7“The Appeaser”: makes reference to Munich Pact The War Begins!WW II began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939.Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east.Hitler’s and Stalin’s Non-Aggression Pact kept them from fighting each other.France and Britain enter to defend Poland“The Appeaser”: makes reference to Munich Pact
8“Blitzkrieg” In German blitzkrieg means “lightning war”. Hitler used blitzkrieg during his invasion of Poland.Blitzkrieg included surprise attacks, rapid advances into enemy territory, and massive air attacks that struck and shocked the enemy.Germany achieved most of its victories in World War II with the Blitzkrieg tactic.
10“Phony War”Britain sent troops to wait with the French down behind the Maginot Line.Reporters called this quiet time of not much action the “phony war”
11Maginot LineThe Maginot Line was a defensive for France against an invasion of Germany.The Maginot Line was established after World War I.The line showed to be little use in 1940 when Germany invaded France for the third time.
17Miracle at DunkirkThe event at Dunkirk is called a miracle because the retreating allies had lost hope and then the British pulled through for them and rescued 338,000 men.
18Early Axis TriumphsIn April 1940 the quiet time of the war exploded into action.Hitler launched a series of blitzkrieg.Norway and and Denmark both fell.Germany had overrun the Netherlands and Belgium.Germany along with Italy forced France to surrender.
20June 22, 1940On June 22, 1940 France signs an armistice with Germany in occupied France.An armistice is a cease fire or a truce.The Franco-German Armistice divided France into two zones. One zone was under German military occupation and the other was under French control.In 1942 Germans occupied all of France
29The War in Europe Hitler turns to the Soviet Union Part of Hitler’s overall planInvade Russia b/c the Germans would need their wheat and OilStalin warned of German attack but did not listen
30The War in Europe Hitler invades Soviet Union June 22, 1941 Operation BarbarosaStalin taken by surprise
31January 1941: Lend-Lease Act U.S. lends arms to Allies so “arsenal for democracy”Some U.S. ships sunk in Atlantic by U-boats
32Prime Minister Winston Churchill President Franklin Roosevelt Atlantic CharterPrime Minister Winston ChurchillPresident Franklin RooseveltDiscuss allied goals: the right of all people to self-determination, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, free from want, and freedom from fear.
33Questions What was the immediate cause of World War II? Describe the German concept of the “blitzkrieg”.Where were the early Axis triumphs, and what was the “phony war”?What was the miracle at Dunkirk?What was the significance of June 22, 1940?
36Pearl HarborFord Island, seen on 10 October 1941 from much the same angle as Japanese bomber pilots viewed it on 7 December.National Archives Photo 80-G
37Increasing Tensions in East Asia 1934 Japan began expanding its naval forces despite promises made at the Washington Navel Conference.1936 Japan signed an anticommunism pact with Germany.1937 Japan began a war against China.1940 Japan formed a military alliance with Germany and Italy. These nations were known as the Axis Powers.1941 Japan moved to take control of French Indochina, which threatened American interests. President Roosevelttried to reason with General Hideki Tojo, the ministerof war who took control of the country in October ofBut the time for compromise was over.
38Attack on Pearl Harbor Causes Effects Conflict between Japan and the United States over French IndochinaJapan’s alliance with Germany and ItalyJapan’s prime minister, Hideki Tojo, was hostile towards the United States.EffectsAmericans reacted to the news of the Pearl Harbor attack with anger and fear.Californians reported seeing submarines off the Pacific coast.Some Americans feared that Japanese Americans would assist an invasion of the mainland.The United States declared war on Japan.Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.
39The Attack on Pearl Harbor DefensesU.S military planners believed an attack on Pearl Harbor was possible.Forces at the base were unprepared to defend it.No single commander was in charge.Routine defensive steps were not in place.The AttackOn December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked.Aircraft carriers approached the island of Oahu.War planes loaded with bombs and torpedoes left the carriers and destroyed American ships and planes.The attack lasted 2 hours.The AftermathAll 8 battleships were damaged; 4 were sunk.Nearly 200 aircraft were destroyed.Some 2,400 Americans were dead.Japan lost only a handful of submarines and fewer than 30 planes.
40December 7, 1941 the early morning The attack was planned by Isoroku YamamotoThe first attack occurred at 7:55 a.m.The second attack followed at 8:54 a.m.
