3 Columbus 1492 – Columbus’s goal was to reach Asia by sailing west. Failed to reach Asia, landed instead on an island in the Caribbean (probably the Bahamas)Looking for gold, he moved from island to island, claiming each for Spain (colonies)Others would quickly follow, each claiming the land in the name of their European country
4 Spanish Conquest (Mexico) 1519 – Hernando Cortes lands in Mexico in search of gold. With the Aztecs in the way, Cortes will destroy their civilization.Montezuma, leader of the Aztecs, gave him a tribute of gold but it only made him want more.Reasons the Spanish success:Superior weaponsAztec opposing tribes joined the SpanishDISEASE – never having been exposed meant the natives had no immunities
5 Spanish InfluenceAmerican colonies made Spain the wealthiest of the European nations in the 1500sLed to a stronger army/navyAs they grew, they sought to expand their colonies into the southwestern US region1513 – Ponce de Leon claims Florida1541 – Colonized Arizona to TexasLacked significant gold so they sent mostly priests seeking converts
6 Peruvian ConquestsFrancisco Pizzaro, of Spain, conquered the Incan Empire in 1532200 men met and kidnapped Incan Emperor AtahualpaRansomed for gold and silverKilled Atahualpa after receiving the ransomBy 1600, Spain had created a vast empire from Mexico south.
7 Encomienda system used by the Spanish to create a labor force Gave the owner of the land the right to enslave native people.The Spanish landowner would be responsible for converting the native to Christianity and having them learn SpanishThis helped the Spanish colonies by creating a cheap labor source that will function the same way slavery does later.
8 Brazilian ConquestOutside of Spanish control, Brazil was colonized by PortugalSettled almost entirely on the coast.Since there was no gold/silver to be found, they used the land for sugar plantations
9 Video: Crash Course Columbus, De Gama, and Zheng He WRITE THIS AT THE TOP:Video NotesVideo 1: European Explorers5 facts that were NOT in the notes
10 Section 2 European Nations Settle North America
11 Competing ClaimsFrench explorers were initially looking for a quicker route to the Pacific OceanNot finding one, they claimed the lands in the NE US/Canadian RegionCartier/Champlain’s expeditions created Montreal and QuebecStarted in Eastern Canada and then expanded down the Mississippi (became known as New France/Louisiana)French profited off the fur trade, no permanent settlements.
12 English Arrival1607 – three ships carrying 100 English settlers found JamestownDisastrous – lacked resources (70% die from disease, hunger, or fighting in the first few years)Tobacco changed thatIn 1620, the Pilgrims, seeking religious freedom, create PlymouthPuritans will create a colony near Massachusetts Bay
13 New Netherland1609 – Henry Hudson (working for the Dutch), discovers the Hudson Bay, River, and StraitThe Dutch used these waterways to establish ports for trading. The region became known as New NetherlandProfited most off the fur trade with the IroquoisIn an attempt to increase its population, they encouraged a variety of Europeans
14 Fight for North America New Amsterdam, owned by the Dutch, divided the Northern and Southern English coloniesEngland sends the Duke of York to take it over in Dutch surrender immediately.Renamed New YorkIn 1754, France and England battled in the French and Indian War. In 1763, France lost and surrendered all of it’s North American holdings to England
15 The CaribbeanThe Caribbean was settled by various European nations (France, England, Netherlands, and Spain)Most colonies were built on cotton and sugar production. While very profitable, they required a large labor supply (this will eventually lead to slaves being brought in)
16 Native American Interaction The French and Dutch were cooperative because the Native Americans knew how to trap animalsThe English had a much more tense relationship because of religion and land rightsPuritans thought the “heathens” were “agents of the devil”The 1600s were filled with fighting between colonials and Native Americans that killed hundreds on both sidesMore destructive than warfare were the diseases brought by the Europeans
17 Video: Crash Course The Seven Years War Video 2: The Seven Years War5 facts that were NOT in the notes
19 Causes of African Slavery As natives died by the millions in the Americas, Europeans looked for a new source of laborAfrica had a history of slavery going back for centuries in Africa and Muslim societiesDifference: they used captives from war and they had some chance to move up. In the Americas, it is for life, based on race, and hereditaryAfricans made better workers in the AmericasAlready exposed to most diseasesExperienced farmersLess likely to escape because they didn’t know the landRace made them stand out among Europeans/natives
20 Atlantic Slave TradeThe practice became so widespread that the term, Atlantic slave trade, referred to the transfer of Africans straight to the AmericasIn total, Europeans brought nearly 10 million Africans to the Americas as slavesThe slave trade originated with the Spanish and the Portuguese in the Caribbean and Brazil (40% of slaves in the 1600s went to Brazil)
21 Spread of SlaveryAs the English colonies expanded, so did their need for slave laborAfrican rulers/merchants participated in the slave trade by using captured AfricansWhen rulers failed to cooperate, merchants would simply find a way around them.
22 Triangular TradeRefers to the trade route between Europe, Africa, and the AmericasFrom Americas: cotton, tobacco, rum, sugar, molassesFrom Europe: Manufactured goods/gunsFrom Africa: Slaves and goldThe part of the trade network that brought slaves specifically became known as the middle passage.Became known for its cruelty and mistreatment of enslaved Africans20% (est.) died en route.
23 American Slavery After arriving, slaves were usually auctioned off Used to work in mines, fields, or as house servantsTypically it was indefinite and hereditaryTo cope, Africans developed their own customsMusical traditions and stories of the ancestorsOccasionally, they would resistBroke tools, uprooted plants, worked slow, ran awayUprisings will slowly grow beginning as early as 1522 and lasting through the 1800s
24 Consequences of Slavery African EffectsLost generations of the fittestTore apart familiesIntroduced guns to AfricaAmerican EffectsKept the colonies “alive” by providing cheap labor and expertiseBrought culture (art, music, religion, and food)Still has a major impact on the ethnic makeup of the US, Brazil, and Caribbean nations
25 Video: Crash Course The Atlantic Slave Trade Video 3: The Atlantic Slave Trade5 facts that were NOT in the notes
26 Section 4 The Columbian Exhange and Global Trade
27 Columbian ExchangeRefers to the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the age of colonizationFrom the Americas:Crops like tomatoes, tobacco, potatoes, and cornFrom Europe:Livestock and diseases
28 Global TradeNew wealth significantly changed the economic culture of the worldCapitalism was born – based on private ownership and the desire for profitThe sudden increase in money brought staggering inflation with itInflation is the dramatic rise in pricesWH - Chapter 20 Notes
29 Joint-Stock Companies A new way of doing business emerged.Known as a joint-stock company, they operated by selling shares of a company where investors have a common goalGoal in the 16-17th centuries: colonize!Benefit: reduced the weight of the investment which was very risky to begin with
30 MercantilismRefers to an economic policy that says that the strongest nation is the wealthiest nationTwo ways to do this:Get all the gold/silver you canEstablish a favorable balance of tradeSell more than you buy (ultimately become self-sufficient)
31 Video: Crash Course The Columbian Exchange Video 4: The Columbian Exchange5 facts that were NOT in the notes