Presentation on theme: "The civil War Union vs confederacy Reconstruction"— Presentation transcript:
1The civil War 1860-1865 Union vs confederacy Reconstruction Unit 4The civil War Union vs confederacyReconstruction
2Mexican War Ends- opens new lands to the settlers and the debate increased over the slavery issue David Wilmot- Northern Democrat – bill that proposed that slavery not be allowed in any territory gained from Mexico- Wilmot provisoAngered southerners –house passes bill , senate refused it.
3Popular Sovereignty- gave new citizens of territory the right to decide the slavery issue in the territoryElection of 1848: Zachary Taylor wins avoids slavery issue but he doesn’t think slavery survival depends on expanding west
41848: gold discovered in California- rush of people to the west 1848: gold discovered in California- rush of people to the west. (Forty-Niners) transcontinental Rail Road- to the west.
5Gadsden Purchase: Mexico sells parts of Arizona and New Mexico to the united states
6Mounting Violence and Movement toward War Compromise of 18501. California to union as free states.2. unorganized western territory free3. Utah and New Mexico popular sovereignty4. Fugitive Slave Act: required that northern states forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the south.Northern had to help or could go to jail. Angered Northern.
7Causes of civil warUncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Beecher Stowe- Horrors of slavery, stirs strong feeling in north.Underground Railroad: Harriet Tubman, famous conductorKansas –Nebraska act: bill proposed to allow popular sovereignty in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, repelled to Missouri compromise.Bleeding Kansas – pro slavery settlers attacked antislavery settlers.
9Violence on the senate floor senator Charles Sumner beaten. Kansas Nebraska act ended the Whig party (spilt)Nothern whigs joined anti slavery democrats and others to form Republican Party – republican party- did not want slavery in new territory (undecided on slavery)American Party of Know-nothings –anti immigrant /catholic dissolved
10Crisis deepens1856 Election : Southern Democrats nominate James Buchanan who wins electionDred Scott vs. Sandford- enslaved man sues for freedom, supreme court- rules that slaves were not citizens and could not sue in courts.Northerners disliked decision, southerners call for northerners to obey or south will leave the union.
11Sectionalism continues Lincoln and Douglas Debates- Lincoln established a positive nation reputation for himself but losses the election.John Brown’s Raid: abolitionist planned to take over arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Va. Free the slaves, insurrection.Seized the arsenal- stopped by Robert E. Lee and was tried, convicted and sentenced to death. Brown was seen as hero in the north- south against the north.
131860 Presidential Election :The Union Dissolves Abraham Lincoln (republicans) won the 1860 Presidential election. Southerners see this as an end to their way of life.There is no choice but to secede.South Carolina- 1st to secede followed by Lower south States..
14SECESSION FROM UNION State Date of Secession South Carolina December 20, 1860MississippiJanuary 9, 1861FloridaJanuary 10, 1861AlabamaJanuary 11, 1861GeorgiaJanuary 19, 1861LouisianaJanuary 26, 1861TexasFebruary 1, 1861VirginiaApril 17, 1861*ArkansasMay 6, 1861*North CarolinaMay 20, 1861*TennesseeJune 8, 1861*
15Lincoln decides to resupply fort Sumter South seize all federal property in their states. Except for fort Sumter and fort PickensLincoln decides to resupply fort SumterBattle of Fort Sumter was the beginning of the civil warSouth Declares New Nation Confederate States of America.Capital of confederacy moved to Va.Who is the president of the Confederacy :Jefferson Davis
16Lincoln works to keep middle states from seceding and places Baltimore under martial law. He suspend Habeas Corpus .
