WW II began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939. Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. Hitler’s and Stalin’s Non-Aggression Pact kept them from fighting each other. France and Britain enter to defend Poland “The Appeaser”: makes reference to Munich Pact
In German blitzkrieg means “lightning war”. Hitler used blitzkrieg during his invasion of Poland. Blitzkrieg included surprise attacks, rapid advances into enemy territory, and massive air attacks that struck and shocked the enemy. Germany achieved most of its victories in World War II with the Blitzkrieg tactic.
Britain sent troops to wait with the French down behind the Maginot Line. Reporters called this quiet time of not much action the “phony war”
The Maginot Line was a defensive for France against an invasion of Germany. The Maginot Line was established after World War I. The line showed to be little use in 1940 when Germany invaded France for the third time.
The event at Dunkirk is called a miracle because the retreating allies had lost hope and then the British pulled through for them and rescued 338,000 men.
In April 1940 the quiet time of the war exploded into action. Hitler launched a series of blitzkrieg. Norway and and Denmark both fell. Germany had overrun the Netherlands and Belgium. Germany along with Italy forced France to surrender.
On June 22, 1940 France signs an armistice with Germany in occupied France. An armistice is a cease fire or a truce. The Franco-German Armistice divided France into two zones. One zone was under German military occupation and the other was under French control. In 1942 Germans occupied all of France
Hitler turns to the Soviet Union Part of Hitler’s overall plan Invade Russia b/c the Germans would need their wheat and Oil Stalin warned of German attack but did not listen
Hitler invades Soviet Union June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarosa Stalin taken by surprise
U.S. lends arms to Allies so “arsenal for democracy” Some U.S. ships sunk in Atlantic by U-boats
Atlantic Charter Prime Minister Winston Churchill President Franklin Roosevelt Discuss allied goals: the right of all people to self-determination, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, free from want, and freedom from fear.
What was the immediate cause of World War II? Describe the German concept of the “blitzkrieg”. Where were the early Axis triumphs, and what was the “phony war”? What was the miracle at Dunkirk? What was the significance of June 22, 1940?
Ford Island, seen on 10 October 1941 from much the same angle as Japanese bomber pilots viewed it on 7 December. National Archives Photo 80-G- 279375
1934Japan began expanding its naval forces despite promises made at the Washington Navel Conference. 1936Japan signed an anticommunism pact with Germany. 1937Japan began a war against China. 1940Japan formed a military alliance with Germany and Italy. These nations were known as the Axis Powers. 1941Japan moved to take control of French Indochina, which threatened American interests. President Roosevelt tried to reason with General Hideki Tojo, the minister of war who took control of the country in October of 1941. But the time for compromise was over.
Causes Conflict between Japan and the United States over French Indochina Japan’s alliance with Germany and Italy Japan’s prime minister, Hideki Tojo, was hostile towards the United States. Effects Americans reacted to the news of the Pearl Harbor attack with anger and fear. Californians reported seeing submarines off the Pacific coast. Some Americans feared that Japanese Americans would assist an invasion of the mainland. The United States declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.
Defenses U.S military planners believed an attack on Pearl Harbor was possible. Forces at the base were unprepared to defend it. No single commander was in charge. Routine defensive steps were not in place. The Attack On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked. Aircraft carriers approached the island of Oahu. War planes loaded with bombs and torpedoes left the carriers and destroyed American ships and planes. The attack lasted 2 hours. The Aftermath All 8 battleships were damaged; 4 were sunk. Nearly 200 aircraft were destroyed. Some 2,400 Americans were dead. Japan lost only a handful of submarines and fewer than 30 planes.
The attack was planned by Isoroku Yamamoto The first attack occurred at 7:55 a.m. The second attack followed at 8:54 a.m.
Deployment of attacking Japanese aircraft 183 aircraft of the first attack wave were launched from the six Imperial Japanese Navy carriers; Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiru, Zuikaku and Shokaku, 230 miles North of O'ahu at 6:00 A.M. - They were ordered to attack at 0750 A.M. by Lt. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida. At approximately 7:15 A.M. the second wave of aircraft was launched and 170 more aircraft were on their way to Pearl Harbor.