41Deployment of attacking Japanese aircraft 183 aircraft of the first attack wave were launched from the six Imperial Japanese Navy carriers; Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiru, Zuikaku and Shokaku, 230 miles North of O'ahu at 6:00 A.M. - They were ordered to attack at 0750 A.M. by Lt. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida.At approximately 7:15 A.M. the second wave of aircraft was launched and 170 more aircraft were on their way to Pearl Harbor.
54With only 450 feet of 'runway,' one of sixteen Army B-25 Mitchell bombers takes off from the deck of the USS HORNET on its way to take part in the Doolittle Raid, the first U.S. bombing raid on Japan. The all volunteer strike force, trained and led by Lt. Col. James Doolittle, flew 800 miles then bombed Tokyo and 3 other cities without opposition. The raid inflicted little damage but gave a big boost to Allied morale in the face of the seemingly unstoppable Japanese. April 18, 1942.Doolittle’s Raid
55Bataan Death March– Forced march of captured Americans and Filipinos in the Philippines.Island hopping –Strategy of invading Japanese – held islands and moving ever closer to Japan.General Douglas MacArthur –“I shall return,” are his words after FDR orders him to withdraw from the Philippines in March (same guy – drove out the WWI Bonus Army.)Battle of Coral Sea –1st time in Naval history, enemy ships fought a battle without seeing each other – aircraft carriers’ war planes fought the battle. No clear victory for either side but America blocks their path to Australia. (May 1942)Battle of Midway– naval battle between American and Japanese forces – won by Americans. (June 1942)
56Battle for Guadalcanal – After 6 months of fierce fighting, the US wins first major land victory against the Japanese. ( Feb. 1943)Navajo Code Talkers– Navajo Indians were trained to used their native language to communicate coded messages so the Japanese couldn’t decode our messages.March 1945– MacArthur returns and liberates Manila, Philippines.Kamikaze– Japanese suicide pilotIwo Jima and Okinawa –Fiercely fought battles for these two islands places Americans close enough to begin major bombings of Japan.
59Allied POWs with hands tied behind their backs pause during the Bataan Death March. About 76,000 prisoners including 12,000 Americans were forced on the 60 mile march under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp in the Philippines. April, 1942.
62The Holocaust Racist Beliefs • Hitler and Nazis say Aryans—Germanic peoples—are “master race”• They launch the Holocaust—systematic murder ofJews and othersAnti-Semitism• Nazis tap into long-held feeling of many Europeansagainst Jews• 1935 Nuremberg Laws take away rights of GermanJews“Night of Broken Glass”• Kristallnacht—“night of broken glass,” November 9, 1938• Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues attacked; 100 Jews killedImageContinued . . .NEXT
6311 million were killed 6 million were Jews Genocide: the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group.Victims: Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, Undesirables (homosexuals, mentally ill, political dissidents, handicap)Hitler’s Final Solution – extermination of all Jews.Nuremburg Trials – After the war emphasized individual responsibility for actions regardless of orders.Trials led to increased demand for Jewish homeland.11 million were killed6 million were Jews
64continued The Holocaust Begins A Flood of Refugees• Fearing more violence, many German Jews fleeto other countries• Hitler favors emigration but other countries limit Jewish refugeesIsolating the Jews• Hitler has all Jews moved to designated cities• They are forced to live in ghettos—separate Jewish areas• Hitler hopes that Jews in ghettos will die of disease, starvation• Despite bad conditions, Jews survive in these areasImageNEXT
65The “Final Solution” Hitler Seeks New Answer • “Final Solution”—Hitler’s final plan for treatment of Jews• Chooses genocide—systematic killing of anentire peopleChartThe Killings Begin• Nazis in Eastern Europe, Soviet Union create killing squads• They shoot men, women, children in mass executions• Other Jews sent to concentration camps or slave labor prisonsMapContinued . . .NEXT
66• Nazis kill about six million European Jews during the war continued The “Final Solution”The Final Stage• By 1942, Nazis building huge, efficientextermination camps• Camps separate strong from weak people• Weak (mostly women, children, elderly, sick) killed immediatelyThe Survivors• Nazis kill about six million European Jews during the war• Fewer than four million surviveImageNEXT
67Change of Tactics: Einsatzgruppen Himmler sent four specially trained SS units called “Einsatzgruppen battalions” into German occupied territory and shot at least 1 million Jews.Victims were taken to deserted areas where they were made to dig their own graves and then shot.When the SS ran out of bullets they sometimes killed their victims using flame throwers.
69The ‘Final Solution’In January 1942, Himmler decided to change tactics once again and called a special conference at Wannsee.At this conference it was decided that the existing methods were too inefficient and that a new ‘Final Solution’ was necessary.
