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Executive Summary 1. Introduction on small farms 2. The Green Revolution 3. Agro-ecology 4. Policy implications.

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Presentation on theme: "Executive Summary 1. Introduction on small farms 2. The Green Revolution 3. Agro-ecology 4. Policy implications."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Executive Summary 1. Introduction on small farms 2. The Green Revolution 3. Agro-ecology 4. Policy implications

3 1. Introduction - Small farms in the world - Who are small farmers? - Advantages and disadvantages of small farming

4 Small Farms in the World 3 billion rural people in developing world 3 billion rural people in developing world More than 2/3 reside on small farms More than 2/3 reside on small farms In the world: nearly 500 million small farms In the world: nearly 500 million small farms Today 1.2 billion people suffer hunger Today 1.2 billion people suffer hunger 50% of them are small farmers 50% of them are small farmers small farmers: one of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in the developing world

5 Small Farms in the World (2) Trend in developing countries: increasing fragmentation of land & decreasing average farm size Trend in developing countries: increasing fragmentation of land & decreasing average farm size

6 Who are small farmers? Lack of a sole definition: limited resources; farm size; low technology; dependence on family labour; subsistence oriented Lack of a sole definition: limited resources; farm size; low technology; dependence on family labour; subsistence oriented Most common approach: less than 2 hectares of owned or rented land Most common approach: less than 2 hectares of owned or rented land Small farms control small share of total agricultural land (inequitable land distribution) Small farms control small share of total agricultural land (inequitable land distribution)BUT They produce the majority of the food that is consumed locally They produce the majority of the food that is consumed locally

7 Source: ETC group, 2009

8 Advantages of small farming Local embeddedness Local embeddedness Efficient landuse Efficient landuse Local knowledge Local knowledge No need for supervision of hired labourers No need for supervision of hired labourers Investements in the local economy Investements in the local economy No need to buy expensive food on the market No need to buy expensive food on the market BUT: no scale effects, semiproletariat BUT: no scale effects, semiproletariat

9 Advantages of big farming Scale advantages Scale advantages Skilled labour Skilled labour Market and technologic knowledge Market and technologic knowledge Finance and capital Finance and capital Links with supermarkets Links with supermarkets Lower risk if commodity prices fall Lower risk if commodity prices fall BUT: no optimal allocation of labour BUT: no optimal allocation of labour

10 2. The Green Revolution - What? - Green Revolution in Asia - Green Revolution in Africa?

11 Green Revolution Public subsidies of: Irrigation Irrigation Mechanisation Mechanisation Pesticides and herbicides Pesticides and herbicides Hybrid seeds + GMOs Hybrid seeds + GMOs Fertilizers Fertilizers

12 Advantages of GR in Asia Increased production (good for rural poor) Increased production (good for rural poor) Falling prices (good for urban poor) Falling prices (good for urban poor) Nature Reviews Genetics 2, 815-822 (October 2001)

13 Disadvantages of GR in Asia Dependence to input (eg. seed producers) Dependence to input (eg. seed producers) Dependence to market (eg. world prices) Dependence to market (eg. world prices) Losing land if not able to pay loan (India) Losing land if not able to pay loan (India) Destruction of traditional society Destruction of traditional society Inequality (eg. when uneven land distribution) Inequality (eg. when uneven land distribution) Health problems (eg. Roundup Paraguay) Health problems (eg. Roundup Paraguay) Access to water Access to water Ecological problems (water table, erosion) Ecological problems (water table, erosion)

14 GR in Africa: AGRA 1) Seeds Program (hybrids) 2) Soil Health Program (water, nutrients and fertilizers) 3) Market Access (storage, warehouses) 4) Policy and Partnerships Program 5) Innovative Finance (low intrest loans) To benifit smallholder farms and women

15 SWOT of GR in Africa Strenghts Climate (warm and humid) Diverse & rich ecosystems 60% ag. ground not in use Small farms Weaknesses Thin soils Infrastructure Distance to markets & ports Education Opportunities Small scale farming Organic farming South-South cooperation ProtectionismThreats Climate change Corruption WTO rules EPAs