Doolittle’s Raid With only 450 feet of 'runway,' one of sixteen Army B-25 Mitchell bombers takes off from the deck of the USS HORNET on its way to take part in the Doolittle Raid, the first U.S. bombing raid on Japan. The all volunteer strike force, trained and led by Lt. Col. James Doolittle, flew 800 miles then bombed Tokyo and 3 other cities without opposition. The raid inflicted little damage but gave a big boost to Allied morale in the face of the seemingly unstoppable Japanese. April 18, 1942.
Bataan Death March – Forced march of captured Americans and Filipinos in the Philippines. Island hopping – Strategy of invading Japanese – held islands and moving ever closer to Japan. General Douglas MacArthur – “I shall return,” are his words after FDR orders him to withdraw from the Philippines in March 1942. (same guy – drove out the WWI Bonus Army.) Battle of Coral Sea – 1 st time in Naval history, enemy ships fought a battle without seeing each other – aircraft carriers’ war planes fought the battle. No clear victory for either side but America blocks their path to Australia. (May 1942) Battle of Midway – naval battle between American and Japanese forces – won by Americans. (June 1942)
Battle for Guadalcanal – After 6 months of fierce fighting, the US wins first major land victory against the Japanese. ( Feb. 1943) Navajo Code Talkers – Navajo Indians were trained to used their native language to communicate coded messages so the Japanese couldn’t decode our messages. March 1945 – MacArthur returns and liberates Manila, Philippines. Kamikaze – Japanese suicide pilot Iwo Jima and Okinawa – Fiercely fought battles for these two islands places Americans close enough to begin major bombings of Japan.
Allied POWs with hands tied behind their backs pause during the Bataan Death March. About 76,000 prisoners including 12,000 Americans were forced on the 60 mile march under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp in the Philippines. April, 1942.
NEXT Racist Beliefs Hitler and Nazis say Aryans—Germanic peoples— are “master race” They launch the Holocaust—systematic murder of Jews and others The Holocaust Continued... Anti-Semitism Nazis tap into long-held feeling of many Europeans against Jews 1935 Nuremberg Laws take away rights of German Jews “ Night of Broken Glass” Kristallnacht—“night of broken glass,” November 9, 1938 Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues attacked; 100 Jews killed Image
Genocide: the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group. Victims: Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, Undesirables (homosexuals, mentally ill, political dissidents, handicap) Hitler’s Final Solution – extermination of all Jews. Nuremburg Trials – After the war emphasized individual responsibility for actions regardless of orders. Trials led to increased demand for Jewish homeland. 11 million were killed 6 million were Jews
NEXT A Flood of Refugees Fearing more violence, many German Jews flee to other countries Hitler favors emigration but other countries limit Jewish refugees Isolating the Jews Hitler has all Jews moved to designated cities They are forced to live in ghettos—separate Jewish areas Hitler hopes that Jews in ghettos will die of disease, starvation Despite bad conditions, Jews survive in these areas continued The Holocaust Begins Image
NEXT The “Final Solution” Hitler Seeks New Answer “Final Solution”—Hitler’s final plan for treatment of Jews Chooses genocide—systematic killing of an entire people The Killings Begin Nazis in Eastern Europe, Soviet Union create killing squads They shoot men, women, children in mass executions Other Jews sent to concentration camps or slave labor prisons Continued... Chart Map
NEXT The Final Stage By 1942, Nazis building huge, efficient extermination camps Camps separate strong from weak people Weak (mostly women, children, elderly, sick) killed immediately The Survivors Nazis kill about six million European Jews during the war Fewer than four million survive continued The “Final Solution” Image
Himmler sent four specially trained SS units called “Einsatzgruppen battalions” into German occupied territory and shot at least 1 million Jews. Victims were taken to deserted areas where they were made to dig their own graves and then shot. When the SS ran out of bullets they sometimes killed their victims using flame throwers.