70Wannsee Conference How was the Final Solution going to be organized? Women, children, the old & the sick were to be sent for ‘special treatment.’The young and fit would go through a process called ‘destruction through work.’Shooting was too inefficient as the bullets were needed for the war effortOn arrival the Jews would go through a process called ‘selection.’How was the Final Solution going to be organized?Jews were to be rounded up and put into transit camps called GhettoesThe remaining Jews were to be shipped to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East.The Jews living in these Ghettos were to be used as a cheap source of labour.Conditions in the Ghettos were designed to be so bad that many die whilst the rest would be willing to leave these areas in the hope of better conditions
71How did the Nazi decide who was Jewish? At the Wannsee Conference it was decided that if one of person’s parents was Jewish, then they were Jewish.However, if only one of their grandparents had been Jewish then they could be classified as being German.In 1940, all Jews had to have their passports stamped with the letter ‘J’ and had to wear the yellow Star of David on their jacket or coat.Some historians believe that Hitler’s grandfather was Jewish. His Grandmother used to work for a rich Jewish landowner in Austria and it is believed that she had an affair whilst she worked as his house keeper. He later helped his son get a job as a civil servant. Some Psychologist but this down as being one of the possible reasons why Hitler hated Jews. However, it is interesting to note that the Jewish doctor who helped his mother whilst she was dying of cancer was dropped off at the Swiss boarder by the SS in 1940!
72Where were the Death Camps built? The work of the EinsatzgruppenWhy do you think that they located them here?Remember that the black dots represent the work of the Einsatzgruppen
73What tactics did the Nazis use to get the Jews to leave the Ghettos? DeceptionNew arrivals at the Death camps were given postcards to send to their friends.StarvationThe Jews were told that they were going to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East.The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were only fed a 1000 calories a day .TacticsIn some Ghettos the Jews had to purchase their own train tickets.A human being needs 2,400 calories a day to maintain their weightTerrorThey were told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans.The SS publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of resistanceHungry people are easier to control
74Children Dying of Starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto Evil is when a few good men decide to do nothing.
75SS Tactics: Dehumanization The SS guards who murdered the Jews were brainwashed with Anti-Semitic propaganda.The Jews were transported in cattle cars in terrible conditions.Naked, dirty and half starved people look like animals, which helped to reinforce the Nazi propaganda.The SS used to train their new guards by encouraging them to set fire to a pit full of live victims – usually children.
76Tactics: What happened to new arrivals? All new arrivals went through a process known as ‘selection.’At Auschwitz the trains pulled into a mock up of a normal station.Mothers, children, the old & sick were sent straight to the ‘showers’ which were really the gas chambers.The Jews were helped off the cattle trucks by Jews who were specially selected to help the NazisDeception & SelectionThe able bodied were sent to work camp were they were killed through a process known as ‘destruction through work.’At some death camps the Nazis would play records of classical music to help calm down the new arrivals.At Auschwitz the new arrivals were calmed down by a Jewish orchestra playing classical music.
77Notice how it has been built to resemble a railway station Entrance to AuschwitzNotice how it has been built to resemble a railway station
78‘Destruction Through Work’ Map of AuschwitzNew Arrivals‘Showers’‘Destruction Through Work’
79The SS would try and pack up to 2000 people into this gas chamber The Gas ChambersThe Nazis would force large groups of prisoners into small cement rooms and drop canisters of Zyklon B, or prussic acid, in its crystal form through small holes in the roof.These gas chambers were sometimes disguised as showers or bathing houses.The SS would try and pack up to 2000 people into this gas chamber
80The outside of the Gas Chamber Notice the Ovens easy located near the Gas Chambers
81Processing the bodiesSpecially selected Jews known as the sonderkommando were used to to remove the gold fillings and hair of people who had been gassed.The Sonderkommando Jews were also forced to feed the dead bodies into the crematorium.
83Shoes waiting to be processed by the sonderkommando Taken inside a huge glass case in the Auschwitz Museum. This represents one day's collection at the peak of the gassings, about twenty five thousand pairs.
84Was the Final Solution successful? The Nazis aimed to kill 11 million Jews at the Wannsee Conference in 1941Today there are only 2000 Jews living in Poland.The Nazis managed to kill at least 6 million Jews.Men like Schindler helped Jews escape the Final Solution.Not all Jews went quietly into the gas cambers.In 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto, like many others revolted against the Nazis when the Jews realised what was really happening.
