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Chapter 20 – 1492-1800 The Atlantic World. Section 1 Spain Builds an American Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 – 1492-1800 The Atlantic World. Section 1 Spain Builds an American Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 – The Atlantic World

2 Section 1 Spain Builds an American Empire

3 Columbus  1492 – Columbus’s goal was to reach Asia by sailing west.  Failed to reach Asia, landed instead on an island in the Caribbean (probably the Bahamas)  Looking for gold, he moved from island to island, claiming each for Spain (colonies)  Others would quickly follow, each claiming the land in the name of their European country

4 Spanish Conquest (Mexico)  1519 – Hernando Cortes lands in Mexico in search of gold. With the Aztecs in the way, Cortes will destroy their civilization.  Montezuma, leader of the Aztecs, gave him a tribute of gold but it only made him want more.  Reasons the Spanish success:  Superior weapons  Aztec opposing tribes joined the Spanish  DISEASE – never having been exposed meant the natives had no immunities

5 Spanish Influence  American colonies made Spain the wealthiest of the European nations in the 1500s  Led to a stronger army/navy  As they grew, they sought to expand their colonies into the southwestern US region  1513 – Ponce de Leon claims Florida  1541 – Colonized Arizona to Texas  Lacked significant gold so they sent mostly priests seeking converts

6 Peruvian Conquests  Francisco Pizzaro, of Spain, conquered the Incan Empire in 1532  200 men met and kidnapped Incan Emperor Atahualpa  Ransomed for gold and silver  Killed Atahualpa after receiving the ransom  By 1600, Spain had created a vast empire from Mexico south.

7 Encomienda  system used by the Spanish to create a labor force  Gave the owner of the land the right to enslave native people.  The Spanish landowner would be responsible for converting the native to Christianity and having them learn Spanish  This helped the Spanish colonies by creating a cheap labor source that will function the same way slavery does later.

8 Brazilian Conquest  Outside of Spanish control, Brazil was colonized by Portugal  Settled almost entirely on the coast.  Since there was no gold/silver to be found, they used the land for sugar plantations

9 Video: Crash Course Columbus, De Gama, and Zheng He WRITE THIS AT THE TOP: Video Notes Video 1: European Explorers 5 facts that were NOT in the notes

10 Section 2 European Nations Settle North America

11 Competing Claims  French explorers were initially looking for a quicker route to the Pacific Ocean  Not finding one, they claimed the lands in the NE US/Canadian Region  Cartier/Champlain’s expeditions created Montreal and Quebec  Started in Eastern Canada and then expanded down the Mississippi (became known as New France/Louisiana)  French profited off the fur trade, no permanent settlements.

12 English Arrival  1607 – three ships carrying 100 English settlers found Jamestown  Disastrous – lacked resources (70% die from disease, hunger, or fighting in the first few years)  Tobacco changed that  In 1620, the Pilgrims, seeking religious freedom, create Plymouth  Puritans will create a colony near Massachusetts Bay

13 New Netherland  1609 – Henry Hudson (working for the Dutch), discovers the Hudson Bay, River, and Strait  The Dutch used these waterways to establish ports for trading. The region became known as New Netherland  Profited most off the fur trade with the Iroquois  In an attempt to increase its population, they encouraged a variety of Europeans

14 Fight for North America  New Amsterdam, owned by the Dutch, divided the Northern and Southern English colonies  England sends the Duke of York to take it over in Dutch surrender immediately.  Renamed New York  In 1754, France and England battled in the French and Indian War. In 1763, France lost and surrendered all of it’s North American holdings to England

15 The Caribbean  The Caribbean was settled by various European nations (France, England, Netherlands, and Spain)  Most colonies were built on cotton and sugar production. While very profitable, they required a large labor supply (this will eventually lead to slaves being brought in)

16 Native American Interaction  The French and Dutch were cooperative because the Native Americans knew how to trap animals  The English had a much more tense relationship because of religion and land rights  Puritans thought the “heathens” were “agents of the devil”  The 1600s were filled with fighting between colonials and Native Americans that killed hundreds on both sides  More destructive than warfare were the diseases brought by the Europeans

17 Video: Crash Course The Seven Years War Video 2: The Seven Years War 5 facts that were NOT in the notes

18 Section 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade

19 Causes of African Slavery  As natives died by the millions in the Americas, Europeans looked for a new source of labor  Africa had a history of slavery going back for centuries in Africa and Muslim societies  Difference: they used captives from war and they had some chance to move up. In the Americas, it is for life, based on race, and hereditary  Africans made better workers in the Americas  Already exposed to most diseases  Experienced farmers  Less likely to escape because they didn’t know the land  Race made them stand out among Europeans/natives

20 Atlantic Slave Trade  The practice became so widespread that the term, Atlantic slave trade, referred to the transfer of Africans straight to the Americas  In total, Europeans brought nearly 10 million Africans to the Americas as slaves  The slave trade originated with the Spanish and the Portuguese in the Caribbean and Brazil (40% of slaves in the 1600s went to Brazil)

21 Spread of Slavery  As the English colonies expanded, so did their need for slave labor  African rulers/merchants participated in the slave trade by using captured Africans  When rulers failed to cooperate, merchants would simply find a way around them.

22 Triangular Trade  Refers to the trade route between Europe, Africa, and the Americas  From Americas: cotton, tobacco, rum, sugar, molasses  From Europe: Manufactured goods/guns  From Africa: Slaves and gold  The part of the trade network that brought slaves specifically became known as the middle passage.  Became known for its cruelty and mistreatment of enslaved Africans  20% (est.) died en route.

23 American Slavery  After arriving, slaves were usually auctioned off  Used to work in mines, fields, or as house servants  Typically it was indefinite and hereditary  To cope, Africans developed their own customs  Musical traditions and stories of the ancestors  Occasionally, they would resist  Broke tools, uprooted plants, worked slow, ran away  Uprisings will slowly grow beginning as early as 1522 and lasting through the 1800s

24 Consequences of Slavery  African Effects  Lost generations of the fittest  Tore apart families  Introduced guns to Africa  American Effects  Kept the colonies “alive” by providing cheap labor and expertise  Brought culture (art, music, religion, and food)  Still has a major impact on the ethnic makeup of the US, Brazil, and Caribbean nations

25 Video: Crash Course The Atlantic Slave Trade Video 3: The Atlantic Slave Trade 5 facts that were NOT in the notes

26 Section 4 The Columbian Exhange and Global Trade

27 Columbian Exchange  Refers to the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the age of colonization  From the Americas:  Crops like tomatoes, tobacco, potatoes, and corn  From Europe:  Livestock and diseases

28 Global Trade  New wealth significantly changed the economic culture of the world  Capitalism was born – based on private ownership and the desire for profit  The sudden increase in money brought staggering inflation with it  Inflation is the dramatic rise in prices

29 Joint-Stock Companies  A new way of doing business emerged.  Known as a joint-stock company, they operated by selling shares of a company where investors have a common goal  Goal in the th centuries: colonize!  Benefit: reduced the weight of the investment which was very risky to begin with

30 Mercantilism  Refers to an economic policy that says that the strongest nation is the wealthiest nation  Two ways to do this:  Get all the gold/silver you can  Establish a favorable balance of trade  Sell more than you buy (ultimately become self-sufficient)

31 Video: Crash Course The Columbian Exchange Video 4: The Columbian Exchange 5 facts that were NOT in the notes

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