In January 1942, Himmler decided to change tactics once again and called a special conference at Wannsee. At this conference it was decided that the existing methods were too inefficient and that a new ‘Final Solution’ was necessary.
How was the Final Solution going to be organized? Shooting was too inefficient as the bullets were needed for the war effort Jews were to be rounded up and put into transit camps called Ghettoes The Jews living in these Ghettos were to be used as a cheap source of labour. Conditions in the Ghettos were designed to be so bad that many die whilst the rest would be willing to leave these areas in the hope of better conditions On arrival the Jews would go through a process called ‘selection.’ The remaining Jews were to be shipped to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. Women, children, the old & the sick were to be sent for ‘special treatment.’ The young and fit would go through a process called ‘destruction through work.’
At the Wannsee Conference it was decided that if one of person’s parents was Jewish, then they were Jewish. However, if only one of their grandparents had been Jewish then they could be classified as being German. In 1940, all Jews had to have their passports stamped with the letter ‘J’ and had to wear the yellow Star of David on their jacket or coat.
Why do you think that they located them here? The work of the Einsatzgruppen
Tactics Starvation The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were only fed a 1000 calories a day. A human being needs 2,400 calories a day to maintain their weight Terror The SS publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of resistance Deception The Jews were told that they were going to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. In some Ghettos the Jews had to purchase their own train tickets. They were told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans. Hungry people are easier to control New arrivals at the Death camps were given postcards to send to their friends.
The SS guards who murdered the Jews were brainwashed with Anti-Semitic propaganda. The Jews were transported in cattle cars in terrible conditions. Naked, dirty and half starved people look like animals, which helped to reinforce the Nazi propaganda. The SS used to train their new guards by encouraging them to set fire to a pit full of live victims – usually children.
Deception & Selection At Auschwitz the trains pulled into a mock up of a normal station. The Jews were helped off the cattle trucks by Jews who were specially selected to help the Nazis At some death camps the Nazis would play records of classical music to help calm down the new arrivals. At Auschwitz the new arrivals were calmed down by a Jewish orchestra playing classical music. All new arrivals went through a process known as ‘selection.’ Mothers, children, the old & sick were sent straight to the ‘showers’ which were really the gas chambers. The able bodied were sent to work camp were they were killed through a process known as ‘destruction through work.’
Notice how it has been built to resemble a railway station
New Arrivals ‘Destruction Through Work’ ‘Showers’
The Nazis would force large groups of prisoners into small cement rooms and drop canisters of Zyklon B, or prussic acid, in its crystal form through small holes in the roof. These gas chambers were sometimes disguised as showers or bathing houses. The SS would try and pack up to 2000 people into this gas chamber
Notice the Ovens easy located near the Gas Chambers
Specially selected Jews known as the sonderkommando were used to to remove the gold fillings and hair of people who had been gassed. The Sonderkommando Jews were also forced to feed the dead bodies into the crematorium.
Taken inside a huge glass case in the Auschwitz Museum. This represents one day's collection at the peak of the gassings, about twenty five thousand pairs.
The Nazis aimed to kill 11 million Jews at the Wannsee Conference in 1941 Today there are only 2000 Jews living in Poland. The Nazis managed to kill at least 6 million Jews. Men like Schindler helped Jews escape the Final Solution. Not all Jews went quietly into the gas cambers. In 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto, like many others revolted against the Nazis when the Jews realised what was really happening.
The Allies defeated the Axis Powers in Europe and in Africa. War in Africa and Europe Section 4 During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.
Terms to Know: 1.Dwight D. Eisenhower – U.S. general who led the Allied Forces in Europe. 2.D-Day – Allied invasion of France in June 1944 to liberate Europe. 3.Battle of the Bulge – Germany’s last major attack. 4.Yalta Conference – Meeting of Allied leaders to discuss the end of the war plans. 5.Holocaust – Systematic murder of millions of Jews and other people in Europe by the Nazis. 6.Anti-Semitism – hostility or discrimination against Jews.
