The base is traditionally said to consist of the forces and relations of production. [...] The superstructure is traditionally said to be made up of things like political systems, religion – and the media. introduction Wardrip-Fruin / Montfort
(Habermas's discussion of the bourgeois public sphere arising in the 18 th Century)
p. 261 Anyone who thinks of the masses only as the object of politics cannot mobilize them. He wants to push them around. A parcel is not mobile; it can only be pushed to and fro. Marches, columns, parades, immobilize people. Propaganda, which does not release self- reliance but limits it, fits into the same pattern. It leads to depoliticization.
For Enzensberger the potential lies in participation.
For the first time in history the, the media are making possible mass participation in a social and socialized productive process... (p 262)
For Enzensberger the potential lies in participation. For the first time in history the, the media are making possible mass participation in a social and socialized productive process, the practical means of which are in the hands of the masses themselves. (p 262)
In its present form, equipment like television or film does not serve communication but prevents it. (p 262)
Societies in the late industrial age rely on the free exchange of information... Quarantine regulations for information, such as were promulgated by fascism and Stalinism, are only possible today at the cost of deliberate industrial regression. (p 262 - 263)
Wikipedia Image: The Rhodesia Herald of 21 September 1966 shows the effect of censorship imposed by Van der Byl's ministry.
The Soviet bureaucracy [...] has to deny itself almost entirely an elementary piece of organizational equipment, the duplicating machine...
TOPICS TO COME BACK TO: Filtered Internet (China, others) Facebook as described in NY Times article cute cat theory of digital activism
For Enzensberger all media productions are manipulative...
it's largely a problem of the limitations on who gets to do the manipulating.
The question is therefore not whether the media are manipulated, but who manipulates them. A revolutionary plan should not require the manipulators to disappear; on the contrary it must make everyone a manipulator. (p 265)
The contradiction between producers and consumers is not inherent in the electronic media; on the contrary it has to be artificially reinforced by economic and administrative measures. (p 266)
Radio telephony (many-to-many media) is technically achieveable but lacking in licensed bandwidth (1970) Broadcast television (centralized media) is given more spectrum. (p 266)