16 3. Agro-ecology - Why and what? - Five Advantages of agro-ecology - Example: Malawi - Three positive consequences

17 Agro-ecology Agriculture must not compromise its ability to satisfy future needs. Agriculture must not compromise its ability to satisfy future needs. The loss of biodiversity,The loss of biodiversity, unsustainable use of water, andunsustainable use of water, and pollution of soils and waterpollution of soils and water Climate change: Climate change: more frequent and extreme weather events: droughts, floods, less predictable rainfallmore frequent and extreme weather events: droughts, floods, less predictable rainfall severe impact ability of certain regions and communities to feed themselves severe impact ability of certain regions and communities to feed themselves

18 Transition to Agroecology Agroecology: Agroecology: low-carbon, resource-preservinglow-carbon, resource-preserving benefits the poorest farmersbenefits the poorest farmers The core principles of agroecology include The core principles of agroecology include recycling nutrients and energy external inputs;recycling nutrients and energy external inputs; integrating crops and livestock;integrating crops and livestock; diversification: species and genetic resources;diversification: species and genetic resources; ecosystem focus: interactions individual species.ecosystem focus: interactions individual species.

19 Agro-ecology and the right to food Annual report submitted the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter to the Human Rights Council United Nations 20 December 2010 Annual report submitted the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter to the Human Rights Council United Nations 20 December 2010

20 Advantages of Agro-ecology A. Availability: increase productivity at field level A. Availability: increase productivity at field level B. Accessibility: reduction rural poverty B. Accessibility: reduction rural poverty C. Adequacy: contribution to improving nutrition C. Adequacy: contribution to improving nutrition D. Sustainability: contribution to adapting to climate change D. Sustainability: contribution to adapting to climate change E. Farmer participation: dissemination of best practices E. Farmer participation: dissemination of best practices

21 Agro-ecology raises productivity at field level: Jules Pretty et al., 2006 286 recent sustainable agriculture projects 286 recent sustainable agriculture projects 3 % of the cultivated area in developing countries 3 % of the cultivated area in developing countries Increased productivity on 12.6 millions farms, Increased productivity on 12.6 millions farms, global average of 79 per cent global average of 79 per cent 116 % increase for all African projects and 116 % increase for all African projects and 128 % for projects in East Africa 128 % for projects in East Africa

22 B. Accessibility: agroecology reduces rural poverty Reduction farmers reliance on external inputs and state subsidies and improve independence local retailers, moneylenders Reduction farmers reliance on external inputs and state subsidies and improve independence local retailers, moneylenders create employment on farms: optimal allocation of labour create employment on farms: optimal allocation of labour stimulate rural non farm economy (demand driven growth linkages): small farmers more likely to spend income locally stimulate rural non farm economy (demand driven growth linkages): small farmers more likely to spend income locally push down prices of staple foods: advantage for net food buyers push down prices of staple foods: advantage for net food buyers On-farm fertility generation: On-farm fertility generation: Livestock manure, green manures, fertilizer factory in the fields :Livestock manure, green manures, fertilizer factory in the fields :

23 B. Accessibility: agroecology reduces rural poverty

24 Reduction farmers reliance on external inputs and state subsidies and improve independence local retailers, moneylenders Reduction farmers reliance on external inputs and state subsidies and improve independence local retailers, moneylenders create employment on farms: optimal allocation of labour create employment on farms: optimal allocation of labour stimulate rural non farm economy (demand driven growth linkages): small farmers more likely to spend income locally stimulate rural non farm economy (demand driven growth linkages): small farmers more likely to spend income locally push down prices of staple foods: advantage for net food buyers push down prices of staple foods: advantage for net food buyers On-farm fertility generation: On-farm fertility generation: Livestock manure, green manures, fertilizer factory in the fields :Livestock manure, green manures, fertilizer factory in the fields :