Operation Torch North African Campaign Purposes: Drive Axis powers out of North Africa and Middle East Divert German forces from Russian Front Strategy: Sandwich Afrikan Corp between British in East and Allied forces (including US) in West
NEXT The Allied Victory The North African Campaign Rommel takes Tobruk, June 1942; pushes toward Egypt British General Montgomery attacks at El Alamein, forces Rommel back American forces land in Morocco, November 1942 General Dwight D. Eisenhower—American commander in Morocco In May 1943, Rommel’s forces defeated by Allies The Tide Turns on Two Fronts Continued...
The Panzer IV was the mainstay of the Afrika Corps and were needed in great numbers in the Western Desert Erwin Rommel Commander of the Nazi forces in North Africa
NEXT The Battle for Stalingrad German army moves to capture Soviet oil fields Battle of Stalingrad—Soviets, Germans battle for control of city German troops capture city, then surrender after long battle The Invasion of Italy U.S., British forces land on, capture Sicily in 1943 Mussolini loses power but Germans keep control of northern Italy Allies invade Italy, but Germans keep fighting there until war ends continued The Tide Turns on Two Fronts SECTIO N 4
July - August 1943, Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy. This Operation was the greatest Airborne- Amphibious Operation of WWII until D-DAY 3,000 ships and landing-craft with 160,000 men (8 Divisions), 14,000 vehicles, 600 tanks and 1800 guns. Operation continues in Sicily and Italy 1943-1945
First Allied attacks on Monte Cassino Operation Husky Invasion of Italy
NEXT The Allied Home Fronts Mobilizing for War Fighting the war requires complete use of all national resources 17 to 18 million U.S. workers—many of them women—make weapons People at home face shortages of consumer goods Propaganda aims to inspire civilians to aid war effort War Limits Civil Rights Japanese Americans face prejudice, fear Army puts Japanese Americans in interment camps in 1942
NEXT Victory in Europe The D-Day Invasion Allies plan invasion of France; use deception to confuse Germans D-Day—June 6, 1944; day of “Operation Overlord” invasion of France Allied forces capture Normandy beaches; liberate Paris by September The Battle of the Bulge U.S., British forces advance on Germany from west, Soviets from east Battle of the Bulge—German counterattack in December 1944 Germans gain early success but forced to retreat
13 June, 1944 - till 20 June, V-1 named "Vergeltungswaffe". Germany launches its first V-1 rocket attack on England, 8000 V-1's fired to London. Up to 100 V-1s fell every hour on London. Over an 80 day period, more than 6,000 persons were killed.
Launched a V-2 rocket. 8 September 1944, Those witnessing the event cannot explain the cause of the explosion because the speed of the projectile is such that it arrives before the sound of its passage is heard.
"The Battle of the Bulge” December 1944 - January 1945 Last major offensive German action.
NEXT Germany’s Unconditional Surrender By 1945, Allied armies approach Germany from two sides Soviets surround Berlin in April 1945 Hitler commits suicide On May 9, 1945, Germany officially surrenders, marking V-E Day President Roosevelt dies in April; Harry Truman becomes president Victory in Europe
Victory in the Pacific The Japanese in Retreat Allies move to retake the Philippines in late 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf leaves Japanese navy badly damaged Kamikazes—Japanese pilots who fly suicide missions In March 1945, American forces capture Iwo Jima U.S. takes Okinawa in June 1945; Japan suffers huge casualties
Marines of the 5th Division inch their way up a slope on Red Beach No. 1 toward Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima, defended by seven Japanese Battalions. By nightfall, 566 Marines were killed and 1,854 wounded. February 19, 1945.
