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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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1 The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815
Chapter 23 The French Revolution and Napoleon

2 Section 1 The French Revolution Begins

3 The Estates 1770s – France was divided into three social classes (estates) Estates % of population % of land owned % of taxes 1st (Clergy) <1 10 2 2nd (Nobles) 20 3rd (Everyone else) 98 70 50

4 3rd Estate Three groups: Highest taxed with the fewest privileges
Bourgeoisie – middle class; could be wealthy; paid very high taxes Knew and embraced Enlightenment ideals Workers Peasants Highest taxed with the fewest privileges

5 Reasons for Change Huge group made up the lowest class
New ideas of government Enlightenment ideals + the American Revolution Economic problems By the 1780s, France was starting to weaken Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette nearly double their debt

6 Louis XVI In addition to being extravagant, Louis XVI was indecisive
He waited until they were nearly bankrupt to deal with it Tried to tax the 2nd estate A meeting will be called with representatives from each estate (Estates-General) to discuss the tax

7 Beginning Revolution The first 2 estates traditionally outvoted the 3rd (1 vote per estate) Angered over the power of the first 2 estates, the 3rd estate created the National Assembly to become the new legislature Took all the power away from the king Tennis Court Oath was the first act of “revolt” against the king, promising not to quit until a new Constitution was created

8 Bastille Day The National Assembly feared Louis using the military to dismiss them Began collecting weapons Trying to find more weapons, a mob stormed the Bastille, a Parisian prison Killed guards and paraded through the streets with heads on pikes Considered the French “Independence Day” (July 14, 1789)

9 Great Fear At the beginning of revolution, panic swept out of Paris and through the countryside Created chaos Louis and Marie Antoinette were forced to move back to Paris after attempting to flee the country

10 Warm-up #1 – write the number, what’s red, and the answer
What percentage of people belonged to the 3rd estate? What happened on Bastille Day? Which group of people in France most embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment? B____________ What prompted the meeting of the Estates-General during the reign of Louis XVI? What group of people were hurt most by the tax system pre-Revolution in France? 98% French mob stormed a prison and killed all the guards (French Independence Day) Bourgeoisie Louis XVI tried to raise taxes on 2nd estate 3rd estate

11 Section 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

12 The Assembly Reforms France
Out of fear, nobles and clergy began to join the National Assembly First act was to eliminate the privileges of the 1st and 2nd estates By the end of the summer of 1789, they had created a set of rights just like the US Constitution Ignored women

13 Church and King Church was nationalized
Land became “public” and officials were elected Angered many peasants Louis XVI and his family tried to escape France Caught and put under guard Strengthened his opponents

14 A Government Forms The National Assembly debated a constitution for 2 years. The Final Product: Constitutional monarchy Created a Legislative Assembly Could create laws but the monarchy was responsible for enforcing them

15 Factions Develop After gaining power, the Legislative Assembly quickly divided into 3 groups Radicals – wanted extreme change (no king) Moderates – wanted some change Conservatives – wanted few changes Other groups sought to change policies from the outside Emigres - nobles who had fled San-culottes – commoners who wanted greater changes

16 War Other nations, fearing the same would happen to them, encouraged Louis XVI to reclaim power Legislative Assembly declared war Imprisoned the royal family September Massacres resulted from mobs storming prisons and killing the imprisoned nobles

17 Jacobins The most radical politicians ended up with control
Became known as Jacobins Advocated the killing of ANYONE who supported the king Jan 21, 1793 – they try Louis XVI for treason and execute by guillotine Continued their war effort against growing enemies

18 Reign of Terror Even the French people feared the Jacobins
Maximilien Robespierre will rise to power and sought to completely wipe out the past Targeted the Church Became the dictator and began executing anyone that threatened his power Nobody was safe 85% were “friends” of the Revolution

19 End of Terror Fellow revolutionaries finally arrested and executed Robespierre on July 28, 1794 Following the Terror, people abandoned the idea of radical change and put the nobility back in control Bicameral legislature 5 person executive body (the Directory)

20 Warm-up #2 What kind of government was created by the Constitution the National Assembly created? Who was safe from the guillotine during the Reign of Terror? What did the National Assembly do that angered the French peasants? Who removed Robespierre from power? Who took control of France following Robespierre’s death? Constitutional monarchy Nobody Took away the Church’s land and ability to elect their own officials His fellow revolutionaries The nobles

21 Section 3 Napoleon Forges an Empire

22 Taking Power Born in 1769, Napoleon was raised to be a military leader
Promoted quickly when he protected the government (1795) Soon after (1799), he seized an opening to take over (coup d’etat) His resistance to Britain, Austria, and Russia led to him being recognized as the soul leader

