2 A Resurgence of Nativism Because of the red scare- the fear that communist would threaten freedom in the United statesPalmer raids- A. Mitchell palmer- started arresting suspected communist
3 NativismEugenics is a false(pseudo) science that deals with the improvement of hereditary traits.Nativists thinking that white Protestants from northern Europe who first came to America were the superior stock.One of the biggest movements to restrict immigration in the 1920’s came from the Ku Klux Klan.After World War I, the Klan targeted immigrants, Catholics, Jews and other groups they believed did not represent traditional American values
4 Ku Klux Klan restarted at Stone Mt Ga. by William Simmons 1915
5 ImmigrationTo control immigration congress passed the Emergency Quota Act and national origins actThe law set up a quota system.Discriminated against southern and eastern Europe immigrants.These two laws caused a shortage in laborThese Acts did not include natives of the Western Hemisphere. More than 600,000 Mexicans arrived in the United States between 1914 and the end of the 1920s.
6 New Morality New Morality stressed youth and personal freedom In the family, the new morality focused on the ideas of romance, pleasure, and friendship for a successful marriage.Automobile played important part in new morality.
7 Flappers- New fashion that started in 20’s Women shortened their hair and wore silk stockings.A flapper was a young, dramatic, stylish, and unconventional woman. She smoked cigarettes and drank liquor. She also dressed in clothes considered too revealing by many.Fundamentalism Movement – stressed the teachings of the bible.Fundamentalist rejected the theory of evolution and supported the creation theory.
9 Scopes Monkey Trial- where Evolutionist and Creationist collided John T. Scopes taught evolution in a Dayton, Tennessee classroom. It was against the law to teach evolution in Tenn.Clarence Darrow was Scopes lawyer, and Williams Jennings Bryan was the prosecutor.Scopes was found Guilty for teaching evolution in the classroom and had to pay $100 fine.Conviction was later overturned
10 Clearance Darrow(left)/ William Jennings Bryan (right)
12 Unit 7Boom and Bust EconomyRoaring 20’sGreat DepressionNew Deal
13 Unit 7 ProhibitionPeople started supporting Prohibition in early 1900’sPeople believed Prohibition wouldReduce domestic violenceReduce unemploymentPoverty18th amendment took effect January 1920 – provided for prohibition –no sale or consumption of alcoholSpeakeasies- bars where you could buy alcoholOrganized crime ran these bars.Alcohol imported from places like Canada and Caribbean.21st amendment passed in Overturned the 18th.
16 Cultural Innervations Many Americans in the 1920s had more money and more leisure time than they ever had before.People watched Boxing and Baseball with leisure timeMotion picture became popular. They had no sound yet, music was provided during the showing.Radio and music also became popularMass media was radio, movies, newspapers, and magazines aimed at a broad, popular audience--helped to expand people’s view of the world. It helped unify the nation and spread the new ideas of the time.
17 African American Culture Many African Americans was part of the Great Migration. This was where blacks left the south to go to the industrial north.Night clubs and music started to flourish in northern cities like New York.Harlem was center the center for artistic development, racial pride, and a feeling of community. This was called the Harlem RenaissanceLangston Hughes (writer) , Louis Armstrong introduced an improvisational form of jazz, and Duke Ellington.
18 Harlem Renaissance Continued Like other African American musicians, Duke Ellington got his start at the Cotton Club. This was one of the most famous Harlem nightspots.Blues- a soulful style of music that evolved from African American spirituals.
20 Tin Pan alley- group of music houses in New York City where artists preformed their songs Irving Berlin- most famous artists in tin pan alleyWhite Christmas, God Bless America, there’s no business like show business,
22 African American Politics Population of African Americans increased in the North.Voting blocs were established. African Americans in Chicago elected Oscar DePriest, the first African American representative in Congress from a Northern state.NAACP- lobbied against segregation, lynching, and discriminationMarcus Garvey formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)Advocating separation of the races.He urged African Americans to move to Liberia, Africa
28 Airline industryCharles Lindbergh made a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in the Spirit of St. LouisCommercial radio also became popular in the 1920s.National Broadcasting Company, Columbia Broadcasting System
30 Consumer Society Higher Wages led to increase buying power. Americans started buying items on credit. (cars and furniture)
31 Farm Crisis Farmers did not prosper in the 1920. New technology increased productionDuring WW1 farmers produced more food to feed EuropeEurope because of tariffs stopped buying agriculture products from America.1920’s Boll Weevil Stuck the south and destroyed the cotton crop
33 Promoting ProsperityHarding and Coolidge both opposed govt. regulation of businessesSecretary Andrew Mellon came up with supply-side economics - He believed that as the economy grew, Americans would earn more money and the government would actually collect more taxes at the lower rate than it would if the tax rates were kept high.Herbert Hoover came up with cooperative individualism- idea encouraged manufacturers and distributors to form trade associations, which would voluntarily share information with the government
34 Trade and Arm ControlMost Americans after World War I favored Isolationism.European allies had a hard time paying America back for war debtThe United States and 14 other nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact-stated that all signing nations agreed to abandon war and negotiate disputes peacefully.
36 Election of 1928 Herbert Hoover (Rep) Alfred E. Smith (Dem) Supported prohibitionQuakerHoover wins in a landslideAlfred E. Smith (Dem)Roman Catholic (1st to be nominated for president)Opposed the idea of prohibition
39 Roots of the Great Depression Causes of Great depression1.Underconsumption2.Speculation3.Over production of manufactured goods4. Installment plans- paid for items in monthly installmentsPeople had to stop buying items to pay for items already bought. Sales slowed and production was cut. Because of this people were laid off.Americans were not selling many goods to foreign countriesHawley-SmootTariff- raised taxes on imports. Other countries raised their tariffs on American products. American products stopped being bought overseas because of this.Federal Reserve- they lowered interest rates which allowed for banks to give risky loans. Lower interest rates led business leaders to believe the economy was still growing. They borrowed more money to expand they industry.