25 C. Adequacy: agroecology contributes to improving nutrition In the past, Green Revolution diversified cropping systems to simplified cereal-based systems In the past, Green Revolution diversified cropping systems to simplified cereal-based systems micronutrient malnutrition in many developing countries. micronutrient malnutrition in many developing countries. Case: Boost cereal crops: Wheat and maize are mainly sources of carbohydrates: they contain relatively little protein,Case: Boost cereal crops: Wheat and maize are mainly sources of carbohydrates: they contain relatively little protein, need for more diverse agroecosystems a more diversified nutrient output of the farming systems. need for more diverse agroecosystems a more diversified nutrient output of the farming systems. agroecological principles: indigenous fruits contribute on average about 42 per cent of the natural food-basket S-Africa agroecological principles: indigenous fruits contribute on average about 42 per cent of the natural food-basket S-Africa source of vitamins and other micronutrients,source of vitamins and other micronutrients, sustenance during lean seasons.sustenance during lean seasons.

26 D. Sustainability: agroecology contributes to adapting to climate change Climate Change: more severe droughts and floods can be expected in the future Climate Change: more severe droughts and floods can be expected in the future physical properties of soils on organic farms improved the drought resistance of cropsphysical properties of soils on organic farms improved the drought resistance of crops E.g. improved soil filtration (agroforestry) E.g. improved soil filtration (agroforestry) Global warming: invasion of new pests, weeds and diseases: Global warming: invasion of new pests, weeds and diseases: cultivar mixtures -> genetic diversity in the fields in order to improve crop resistance to diseasescultivar mixtures -> genetic diversity in the fields in order to improve crop resistance to diseases Rice: Yunnan Province in China: planted mixtures with resistant varieties, Rice: Yunnan Province in China: planted mixtures with resistant varieties, yields improved by 89 %yields improved by 89 % blast disease was 94 % less severeblast disease was 94 % less severe Exit monoculture, exit fungicidal sprays Exit monoculture, exit fungicidal sprays

27 D. Sustainability: agroecology contributes to adapting to climate change Climate change: Erosion: Climate change: Erosion: Study on 180 communities of smallholders Nicaragua, simple agroecological methods Study on 180 communities of smallholders Nicaragua, simple agroecological methods Agroecological plots vs. convential farms Agroecological plots vs. convential farms lost 18 % less arable land to landslideslost 18 % less arable land to landslides 69 per cent less gully erosion69 per cent less gully erosion average 40 per cent more topsoilaverage 40 per cent more topsoil higher field moisturehigher field moisture

28 D. Sustainability: agroecology contributes to adapting to climate change Mitigating climate change: Mitigating climate change: Increasing carbon sinks in soil organic matter, and above)ground biomassIncreasing carbon sinks in soil organic matter, and above)ground biomass Reducing direct and indirect energy use delinking from the reliance on fossil energy (oil and gas)Reducing direct and indirect energy use delinking from the reliance on fossil energy (oil and gas) Large-scale studies from Indonesia, Vietnam and Bangladesh recorded: Large-scale studies from Indonesia, Vietnam and Bangladesh recorded: 35 to 92 per cent reduction in insecticide use in rice, 35 to 92 per cent reduction in insecticide use in rice, 34 to 66 per cent reduction in pesticide use34 to 66 per cent reduction in pesticide use combined with 4 to 14 per cent better yields recorded in cotton productioncombined with 4 to 14 per cent better yields recorded in cotton production

29 E. Farmer participation: an asset for the dissemination of best practices Farmer field schools: empowering Farmer field schools: empowering helping farmers to organize themselves better helping farmers to organize themselves better stimulating continued learning.stimulating continued learning. The demonstration of fields managed by model farmers, which attracts visits by other farmers during field days The demonstration of fields managed by model farmers, which attracts visits by other farmers during field days Partnerships with national research systems Partnerships with national research systems technical advisers and coordinators: workshops technical advisers and coordinators: workshops

30 Malawi: Subsidy to sustainability food crisis due to drought in 2004-2005 food crisis due to drought in 2004-2005 fertilizer subsidy programme for maize production in 2005-2006 Succes fertilizer subsidy programme for maize production in 2005-2006 Succes 2008: Malawi exports more than one million metric tonnes of maize 2008: Malawi exports more than one million metric tonnes of maize medium-term situation: fertilizer subsidies may have to be scaled back or withdrawn. medium-term situation: fertilizer subsidies may have to be scaled back or withdrawn.

