banks closed, stock market dropped, high unemployment – people lose trust in the Republican Party and they lose control of the house of Representatives and lose seats in the Senate. With the Democrats in charge the End of Reconstruction is near.
Reconstruction Ends: Southern Democrats now take control of the state and local governments. By 1876 Democrats take control of most of the state legislatures in the South. Rutherford B Hayes is elected as president and wants to END RECONSTRUCTION. For Hayes to win the election a deal is made, Compromise of 1877 – promise to pull Federal Troops out of the south and stop the district sections if Hayes was put into office. Hayes pulled the troops out ending reconstruction and the advances for Freedmen and African Americans.
The New South: Rich Southerners and Northerners form together to increase the economic output in the south. This brings an end to African American hopes for gaining land the South. Many become dependent on the Rich White of the South almost pushing all back into slavery. Tenant farming – paying rent for land they farmed sharecroppers- paid their rent with a portion of their crops They often were charge 40% interest on materials and supplies. Debt peonage – trapped sharecroppers on the land - could not pay their debts and leave. Some forced into labor New Freedoms African Americans had gained during reconstruction now was lost.
Chapter 12 Pages
Ideas for Reconstruction - Plans: South was destroyed: Value of Land down Confederate money worthless Economy in shambles Railroads destroyed Lost work force Agricultural output comes to a stop. Lincoln’s Plan: bring the states back without high punishments: Amnesty- pardons to all southerners that take oath of loyalty to the United States. 10% of states population take the oath states can form a new government.
Amnesty to all most all Southerners who took a loyalty oath. 10 %of population taken loyalty oath states can organize new govt. Former high ranking official would not receive amnesty.
Amnesty for those taking loyalty oath excludes high ranking officials and property owners of $20,000 or more States must ratify 13 th amendment
Two thoughts to the forgiveness: Moderate Republicans: Lincoln to easy on the south Wanted: to keep the south down – no right to officials Wade-Davis Bill - Radical Republican – Thaddeus Stevens – opposed Lincoln’s plan. Wanted to punish the south Wanted:Prevent south from gaining power Republican party to become strong in the south government to help African Americans gain equality in the south – vote. Keep the south out of congress. Wade Davis Bill passed but Lincoln used a pocket veto to stop it.
Congressional Reconstruction: Lincoln Assassinated: Andrew Johnson takes over. Similar plan to Lincoln. Against the upper elite of the south – felt they caused the war. Johnson’ s Plan: Pardon all former citizens and return their property Upper elite not pardoned Each state had to ratify the 13 th Amendment Rejection of debt acquired Southern States return to the US. Election to congress increased the south's representation. 13 th amendment – no more slavery South passes new laws in the South – Black Codes limiting rights if freedmen in the South.
Headed by Thaddeus Stevens Military Reconstruction act 14 th and 15 th amendment Voting rights for African Americans Promoted equal opportunity in govt and education for African Americans. Punish the south
Radical Republicans take charge of Congress, oppose Johnson’s plan Civil Rights Act – citizenship to all except Native Americans, African Americans can own land and be treated equal in court. 14 th Amendment: equal protection under the law, citizenship for all americans (including African americans 1867 – Military Reconstruction Act. Divided the confederacy into 5 districts. Union Generals placed in charge of each. Each district had to pass a constitutional plan through Congress.
Congress had Edwin Stanton (Sec of War) on their side to enforce policy. Passed Tenure of Office to protect him from being fired by Johnson. Johnson fired Stanton anyway and was impeached – one vote short of removal. Johnson’s power was now gone. Republican Congress Ruled 15 Amendment passed - African Americans right to vote
The Freedman Bureau: First ever Federal Relief Agency Feed, cloth, educated and helped freedmen find work. (Morehouse College ) Morehouse college -Originally called Atlanta Baptist Seminary then Atlanta Baptist College -originally founded to train African American men to be ministers and teachers - called the “black Harvard” - paved the way for higher education for blacks