40 Stock marketIt experienced a bull market during the late 1920’sSpeculation- investors were betting that the stock market would continue to climb and then sell the stock quickly to make money.Oct. 29, 1929 Black Tuesday- stock market crashedBanksLent money to stock speculatorsinvested depositors’ money in the stock marketStock market crash caused banks to lose money, and not get paid back by speculators
41 Life during the Great Depression Banks failed, thousands of companies went out of business, people lost homes and was unable to provide food.People who lost homes built shantytowns- homeless that built shacks on unused public lands. Also known as HoovervillesHobosMidwest farmers stopped planting croups because prices fell. Plains experienced a server drought Plains became a dust bowl.
44 Where did the dustbowl happen at? Dust Bowl happened in Great Plains
45 Why were people leaving the area shown in the map? Dust bowl
46 Escaping the Great Depression People went to the movies and watched Cartoons. Walt Disney produced the 1st full length cartoon.Americans listened to radio (lone Ranger)Writers John Steinbeck “The Grapes of Wrath”-about people who left the dust bowl,- and William Faulkner- wrote in a new style called stream of consciousness- it is where the characters thoughts are expressed.
47 Hoover RespondsHoover got a pledge from businesses owners to keep factories open and stop cutting wages.Public works-Hoover believed deficit spending would delay the recovery.
48 The angry AmericanHoover did not want to give direct relief to poor families.1932 crowds of people marched on Washington.Creditors foreclosed on a million farms betweenBonus Army- veterans of World War 1 who wanted their bonus early.Bonus Army lived in Hoovervilles and solders were sent in to clear out the bonus army.
50 1932 presidential election Rep. Herbert HooverDem. Franklin D. Roosevelt
51 New Deal- Roosevelt's programs for ending the Great depression. FDRHe was Wealthy, educated at Harvard, Columbia law school, contracted polio, secretary of war, Governor of (NY) . Roosevelt depended on his wife Eleanor to keep his name in the forefront in the New York Democratic Party (when had polio). Elected PresPeople were scared Roosevelt would get rid of the Gold standard.Because of this people went to banks to get money out of banks and exchange it for gold.In 38 states, governors declared bank holidays.By banks collapsed.
53 The First New Deal1st Hundred days- congress passed 15 major laws to deal with the economy (1st new Deal)Roosevelt had advisors that disagreed with each other.A bank holiday and special secession of congress was called.Emergency Banking Relief Act-federal officials would check the nation’s banks and give licenses to those that were financially sound.Fireside chats- let people know what FDR was trying to accomplish.1st chat he told public it was safe to put money back in banks.FDIC-Federal Deposit Insurance Company- provided govt. insurance for bank deposits up to a certain amount.Securities and Exchanges Commission (SEC)- regulate stock market and prevent fraud
55 Migrant Mother PhotoThis picture showed the despair people had during the great depressionShe sold her tires to buy food for her seven kids
56 Managing Farm and Industry Agricultural Adjustment Administration(AAA)- Govt. would pay farmers not grow certain crops and livestockMillions of acres took out of productionFarmers received 1 billion in paymentsSurplus decreased and prices increased.Large commercial farmers benefited
57 National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Suspended anti-trust lawsVoluntary rules for each businessSet prices and minimum wageNational Recovery Administration- ran the NIRABusinesses who sign agreement to abide by the codes received signs displaying NRA symbolPeople encouraged only to by from these businesses
58 Providing debt relief Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) Bought mortgages from home owners behind on paymentsReconstructed loans with lower interest ratesFarm Credit Administration (FCA)-Gave famers loans where they could keep their land
59 Spending and Relief Programs Some advisors believed Roosevelt needed to find a way to provide money to people.Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC 1933)Employed year old menPlanted trees, fought fires, and built reservoirsProvided work for about 3 million men
64 Challenges to the New Deal Huey Long (left)- believed the government was not going far enough. Wanted govt. to shift wealth from the rich to the middle class and poor.Redistribution of wealth
65 Second New Deal Works Progress Administration (WPA) 8.5 million workersBuilt highways, roads, public buildings parksmuralsWagner Act-Guaranteed workers right to form unions and collective bargainingBinding arbitrationMade Unions increaseCIO (Committee for industrial workers) Later became Congress of Industrial Organizations.
66 Social Security ActDisabilityRetirementUnemployment
67 The New Deal CoalitionRoosevelt included African Americans and Women to positions in his administration.Francis Perkins- 1st women to a cabinet position Secretary of LaborSupreme Court struck down many New Deal ProgramsRoosevelt’s solution was court-packing.Interfering with separation of powersSoutherners worried FDR would appoint justices that would overturn segregation in the south.Hurt FDR reputation
68 Roosevelt cut spending and the economy declined Two theories emerged to help the economy:Secretary of Treasury Henry Morgenthau wanted to balance the budget and cut spendingJohn Keynes (Keynesianism)- during a recession govt. should spend a lot even go into debt.
69 Legacy of the New dealThe government became a broker state- a mediator between two groupsSafety net- safeguards and reliefs that programs that protected average Americans from an economic disaster.People now believed the govt. had a duty to keep the safety netThe new deal programs did not bring the United States out of the depression. WWII did