31 Malawi: Subsidy to sustainability Solution: agroforestry systems: nitrogen-fixing trees Solution: agroforestry systems: nitrogen-fixing trees Faidherbia albida, a nitrogen-fixing acacia species: unfertilized maize yields in the vicinity of Faidherbia trees averaged 4.1 t/ha, compared to 1.3 t/ha nearby, Now: extension of the programme to 40 per cent of Malawis districts, benefiting 1.3 million of the poorest people. Now: extension of the programme to 40 per cent of Malawis districts, benefiting 1.3 million of the poorest people. Increased yields from 1 t/ha to 2–3 t/ha, Increased yields from 1 t/ha to 2–3 t/ha, But: with a quarter-dose of mineral fertilizer, maize yields may surpass 4 t/ha. But: with a quarter-dose of mineral fertilizer, maize yields may surpass 4 t/ha.

32 Why its necessary to support smallholders? Whith an agroecology perspective, small farmers can ensure: Whith an agroecology perspective, small farmers can ensure: a. FOOD SECURITY b. ENVIRONMENT PRESERVATION c. POVERTY REDUCTION

33 a. FOOD SECURITY International agribusiness enterprises (dominant players in agricultural sector): profit-oriented and export vocation International agribusiness enterprises (dominant players in agricultural sector): profit-oriented and export vocation Small farmers: food production vocation Small farmers: food production vocation THREATS FOR FOOD SECURITY: -Rising food prices -Arable land subtracted to agriculture (agrofuels; cereals for animal feed) -Export crops -Farmers reliance on external inputs SMALL FARMERS CONTRIBUTIONS: -Higher yields -Integrated farming systems: high variety of food (macro & micro nutrients)

34 b. ENVIRONMENT PRESERVATION THREATS: THREATS: - Soil erosion and contamination - Water pollution - Loss of biodiversity - Deforestation - Climate change SMALL FARMERS CONTRIBUTIONS: -Sustainable agriculture, integrated crops,... -Concervative practices (soil, water) -Low-carbon agriculture -Resource-preserving

35 c. POVERTY REDUCTION Strong association between smallholder development and poverty reduction (in Africa strongly than elsewhere): Strong association between smallholder development and poverty reduction (in Africa strongly than elsewhere): -raise farm incomes -create employment on farms: optimal allocation of labour -stimulate rural non farm economy (demand driven growth linkages): small farmers more likely to spend income locally -push down prices of staple foods: advantage for net food buyers

36 4. Policy implications -Market failures - Policy interventions - Obstacles - Opportunities

37 INSTITUTIONAL and MARKET FAILURES -Lack of assets (also as collateral) -Information asymetries -Coordination challenges (economies of scale) -Vulnerability to climate and market risk -.... Consequences: discriminatory and inefficient outcomes Consequences: discriminatory and inefficient outcomes Need for policy intervention to correct mkt failures: Need for policy intervention to correct mkt failures: Win-win solution for efficiency and equity Win-win solution for efficiency and equity Adjusted to local context and stage of development Adjusted to local context and stage of development

38 Policy interventions Supporting access to land, water and seeds Supporting access to land, water and seeds Prioritising public goods (instead of private goods): Prioritising public goods (instead of private goods): - rural infrastructures: roads, electricity, information and communication technologies - extension services - storage facilities - access to credit and insurance against risks

39 Policy interventions (2) Investing in knowledge: Investing in knowledge: - education - reoriented agricultural extension and research - horizontal dissemination of knowledge Strengthening social organisations: Strengthening social organisations: - support to farmer's organizations and cooperatives Achieving gender empowerment: -targeted policies -access to assets, inputs, credit

40 Policy interventions (3) Organizing markets: -improved access to local markets -adding value to raw products: packaging, processing, marketing (ex. cooperatives) -implement food soveraignity (protect farmers from volatile prices and the dumping) -public procurement systems -support farm-to city direct marketing and farmers markets

