Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 – 1492-1800 The Atlantic World. Section 1 Spain Builds an American Empire."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 20 – The Atlantic World
Section 1 Spain Builds an American Empire
Columbus 1492 – Columbus’s goal was to reach Asia by sailing west. Failed to reach Asia, landed instead on an island in the Caribbean (probably the Bahamas) Looking for gold, he moved from island to island, claiming each for Spain (colonies) Others would quickly follow, each claiming the land in the name of their European country
Spanish Conquest (Mexico) 1519 – Hernando Cortes lands in Mexico in search of gold. With the Aztecs in the way, Cortes will destroy their civilization. Montezuma, leader of the Aztecs, gave him a tribute of gold but it only made him want more. Reasons the Spanish success: Superior weapons Aztec opposing tribes joined the Spanish DISEASE – never having been exposed meant the natives had no immunities
Spanish Influence American colonies made Spain the wealthiest of the European nations in the 1500s Led to a stronger army/navy As they grew, they sought to expand their colonies into the southwestern US region 1513 – Ponce de Leon claims Florida 1541 – Colonized Arizona to Texas Lacked significant gold so they sent mostly priests seeking converts
Peruvian Conquests Francisco Pizzaro, of Spain, conquered the Incan Empire in 1532 200 men met and kidnapped Incan Emperor Atahualpa Ransomed for gold and silver Killed Atahualpa after receiving the ransom By 1600, Spain had created a vast empire from Mexico south.
Encomienda system used by the Spanish to create a labor force Gave the owner of the land the right to enslave native people. The Spanish landowner would be responsible for converting the native to Christianity and having them learn Spanish This helped the Spanish colonies by creating a cheap labor source that will function the same way slavery does later.
Brazilian Conquest Outside of Spanish control, Brazil was colonized by Portugal Settled almost entirely on the coast. Since there was no gold/silver to be found, they used the land for sugar plantations
Video: Crash Course Columbus, De Gama, and Zheng He WRITE THIS AT THE TOP: Video Notes Video 1: European Explorers 5 facts that were NOT in the notes
Section 2 European Nations Settle North America
Competing Claims French explorers were initially looking for a quicker route to the Pacific Ocean Not finding one, they claimed the lands in the NE US/Canadian Region Cartier/Champlain’s expeditions created Montreal and Quebec Started in Eastern Canada and then expanded down the Mississippi (became known as New France/Louisiana) French profited off the fur trade, no permanent settlements.
English Arrival 1607 – three ships carrying 100 English settlers found Jamestown Disastrous – lacked resources (70% die from disease, hunger, or fighting in the first few years) Tobacco changed that In 1620, the Pilgrims, seeking religious freedom, create Plymouth Puritans will create a colony near Massachusetts Bay
New Netherland 1609 – Henry Hudson (working for the Dutch), discovers the Hudson Bay, River, and Strait The Dutch used these waterways to establish ports for trading. The region became known as New Netherland Profited most off the fur trade with the Iroquois In an attempt to increase its population, they encouraged a variety of Europeans
Fight for North America New Amsterdam, owned by the Dutch, divided the Northern and Southern English colonies England sends the Duke of York to take it over in Dutch surrender immediately. Renamed New York In 1754, France and England battled in the French and Indian War. In 1763, France lost and surrendered all of it’s North American holdings to England
The Caribbean The Caribbean was settled by various European nations (France, England, Netherlands, and Spain) Most colonies were built on cotton and sugar production. While very profitable, they required a large labor supply (this will eventually lead to slaves being brought in)
Native American Interaction The French and Dutch were cooperative because the Native Americans knew how to trap animals The English had a much more tense relationship because of religion and land rights Puritans thought the “heathens” were “agents of the devil” The 1600s were filled with fighting between colonials and Native Americans that killed hundreds on both sides More destructive than warfare were the diseases brought by the Europeans
Video: Crash Course The Seven Years War Video 2: The Seven Years War 5 facts that were NOT in the notes
Section 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade
Causes of African Slavery As natives died by the millions in the Americas, Europeans looked for a new source of labor Africa had a history of slavery going back for centuries in Africa and Muslim societies Difference: they used captives from war and they had some chance to move up. In the Americas, it is for life, based on race, and hereditary Africans made better workers in the Americas Already exposed to most diseases Experienced farmers Less likely to escape because they didn’t know the land Race made them stand out among Europeans/natives
Atlantic Slave Trade The practice became so widespread that the term, Atlantic slave trade, referred to the transfer of Africans straight to the Americas In total, Europeans brought nearly 10 million Africans to the Americas as slaves The slave trade originated with the Spanish and the Portuguese in the Caribbean and Brazil (40% of slaves in the 1600s went to Brazil)
Spread of Slavery As the English colonies expanded, so did their need for slave labor African rulers/merchants participated in the slave trade by using captured Africans When rulers failed to cooperate, merchants would simply find a way around them.
Triangular Trade Refers to the trade route between Europe, Africa, and the Americas From Americas: cotton, tobacco, rum, sugar, molasses From Europe: Manufactured goods/guns From Africa: Slaves and gold The part of the trade network that brought slaves specifically became known as the middle passage. Became known for its cruelty and mistreatment of enslaved Africans 20% (est.) died en route.
American Slavery After arriving, slaves were usually auctioned off Used to work in mines, fields, or as house servants Typically it was indefinite and hereditary To cope, Africans developed their own customs Musical traditions and stories of the ancestors Occasionally, they would resist Broke tools, uprooted plants, worked slow, ran away Uprisings will slowly grow beginning as early as 1522 and lasting through the 1800s
Consequences of Slavery African Effects Lost generations of the fittest Tore apart families Introduced guns to Africa American Effects Kept the colonies “alive” by providing cheap labor and expertise Brought culture (art, music, religion, and food) Still has a major impact on the ethnic makeup of the US, Brazil, and Caribbean nations
Video: Crash Course The Atlantic Slave Trade Video 3: The Atlantic Slave Trade 5 facts that were NOT in the notes
Section 4 The Columbian Exhange and Global Trade
Columbian Exchange Refers to the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the age of colonization From the Americas: Crops like tomatoes, tobacco, potatoes, and corn From Europe: Livestock and diseases
Global Trade New wealth significantly changed the economic culture of the world Capitalism was born – based on private ownership and the desire for profit The sudden increase in money brought staggering inflation with it Inflation is the dramatic rise in prices
Joint-Stock Companies A new way of doing business emerged. Known as a joint-stock company, they operated by selling shares of a company where investors have a common goal Goal in the th centuries: colonize! Benefit: reduced the weight of the investment which was very risky to begin with
Mercantilism Refers to an economic policy that says that the strongest nation is the wealthiest nation Two ways to do this: Get all the gold/silver you can Establish a favorable balance of trade Sell more than you buy (ultimately become self-sufficient)
Video: Crash Course The Columbian Exchange Video 4: The Columbian Exchange 5 facts that were NOT in the notes