18Key Figures in Civil War Robert E Lee-He was from VirginiaCommander of the confederacy’s army of northern Virginia.Surrendered to Grant
19Ulysses S. Grant – lead the union army and served two terms as president. Know for winning at the battle at VicksburgGeneral of the union in the west. He eventually took over the entire Union army in 1864Accepted Gen. Lee surrender at Appomattox court house
20Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson- confederate Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson- confederate. Got name during battle of bull run.Some believed the south would have won if he wouldn’t have diedUsed geography to his advantage
21Key Figures Continued William T. Sherman- Union General Victoria at the battle of Atlanta. Burned Atlanta downMarch to the sea
22Opposing Sides: Comparison of North and South Strong military tradition, Large # of trained officers, military colleges in the northStrong naval tradition, strong navy, ship yard9 million people22 million peopleStrong agriculture, 20% of factories, producing only 10% of clothing and 7% of pig IronStrong industrial economy, has 80% of factories, 90% production of clothing and 93% of pig iron.One factory producing cannons, few manufactures of guns/gunpowderAlmost all firearms & gunpowder factories located in the NorthModest rail system, one main lineTwice as much as in the SouthSmall banks with few reserves available to loan to governmentLarge banks with large reserves located in the North.Politically unitedSomewhat politically divided
23Lincoln’s goal - preserve the Union Conscription – military draft – democrats oppose and riotsuspends writs of Habeas Corpus – not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime
24southern Government: States Rights, Central government weak Diplomatic ChallengesUnion(U.S.) did not want European country in the war, the south needed help, US blockades the south. South stopped selling to Europe to pressure them into the war.Confederacy sends James Mason and John Slidell to Europe on the ship called the Trent. It was captured. The TRENT AFFAIR
25First Modern War Modern War- new technology – new tactics cone shaped bullets – more accurate / faster to firetrenches and barricades now usedIronclads (Monitor and Merrimack 1st iron clad battle)
27How to end the warAnaconda Plan: Union ( Winfield Scott) blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down Mississippi to divide the south.Surrounding the confederacy and cutting off all supply lines.
28The Emancipation Proclamation: September 22, 1862 Democrats opposed ending slavery. Republicans were split on the Issue. As the way pushed on and casualties increased, many began to agree that slavery had to end. This proclamation was decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after Jan. 1, Changed the purpose of the war from preserving the Union to ending slavery.
29Economics: South’s transportation system gone. Food Life During the War:Economics: South’s transportation system gone. Foodshortages, southerners questioning the cause. Northhad economic boom –supplying troops.African Americans join the Union Army and Navy (54th Massachusetts )Military Life: both sides endured hardships.Food was scarce for South – bread made of cornmeal, North potatoes, beans and hardtack.Medical Care: Many casualties and injuries – but soldiers suffered form diseases such as smallpox, dysentery, and pneumonia.Elizabeth Blackwell - first female physician – nurses training.Clara Barton – battle field nurse.
30Andersonville, GaPrisoners of War: Early in war, none. Andersonville Prison GA – Henry Wirz head of the prison, 110 men a day died. Wirz only person executed for war crimes
31Key battlesAntietam Creek – McClellan beat Lee – bloodiest one day battle in the warBattle of Gettysburg- key turning point in the civil war. Bloodiest battle of the war. 51,000 causalities . Last time the south tried to invade the north**Vicksburg – union(Gen. Grant) took total control of the Mississippi River . Split the south into two piecesGrant laid siege: residents ate horses , mules, dogs and rats.
32Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war; testing whether our nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure .
33The War Ends: (See Battle Chart) Final conflicts: Grant gives command to Sherman in the West – Grant goes to Washington to face General Lee in the North. Grant has a hard time breaking the confederacy, Union has heavy losses – Grant puts Petersburg under siege.General Sherman forces move South and East to Atlanta, they encircle the city and on September 1, Atlanta is taken. Battle of Atlanta. Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground. Sherman tangles the rail lines making them into Sherman's Neckties.On Nov. 15, 1864 – Sherman’s forces start their March to the Sea. The troop burn, pillage and destroy everything through Georgia, cutting a 60 mile wide path through the state.
34Jan. 31st, 1865 – 13th Amendment – banning slavery in the US The South Surrenders: The War1864 election – Lincoln vs. McClellan Lincoln 55% of the votemandate – a clear sign from the voters to end slavery.Jan. 31st, 1865 – 13th Amendment – banning slavery in the USGeneral Lee withdrew from Petersburg , stopped in Appomattox. Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. Apr. 9, 1865.Grant assures US not to prosecute confederate troops for treason.Lincoln assassinated at the Ford Theater. John Wilkes Booth – Nation is shocked.South is destroyed, changed American society by ending slavery, saved the Union and strengthened the power of the Federal Government.
36Republican Rule in the South: By 1870’s all the Southern States had rejoined the Unionmany northerners moved south after civil war and supported republican – Carpetbaggers.Scalawags – Southern whites that worked with Republican after the civil war.1st African Americans take offices:Joseph Rainey – House of RepresentativesHiram Revels – SenateRepublican government repelled the Black codes and improved conditions for all.Freedmen’s Bureau – education
37Joseph Rainey Hiram Revels House of Representatives SenateSouth Carolina Mississippi
38Religion plays a big role in their lives: African Americans work to establish their own churches and organizations to help each other. Southern Resistance: Not all was well for the African American. Southern whites resented African Americans – Ku Klux Klan – their goal was to drive Union troops and carpet baggers out of the South and have the Democratic take control. To Control the Klan: The Enforcement Acts 1. Federal Crime to interfere in voting rights 2. Federal Elections under supervision 3. Ku Klux Klan Act – Outlawed Klan acts, member arrested
39Reconstruction Collapses: Grant becomes president – Union War General – Little experience in politics. Grants 1st Term was good, congress kept up the push for reconstruction. Grants 2nd Term is marred by scandal: Whiskey Ring – cheating of taxes on alcohol Panic of 1873 – Smaller banks closed, stock market dropped, high unemployment – people lose trust in the Republican Party and they lose control of the house of Representatives and lose seats in the Senate. With the Democrats in charge the End of Reconstruction is near.