89War in Africa and Europe Section 4During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.The Allies defeated the Axis Powers in Europe and in Africa.
90Terms to Know:Dwight D. Eisenhower – U.S. general who led the Allied Forces in Europe.D-Day – Allied invasion of France in June 1944 to liberate Europe.Battle of the Bulge – Germany’s last major attack.Yalta Conference – Meeting of Allied leaders to discuss the end of the war plans.Holocaust – Systematic murder of millions of Jews and other people in Europe by the Nazis.Anti-Semitism – hostility or discrimination against Jews.
91North African Campaign Operation TorchPurposes:Drive Axis powers out of North Africa and Middle EastDivert German forces from Russian FrontStrategy: Sandwich Afrikan Corp between British in East and Allied forces (including US) in West
92The Allied Victory The Tide Turns on Two Fronts The North African Campaign• Rommel takes Tobruk, June 1942; pushes toward Egypt• British General Montgomery attacks at El Alamein, forces Rommel back• American forces land in Morocco, November 1942• General Dwight D. Eisenhower—Americancommander in Morocco• In May 1943, Rommel’s forces defeated by AlliesContinued . . .NEXT
93Commander of the Nazi forces in North Africa The Panzer IV was the mainstayof the Afrika Corpsand were needed in greatnumbers in theWestern DesertErwin RommelCommander of the Nazi forces in North Africa
94The Battle for Stalingrad SECTION4continued The Tide Turns on Two FrontsThe Battle for Stalingrad• German army moves to capture Soviet oil fields• Battle of Stalingrad—Soviets, Germans battlefor control of city• German troops capture city, then surrender after long battleThe Invasion of Italy• U.S., British forces land on, capture Sicily in 1943• Mussolini loses power but Germans keep control of northern Italy• Allies invade Italy, but Germans keep fighting there until war endsNEXT
95Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy. July - August 1943,Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy.This Operation was the greatest Airborne-Amphibious Operation of WWII until D-DAY3,000 ships and landing-craft with 160,000 men(8 Divisions), 14,000 vehicles, 600 tanks and 1800 guns.Operation continues in Sicily and Italy
96Operation Husky Invasion of Italy First Allied attacks on Monte Cassino
97The Allied Home Fronts War Limits Civil Rights Mobilizing for War• Fighting the war requires complete use of allnational resources• 17 to 18 million U.S. workers—many of themwomen—make weapons• People at home face shortages of consumergoods• Propaganda aims to inspire civilians to aid wareffortWar Limits Civil Rights• Japanese Americans face prejudice, fear• Army puts Japanese Americans in intermentcamps in 1942NEXT
99Victory in Europe The D-Day Invasion • Allies plan invasion of France; use deception toconfuse Germans• D-Day—June 6, 1944; day of “OperationOverlord” invasion of France• Allied forces capture Normandy beaches; liberate Paris by SeptemberThe Battle of the Bulge• U.S., British forces advance on Germany from west, Soviets from east• Battle of the Bulge—German counterattack inDecember 1944• Germans gain early success but forced to retreatNEXT
11513 June, till 20 June,V-1 named "Vergeltungswaffe". Germany launches its first V-1 rocket attack on England,8000 V-1's fired to London.Up to 100 V-1s fell every hour on London.Over an 80 day period, more than 6,000 persons were killed.
116Launched a V-2 rocket. 8 September 1944, Those witnessing the event cannot explain the cause of the explosion because the speed of the projectile is such that it arrives before the sound of its passage is heard.Launched a V-2 rocket.8 September 1944,
117Last major offensive German action. "The Battle of the Bulge” December January 1945
118Victory in Europe Germany’s Unconditional Surrender • By 1945, Allied armies approach Germany from two sides• Soviets surround Berlin in April 1945• Hitler commits suicide• On May 9, 1945, Germany officially surrenders, marking V-E Day• President Roosevelt dies in April; Harry Truman becomes presidentNEXT
119Victory in the Pacific The Japanese in Retreat • Allies move to retake the Philippines in late 1944• Battle of Leyte Gulf leaves Japanese navy badlydamaged• Kamikazes—Japanese pilots who fly suicidemissions• In March 1945, American forces capture Iwo Jima• U.S. takes Okinawa in June 1945; Japan suffershuge casualties
120Marines of the 5th Division inch their way up a slope on Red Beach No Marines of the 5th Division inch their way up a slope on Red Beach No. 1 toward Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima, defended by seven Japanese Battalions. By nightfall, 566 Marines were killed and 1,854 wounded. February 19, 1945.
