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The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815. 1770s – France was divided into three social classes (estates) Estates % of population % of land owned.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815. 1770s – France was divided into three social classes (estates) Estates % of population % of land owned."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815

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3 1770s – France was divided into three social classes (estates) Estates % of population % of land owned % of taxes 1 st (Clergy) <1102 2 nd (Nobles) 2200 3 rd (Everyon e else) 987050

4 Three groups: Bourgeoisie – middle class; could be wealthy; paid very high taxes Knew and embraced Enlightenment ideals Workers Peasants Highest taxed with the fewest privileges

5 Huge group made up the lowest class New ideas of government Enlightenment ideals + the American Revolution Economic problems By the 1780s, France was starting to weaken Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette nearly double their debt

6 In addition to being extravagant, Louis XVI was indecisive He waited until they were nearly bankrupt to deal with it Tried to tax the 2 nd estate A meeting will be called with representatives from each estate (Estates-General) to discuss the tax

7 The first 2 estates traditionally outvoted the 3 rd (1 vote per estate) Angered over the power of the first 2 estates, the 3 rd estate created the National Assembly to become the new legislature Took all the power away from the king Tennis Court Oath was the first act of “revolt” against the king, promising not to quit until a new Constitution was created

8 The National Assembly feared Louis using the military to dismiss them Began collecting weapons Trying to find more weapons, a mob stormed the Bastille, a Parisian prison Killed guards and paraded through the streets with heads on pikes Considered the French “Independence Day” (July 14, 1789)

9 At the beginning of revolution, panic swept out of Paris and through the countryside Created chaos Louis and Marie Antoinette were forced to move back to Paris after attempting to flee the country

10 1.What percentage of people belonged to the 3 rd estate? 2.What happened on Bastille Day? 3.Which group of people in France most embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment? B____________ 4.What prompted the meeting of the Estates-General during the reign of Louis XVI? 5.What group of people were hurt most by the tax system pre-Revolution in France? 1.98% 2.French mob stormed a prison and killed all the guards (French Independence Day) 3.Bourgeoisie 4.Louis XVI tried to raise taxes on 2 nd estate 5.3 rd estate

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12 Out of fear, nobles and clergy began to join the National Assembly First act was to eliminate the privileges of the 1 st and 2 nd estates By the end of the summer of 1789, they had created a set of rights just like the US Constitution Ignored women

13 Church was nationalized Land became “public” and officials were elected Angered many peasants Louis XVI and his family tried to escape France Caught and put under guard Strengthened his opponents

14 The National Assembly debated a constitution for 2 years. The Final Product: Constitutional monarchy Created a Legislative Assembly Could create laws but the monarchy was responsible for enforcing them

15 After gaining power, the Legislative Assembly quickly divided into 3 groups Radicals – wanted extreme change (no king) Moderates – wanted some change Conservatives – wanted few changes Other groups sought to change policies from the outside Emigres - nobles who had fled San-culottes – commoners who wanted greater changes

16 Other nations, fearing the same would happen to them, encouraged Louis XVI to reclaim power Legislative Assembly declared war Imprisoned the royal family September Massacres resulted from mobs storming prisons and killing the imprisoned nobles

17 The most radical politicians ended up with control Became known as Jacobins Advocated the killing of ANYONE who supported the king Jan 21, 1793 – they try Louis XVI for treason and execute by guillotine Continued their war effort against growing enemies

18 Even the French people feared the Jacobins Maximilien Robespierre will rise to power and sought to completely wipe out the past Targeted the Church Became the dictator and began executing anyone that threatened his power Nobody was safe 85% were “friends” of the Revolution

19 Fellow revolutionaries finally arrested and executed Robespierre on July 28, 1794 Following the Terror, people abandoned the idea of radical change and put the nobility back in control Bicameral legislature 5 person executive body (the Directory)

20 6.What kind of government was created by the Constitution the National Assembly created? 7.Who was safe from the guillotine during the Reign of Terror? 8.What did the National Assembly do that angered the French peasants? 9.Who removed Robespierre from power? 10.Who took control of France following Robespierre’s death? 6.Constitutional monarchy 7.Nobody 8.Took away the Church’s land and ability to elect their own officials 9.His fellow revolutionaries 10.The nobles

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22 Born in 1769, Napoleon was raised to be a military leader Promoted quickly when he protected the government (1795) Soon after (1799), he seized an opening to take over (coup d’etat) His resistance to Britain, Austria, and Russia led to him being recognized as the soul leader