41 Some obstacles to policy implementation: Smallholders collective action problems: Smallholders collective action problems: -Poverty: short time horizons, risk averse -Limited access to communication -Spatial dispersion and large numbers of farmers Greatest lobbying power of urban population and rural élites Greatest lobbying power of urban population and rural élites Political will of governments Political will of governments

42 Opportunities to policy implementation: Strenghtening of farmers associations Strenghtening of farmers associations Participatory methods in policy making Participatory methods in policy making Decentralisation (but problematic funding) Decentralisation (but problematic funding) Partnership public-private-NGOs Partnership public-private-NGOs

43 Thank you

44 References ALTIERI, M. (2009) Agroecology, Small Farms, and Food Sovereignty. Monthly Review, July-August 2009. ALTIERI, M. (2009) Agroecology, Small Farms, and Food Sovereignty. Monthly Review, July-August 2009. BIRNER, R.; RESNICK, D. (2010) The Political Economy of Policies for Smallholder Agriculture. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1442–1452) BIRNER, R.; RESNICK, D. (2010) The Political Economy of Policies for Smallholder Agriculture. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1442–1452) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2009) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food: Agribusiness and the right to food (A/HRC/13/33) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2009) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food: Agribusiness and the right to food (A/HRC/13/33) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2009) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. Seed policies and the right to food: enhancing agrobiodiversity and encouraging innovation (A/64/170) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2009) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. Seed policies and the right to food: enhancing agrobiodiversity and encouraging innovation (A/64/170) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2010) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food: Access to land (A/65/281) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2010) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food: Access to land (A/65/281) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2010) Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food: Agroecology (A/HRC/16/49) DE SCHUTTER, O. (2010) Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food: Agroecology (A/HRC/16/49) ETC GROUP (2009) Who will feed us? Questions for the food and climate crises. (http://www.etcgroup.org/en/node/4921) ETC GROUP (2009) Who will feed us? Questions for the food and climate crises. (http://www.etcgroup.org/en/node/4921)http://www.etcgroup.org/en/node/4921

45 HAZEL, P.; POULTON, C. (2010) The future of small farms: trajectories and policy priorities. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1349-1361) HAZEL, P.; POULTON, C. (2010) The future of small farms: trajectories and policy priorities. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1349-1361) HAZELL, P.; POULTON, C.; WIGGINS, S. (2010) The Future of Small Farms: Trajectories and Policy Priorities. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1349–1361) HAZELL, P.; POULTON, C.; WIGGINS, S. (2010) The Future of Small Farms: Trajectories and Policy Priorities. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1349–1361) HAZELL, P.; POULTON, C.; WIGGINS, S.; DORWARD, A. (2007) The Future of Small Farms for Poverty reduction and Growth. IFPRI, Washinghton DC. HAZELL, P.; POULTON, C.; WIGGINS, S.; DORWARD, A. (2007) The Future of Small Farms for Poverty reduction and Growth. IFPRI, Washinghton DC. IFPRI (2005) The future of small farms: Proceedings of a research workshop. Washington, DC. IFPRI (2005) The future of small farms: Proceedings of a research workshop. Washington, DC. LA VIA CAMPESINA (2009) Sustainable peasant and family farm agriculture can feed the world. (http://viacampesina.org/en/index.php?option=com_content&vie w=section&layout=blog&id=8&Itemid=30) LA VIA CAMPESINA (2009) Sustainable peasant and family farm agriculture can feed the world. (http://viacampesina.org/en/index.php?option=com_content&vie w=section&layout=blog&id=8&Itemid=30)http://viacampesina.org/en/index.php?option=com_content&vie w=section&layout=blog&id=8&Itemid=30http://viacampesina.org/en/index.php?option=com_content&vie w=section&layout=blog&id=8&Itemid=30 WIGGINS, S.; KIRSTEN, J.; LLAMBI, L. (2010) The Future of Small Farms. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1341–1348) WIGGINS, S.; KIRSTEN, J.; LLAMBI, L. (2010) The Future of Small Farms. World Development, Vol. 38, No. 10 (1341–1348) WORLD BANK (2007). World development report 2008. Agriculture for development. Washington DC WORLD BANK (2007). World development report 2008. Agriculture for development. Washington DC www.mo.be www.mo.be www.mo.be


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