Takes two independent clauses and puts one in the ablative, often with a participle. verba grammatici audivit, sed manum non extendit.Sextus Verbis grammatici auditis,Sextus manum non extendit. pecuniam dedit et deinde vinum bibit.Titus Pecuni ā datā, Titus vinum bibit.
Notice the noun involved in the ablative absolute is not grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence. Pueri in ludo clamabantet grammaticus iratus fiebat. Pueris in ludo clamantibus,grammaticus iratus fiebat. Eucleides in luto collapsus estet praedones ridentes discesserunt. Eucleide in luto collapso,praedones ridentes discesserunt.
The AA is a substitution for a dependent clause. Pecuni ā datā, Titus vinum bibit means: Titus pecuniam dedit et deinde vinum bibit. Titus, cum pecuniam dedisset, vinum bibit. Or even, with a change of emphasis: Titus, qui pecuniam dedit, vinum bibit. Easiest way to translate an ablative absolute: Perfect participle: when the noun had been participled Present participle: when/while the noun was participling.
Try these sentences with ablative absolutes. Remember: Perfect Participle: when the noun had been participled Present Participle: when/while the noun was participling 1.Sexto reducto, Cornelius iratus erat. 2.Lupo conspecto, Sextus arborem ascendit. 3.Sexto conspecto, Davus ex horto celeriter cucurrit. 4.Baculo rapto, Cornelius Sextum verberabat. 5.Insul ā incendente, incolae in viam evadebant. 6.Corneliā sedente, Aurelia atrium ingressa est. 7.Marco recitante, grammaticus alios discipulos spectabat.
Now YOU try it. How do you say… After the clothes had been stolen (surripio, surripere, surripui, surreptus) Vestimentis surreptis After the clothes had been guarded (custodio, custodire, custodivi, custoditus) Vestimentis custoditis After the money had been guarded Pecuni ā custoditā After the boys had left (egredior, egredi, egressus sum) Pueris egressis
Let’s try it with present participles How do you say… While the thief was running away (confugio, confugere) fure confugiente As the boys were listening (audio, audire) pueris audientibus As the teacher was speaking (loquor, loqui) grammatico loquente As the men were taking off their clothes (exuo, exuere) viris / hominibus vestimenta exuentibus
What happened first, handing over the clothes or entering the tepidarium? How does Latin show this?
When are the boys running ahead? Before Cornelius calls them back, or while Cornelius calls them back? How does Latin show this time relationship?
The participle in an AA shows its time relationship to the main verb in what is becoming a familiar pattern: Perfect Participle: action before that of the main verb. Vestimentis servo traditis, Titus tepidarium intravit. When the clothes had been handed over to his slave, Titus entered the tepidarium. Present Participle: action at the same time as that of the main verb. Cornelio revocante, pueri praecurrerunt. As Cornelius was recalling (them), the boys ran on ahead.
Using vocabulary review sheets for verbs, supply a participle for these sentences. Try perfect participles first, then present. Fure __________, Sextus clamavit. Sene cum amicis __________, Titus risit. Discipulis ___________, grammaticus discessit.
Let’s practice showing time relationship in AAs How do you translate the underlined words: When they had taken off their clothes, they entered the warm room. vestimentis exutis While Asellus was sleeping, a certain slave was stealing the clothes. Asello dormiente The thief, when he had seen Sextus, was very afraid. Sexto viso When the thief had been handed over to his master, Sextus was happy. fure domino tradito
An ablative absolute can consist of two nouns (with the verb esse implied)
An ablative absolute can consist of a noun and an adjective (with esse implied)
Assume the presence of esse when translating such AAs Palaemone grammatico, Sextus miser erat. With Palaemon as his teacher, Sextus was unhappy.. Since Palaemon was his teacher, Sextus was unhappy. Eucleide aegro, pueris in urbem exire non licuit. Eucleides being sick, the boys weren’t allowed to go out into the city. Cornelio domino, omnes servi strenue laborant. With Cornelius as a master, all the slaves work hard. Since they have Cornelius as a master, all the slaves work hard. Augusto principe, Iesus in nostr ā terr ā natus est. When Augustus was emperor, Jesus was born on our earth.
Let’s sum up: An Ablative Absolute replaces an independent clause. The noun involved in an AA cannot be a grammatical part of the rest of the sentence (i.e., the subject, DO, indirect object, possessor, etc.) An AA can consist of: A noun and a participle [most common] Two nouns (implied present tense of esse) A noun and an adjective (implied present tense of esse) A perfect participle shows action in the absolute that happened before the action of the main verb: when the noun had been participled. A present participle shows action in the absolute that happens at the same time as that of the main verb: while/as the noun was participling.
If you want to get brave, you can try different ways of translating an AA. Verbis grammati auditis, Sextus manum non extendit. Circumstantial: When the words of the teacher had been heard, Sextus did not hold out his hand. Causal: Because the words of the teacher had been heard, Sextus did not hold out his hand. Concessive: Although the words of the teacher had been heard, Sextus did not hold out his hand. Use the translation that makes the most sense, and work the AA into the sentence in good English: Although he had heard the teacher’s words, Sextus did not hold out his hand.
Draw pictures of these sentences. Do your best to show time relationships. 1.Fure conspecto, Sextus in palaestram cucurrit. 2.Fure vestimenta surripiente, Asellus in apodyterio dormiebat. 3.Sexto dormitante, discipuli versus Aeneidis recitabant. 4.Clamore Sexti audito, fur in palaestram confugit. 5.Fur capto, Sextus ab omnibus laudatus est. 6.Palaemo grammatico, Sextus domum saepe missus est. 7.Asello custode, fur tamen vestimenta puerorum surripuit. 8.Adstantibus appropinquantibus, fur ex aqua a Sexto extractus est.
Group Activity: Write a “Wave” Groups 0f 3-5 Write 5 sentences story in Latin using these Ablatives Absolute Sene prehenso Muliere resistente Principe mortuo Rehearse and be ready to act out according to instructions
From St Bernard: "In periculis, in angustiis, in rebus dubiis, Mariam cogita, Mariam invoces... Ipsam sequens, non devias; ipsam rogans, non desperas; ipsam cogitans, non erras; ipsa tenente, non corruis; ipsa protegente, non metuis; ipsa duce, non fatigaris, ipsa propitia, pervenis... " "Amid dangers, difficulties, and doubts, think of Mary, invoke Mary's aid.... If you follow her, you will not stray; if you entreat her, you will not lose hope; if you reflect upon her, you will not err; if she supports you, you will not fall; if she protects you, you will not fear; if she leads you, you will not grow weary; if she is propitious, you will reach your goal...."