23 Using a plebiscite, or vote of the people, Napoleon became the sole leader under a new constitution Kept many of the reforms of the revolution Rebuilt the economy through fair taxes Ended much of the corruption in government Established government run schools (lycees) to train government employees

24 Responding to the people, he re-established a relationship with the Church (concordat) Kept the Church out of political affairs Created the Napoleonic Code Uniform set of laws Promoted order over liberty His popularity led to him being crowned emperor in 1804 (symbolism of crowning himself)

25 Sought to expand All of Europe and take back the Americas Needed Haiti A civil war fought by slaves had liberated Haiti 10 years earlier France lost (disease) After losing Haiti, Napoleon abandoned the West and sold Louisiana to the US in 1803 Money, cut losses, anger/weaken Britain

26 Having had early successes, Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden joined against Napoleon His bold/unpredictable strategy gave Napoleon the advantages initially Britain will be the only enemy left when Russia, Austria, and Prussia sign treaties

27 Initially Napoleon seemed unstoppable In 1805, at the Battle of Trafalgar, the British navy destroyed Napoleon’s fleet at the Strait of Gibraltar Granted the British naval supremacy for the 1800s Napoleon had to give up on England By 1812, Napoleon controlled nearly all of Europe The size was also the reason it was so difficult to maintain

28 11.What were some of Napoleon’s reforms? 12.What were the reasons for Napoleon selling Louisiana? 13.What were the consequences of the Battle of Trafalgar? 14.What word describes a vote of the people? 15.What institution did Napoleon compromise with after coming to power? 11.Government run schools, legal code, fairer taxes 12.Raise money, cut losses in America, anger/reduce the power of Britain 13.Napoleon gave up conquering Britain and naval supremacy 14.Plebiscite 15.The Church

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30 Napoleon tried to “starve” Britain by closing (blockade) all continental ports Britain responded by creating its own blockade Worked better because of their navy Caused the US to declare war (War of 1812)

31 Trying to control Portugal, Napoleon angered Spain into a 6 year war against peasant fighters (guerillas) Used ambush tactics, which Napoleon could not fight Britain joined Spain Napoleon’s actions renewed nationalist feelings

32 In 1812, Napoleon, angry at Russia’s refusal to obey the blockade against Britain, invaded Russia Russian Czar, Alexander I, used a scorched-earth policy to prevent the French from getting anything (including Moscow) When they started their retreat, the Russians picked them off The French army went from 420,000 to 10,000

33 Napoleon’s enemies seized their opening He was able to raise an army again but they were untrained and lost easily April 1814, Napoleon surrendered and was exiled to Elba

34 Napoleon was replaced by the unpopular Louis XVIII After escaping Elba and returning to France, Napoleon was welcomed by the people, who quickly joined his army He was emperor again within days of landing His final defeat came at Waterloo in June of 1815. This period of rule was known as the Hundred Days He was exiled (for good) to St. Helena

35 16.What did Britain do in response to the Continental System? 17.What strategy did Czar Alexander I use to defeat Napoleon? 18.Name of the period where Napoleon returned to power in France. 19.Name of the conflict between Spain/Portugal and France during the reign of Napoleon. 16.They organized their own blockade 17.Scorched-earth policy 18.100 days 19.Peninsular War

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37 Following Napoleon’s domination of Europe, leaders wanted peace and stability. A series of meetings will be held in Vienna, Austria Most decisions will be made behind closed doors by the 5 “great powers” Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France

38 Most influential person at the Congress Prince of Austria Felt that Napoleon’s example showed all the problems of democracy Had 3 goals Prevent French aggression by weakening France and strengthening its neighbors Balance the power of all nations Restore the monarchies Legitimacy was a principle that restored to power all the people removed by Napoleon

39 While governments reverted to pre-Napoleon era, those governments were different from each other Britain and France – Constitutional Monarchies Central/East – conservative Russia, Prussia, and Austria – absolute monarchs

40 Many European leaders agreed to protect each other Holy Alliance and Concert of Europe both protected member nations in the event of a revolution Sought to turn back the French Revolution but it was too late

41 Latin American nations who had tasted democracy were unwilling to surrender it back The Congress of Vienna established a balance of power in European nations Nationalism had become a driving force for future revolutions across Europe and the Americas


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