23 Ruling France Using a plebiscite, or vote of the people, Napoleon became the sole leader under a new constitution Kept many of the reforms of the revolution Rebuilt the economy through fair taxes Ended much of the corruption in government Established government run schools (lycees) to train government employees

24 Napoleonic Reforms Responding to the people, he re-established a relationship with the Church (concordat) Kept the Church out of political affairs Created the Napoleonic Code Uniform set of laws Promoted order over liberty His popularity led to him being crowned emperor in 1804 (symbolism of crowning himself)

25 Napoleon’s Empire Sought to expand Needed Haiti
All of Europe and take back the Americas Needed Haiti A civil war fought by slaves had liberated Haiti 10 years earlier France lost (disease) After losing Haiti, Napoleon abandoned the West and sold Louisiana to the US in 1803 Money, cut losses, anger/weaken Britain

26 Focusing on Europe Having had early successes, Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden joined against Napoleon His bold/unpredictable strategy gave Napoleon the advantages initially Britain will be the only enemy left when Russia, Austria, and Prussia sign treaties

27 Ruler of Europe Initially Napoleon seemed unstoppable
In 1805, at the Battle of Trafalgar, the British navy destroyed Napoleon’s fleet at the Strait of Gibraltar Granted the British naval supremacy for the 1800s Napoleon had to give up on England By 1812, Napoleon controlled nearly all of Europe The size was also the reason it was so difficult to maintain

28 Warm-up #3 What were some of Napoleon’s reforms?
What were the reasons for Napoleon selling Louisiana? What were the consequences of the Battle of Trafalgar? What word describes a vote of the people? What institution did Napoleon compromise with after coming to power? Government run schools, legal code, fairer taxes Raise money, cut losses in America, anger/reduce the power of Britain Napoleon gave up conquering Britain and naval supremacy Plebiscite The Church

29 Section 4 Napoleon’s Empire Collapses

30 Mistake #1: Continental System
Napoleon tried to “starve” Britain by closing (blockade) all continental ports Britain responded by creating its own blockade Worked better because of their navy Caused the US to declare war (War of 1812)

31 Mistake #2: Peninsular War
Trying to control Portugal, Napoleon angered Spain into a 6 year war against peasant fighters (guerillas) Used ambush tactics, which Napoleon could not fight Britain joined Spain Napoleon’s actions renewed nationalist feelings

32 Mistake #3 (the big one): Russian Invasion
In 1812, Napoleon, angry at Russia’s refusal to obey the blockade against Britain, invaded Russia Russian Czar, Alexander I, used a scorched-earth policy to prevent the French from getting anything (including Moscow) When they started their retreat, the Russians picked them off The French army went from 420,000 to 10,000

33 Napoleon’s Downfall Napoleon’s enemies seized their opening
He was able to raise an army again but they were untrained and lost easily April 1814, Napoleon surrendered and was exiled to Elba

34 100 Days Napoleon was replaced by the unpopular Louis XVIII
After escaping Elba and returning to France, Napoleon was welcomed by the people, who quickly joined his army He was emperor again within days of landing His final defeat came at Waterloo in June of This period of rule was known as the Hundred Days He was exiled (for good) to St. Helena

35 Warm-up #4 What did Britain do in response to the Continental System?
What strategy did Czar Alexander I use to defeat Napoleon? Name of the period where Napoleon returned to power in France. Name of the conflict between Spain/Portugal and France during the reign of Napoleon. They organized their own blockade Scorched-earth policy 100 days Peninsular War

36 Section 5 Congress of Vienna

37 Origins Following Napoleon’s domination of Europe, leaders wanted peace and stability. A series of meetings will be held in Vienna, Austria Most decisions will be made behind closed doors by the 5 “great powers” Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France

38 Klemens von Metternich
Most influential person at the Congress Prince of Austria Felt that Napoleon’s example showed all the problems of democracy Had 3 goals Prevent French aggression by weakening France and strengthening its neighbors Balance the power of all nations Restore the monarchies Legitimacy was a principle that restored to power all the people removed by Napoleon

39 Other Political Changes
While governments reverted to pre-Napoleon era, those governments were different from each other Britain and France – Constitutional Monarchies Central/East – conservative Russia, Prussia, and Austria – absolute monarchs

40 Conservative Europe Many European leaders agreed to protect each other
Holy Alliance and Concert of Europe both protected member nations in the event of a revolution Sought to turn back the French Revolution but it was too late

41 Legacy of the Revolution
Latin American nations who had tasted democracy were unwilling to surrender it back The Congress of Vienna established a balance of power in European nations Nationalism had become a driving force for future revolutions across Europe and the Americas

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