19 February 1945, (till 26 March). US Marines divisions land on Iwo Jima In the Pacific Iwo Jima is strategically and politically important to both sides. The Americans need the island as a fighter base (Mustangs P-51 fighters) for their Japanese raids (B-29's) and a relief base for damaged bombers. On the first day some 30,000 marines landed on the 8 square mile island. About 23,000 Japanese soldiers had prepared defences but allowed the landing to take place before opening fire. The Japanese had prepared for the invasion with a system of underground tunnels, bunkers, and pillboxes, designed to entrap and decimate the Americans. Over the next 36 days - 6,281 US soldiers are killed (in the first 2 days, 4000 US soldiers died), and 21,865 are wounded in capturing the island from 23,000 defenders. 21,000 Japanese soldiers died.
23 February 1945, U.S. Marines plant a U.S. flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima. The flag raising photo and subsequent statue came to symbolize being a Marine.
Enola Gay Col. Paul W. Tibbets, pilot of the B-29 Superfortress ENOLA GAY, drops the world's first atomic bomb, Little Boy, on Hiroshima. The 9,000 lb. bomb was dropped from 31,600 feet and detonated at 8:15 a.m., August 6, 1945, about 1,900 feet above the center of Hiroshima. A blinding light, tremendous explosion and dark gray cloud enveloped the city, followed by a rising mushroom shaped cloud. The Japanese estimated 72,000 were killed and 70,000 out of 76,000 buildings in the city were destroyed.
At the time of the bombing, Hiroshima was a prosperous city of nearly 320,000. The bomb exploded almost directly over the center of the city. Two square miles of the city were completely leveled by the bomb, and the intense heat generated by the explosion started fires as far as two miles from ground zero.
About one hour after the bombing on 6 August 1945.
A Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill is all that remains in this section of Nagasaki following the dropping of the second Atomic Bomb from a B-29 flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney, August 9, 1945. The Japanese estimated 25,680 were killed and 44 percent of the city was destroyed.
NEXT The Japanese Surrender Advisors warn Truman that invasion of Japan will cost many lives He has alternative; powerful new weapon called atomic bomb Manhattan Project—secret program to develop the bomb Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, August 6, 1945, about 75,000 die Nagasaki bombed on August 9; 70,000 die immediately Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945 Victory in the Pacific
8 August 1945, The Soviet Union declares war on Japan. Soviet forces invade Manchuria and North-Korea. 9 August 1945, The world's second (and last) atomic bomb (Plutonium), Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. One minute after explosion 39,000 were killed and 25,000 wounded. 14 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito announces the Japan defeat to his people. Japan accepts an unconditional surrender. The fear of more atomic weapon attacks and the certainty of land defeat by the Soviets have combined to secure the complete surrender. 2 September 1945, Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the instrument of surrender aboard the battleship U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, Japan. End of World War II.
Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. September 2, 1945.
Sept 2, 1945 Japanese sign surrender agreement Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay.
NEXT A Harvest of Destruction Many cities across Europe badly damaged by war Many people displaced by war and peace agreements Devastation in Europe Misery Continues After the War Lack of food, destruction of roads, factories lead to hardship Many people suffer from hunger, disease after war
NEXT Postwar Governments and Politics Need for New Leaders Many conquered countries went back to old governments New leaders needed in Germany, Italy, and France Communist parties make gains in Italy, France by promising change Communist interest fades as economies recover The Nuremberg Trials Nuremberg Trials—trials of 22 Nazi leaders for war crimes Some Nazi leaders are executed for their actions
NEXT Postwar Japan Serious Damage In war, Japan loses two million people; severe damage to many cities Occupied Japan MacArthur takes charge of U.S. occupation of Japan Starts process of demilitarization—disbanding Japan’s armed forces Also launches democratization—creating democracy in Japan Japanese people adopt new constitution in 1947 MacArthur puts economic reforms in place
NEXT Occupation Brings Deep Changes Changing Japanese Society Emperor kept on, but he loses power and becomes figurehead Japanese people elect two-house legislature Bill of rights guarantees freedoms; women also have right to vote Constitution says Japan cannot attack another country In 1951, peace treaty with Japan signed; U.S. occupation ends U.S. and Japan become allies