40Reconstruction Ends: Southern Democrats now take control of the state and local governments. By 1876 Democrats take control of most of the state legislatures in the South. Rutherford B Hayes is elected as president and wants to END RECONSTRUCTION. For Hayes to win the election a deal is made, Compromise of 1877 – promise to pull Federal Troops out of the south and stop the district sections if Hayes was put into office. Hayes pulled the troops out ending reconstruction and the advances for Freedmen and African Americans.
41The New South: Rich Southerners and Northerners form together to increase the economic output in the south. This brings an end to African American hopes for gaining land the South. Many become dependent on the Rich White of the South almost pushing all back into slavery. Tenant farming – paying rent for land they farmed sharecroppers- paid their rent with a portion of their crops They often were charge 40% interest on materials and supplies. Debt peonage – trapped sharecroppers on the land - could not pay their debts and leave. Some forced into labor New Freedoms African Americans had gained during reconstruction now was lost.
43Ideas for Reconstruction - Plans: South was destroyed: Value of Land down Confederate money worthless Economy in shambles Railroads destroyed Lost work force Agricultural output comes to a stop. Lincoln’s Plan: bring the states back without high punishments: Amnesty- pardons to all southerners that take oath of loyalty to the United States. 10% of states population take the oath states can form a new government.
44Presidential reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan Amnesty to all most all Southerners who took a loyalty oath.10 %of population taken loyalty oath states can organize new govt.Former high ranking official would not receive amnesty.
45Presidential Reconstruction Andrew Johnson’s Plan Amnesty for those taking loyalty oath excludes high ranking officials and property owners of $20,000 or moreStates must ratify 13th amendment
46Two thoughts to the forgiveness: Moderate Republicans: Lincoln to easy on the south Wanted: to keep the south down – no right to officials Wade-Davis Bill - Radical Republican – Thaddeus Stevens – opposed Lincoln’s plan. Wanted to punish the south Wanted: Prevent south from gaining power Republican party to become strong in the south government to help African Americans gain equality in the south – vote. Keep the south out of congress. Wade Davis Bill passed but Lincoln used a pocket veto to stop it.
47Congressional Reconstruction: Lincoln Assassinated: Andrew Johnson takes over. Similar plan to Lincoln. Against the upper elite of the south – felt they caused the war. Johnson’ s Plan: Pardon all former citizens and return their property Upper elite not pardoned Each state had to ratify the 13th Amendment Rejection of debt acquired Southern States return to the US. Election to congress increased the south's representation. 13th amendment – no more slavery South passes new laws in the South – Black Codes limiting rights if freedmen in the South.
48Congressional Reconstruction Radical Republicans Headed by Thaddeus StevensMilitary Reconstruction act14th and 15th amendmentVoting rights for African AmericansPromoted equal opportunity in govt and education for African Americans.Punish the south
49Radical Republicans take charge of Congress, oppose Johnson’s plan Radical Republicans take charge of Congress, oppose Johnson’s plan Civil Rights Act – citizenship to all except Native Americans, African Americans can own land and be treated equal in court. 14th Amendment: equal protection under the law, citizenship for all americans (including African americans 1867 – Military Reconstruction Act. Divided the confederacy into 5 districts. Union Generals placed in charge of each. Each district had to pass a constitutional plan through Congress.
50Congress had Edwin Stanton (Sec of War) on their side to enforce policy. Passed Tenure of Office to protect him from being fired by Johnson.Johnson fired Stanton anyway and was impeached – one vote short of removal.Johnson’s power was now gone. Republican Congress Ruled15 Amendment passed - African Americans right to vote
51The Freedman Bureau: First ever Federal Relief Agency Feed, cloth, educated and helped freedmen find work. (Morehouse College ) Morehouse college -Originally called Atlanta Baptist Seminary then Atlanta Baptist College -originally founded to train African American men to be ministers and teachers - called the “black Harvard” - paved the way for higher education for blacks