12119 February 1945, (till 26 March).US Marines divisions land on Iwo JimaIn the Pacific Iwo Jima is strategically and politically important to both sides. The Americans need the island as a fighter base (Mustangs P-51 fighters) for their Japanese raids (B-29's) and a relief base for damaged bombers.On the first day some 30,000 marines landed on the 8 square mile island. About 23,000 Japanese soldiers had prepared defences but allowed the landing to take place before opening fire. The Japanese had prepared for the invasion with a system of underground tunnels, bunkers, and pillboxes, designed to entrap and decimate the Americans.Over the next 36 days - 6,281 US soldiers are killed (in the first 2 days, 4000 US soldiers died), and 21,865 are wounded in capturing the island from 23,000 defenders.21,000 Japanese soldiers died.
122U.S. Marines plant a U.S. flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima. 23 February 1945,U.S. Marines plant a U.S. flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima.The flag raising photo and subsequent statue came to symbolize being a Marine.
126Col. Paul W. Tibbets, pilot of the B-29 Superfortress ENOLA GAY, drops the world's first atomic bomb, Little Boy, on Hiroshima.The 9,000 lb. bomb was dropped from 31,600 feet and detonated at 8:15 a.m., August 6, 1945, about 1,900 feet above the center of Hiroshima. A blinding light, tremendous explosion and dark gray cloud enveloped the city, followed by a rising mushroom shaped cloud.The Japanese estimated 72,000 were killed and 70,000 out of 76,000 buildings in the city were destroyed.Enola Gay
127At the time of the bombing, Hiroshima was a prosperous city of nearly 320,000. The bomb exploded almost directly over the center of the city. Two square miles of the city were completely leveled by the bomb, and the intense heat generated by the explosion started fires as far as two milesfrom ground zero.
129About one hour after the bombing on 6 August 1945.
130A Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill is all that remains in this section of Nagasaki following the dropping of the second Atomic Bomb from a B-29 flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney, August 9, The Japanese estimated 25,680 were killed and 44 percent of the city was destroyed.
132Victory in the Pacific The Japanese Surrender • Advisors warn Truman that invasion of Japan will cost many lives• He has alternative; powerful new weapon called atomic bomb• Manhattan Project—secret program to develop the bomb• Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, August 6, 1945, about 75,000 die• Nagasaki bombed on August 9; 70,000 dieimmediately• Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945NEXT
1338 August 1945, The Soviet Union declares war on Japan 8 August 1945, The Soviet Union declares war on Japan. Soviet forces invade Manchuria and North-Korea.9 August 1945, The world's second (and last) atomic bomb(Plutonium), Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.One minute after explosion 39,000 were killed and 25,000 wounded.14 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito announces the Japan defeat to his people. Japan accepts an unconditional surrender. Thefear of more atomic weapon attacks and the certainty of land defeat by the Soviets have combined to secure thecomplete surrender.2 September 1945, Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the instrument of surrender aboard the battleshipU.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, Japan.End of World War II.
134Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. September 2, 1945.
135Japanese sign surrender agreement Sept 2, 1945Japanese sign surrender agreementGen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay.
139Devastation in Europe A Harvest of Destruction • Many cities across Europe badly damaged by war• Many people displaced by war and peaceagreementsMisery Continues After the War• Lack of food, destruction of roads, factories lead to hardship• Many people suffer from hunger, disease after warNEXT
140Postwar Governments and Politics Need for New Leaders• Many conquered countries went back to oldgovernments• New leaders needed in Germany, Italy, andFrance• Communist parties make gains in Italy, France by promising change• Communist interest fades as economies recoverThe Nuremberg Trials•Nuremberg Trials—trials of 22 Nazi leaders for war crimes• Some Nazi leaders are executed for their actionsNEXT
141Postwar Japan Serious Damage • In war, Japan loses two million people; severe damage to many citiesOccupied Japan• MacArthur takes charge of U.S. occupation of Japan• Starts process of demilitarization—disbandingJapan’s armed forces• Also launches democratization—creatingdemocracy in Japan• Japanese people adopt new constitution in 1947• MacArthur puts economic reforms in placeNEXT
142Occupation Brings Deep Changes Changing Japanese Society• Emperor kept on, but he loses power and becomes figurehead• Japanese people elect two-house legislature• Bill of rights guarantees freedoms; women also have right to vote• Constitution says Japan cannot attack another country• In 1951, peace treaty with Japan signed; U.S. occupation ends• U.S. and Japan become alliesNEXT