2Overview of Greece Physical Setting Northeast End of the Mediterranean Consists of Small PeninsulasGeographyShort mountain ranges cut through mainlandSeparate communitiesPrevents Unity among GreeksNo clear river systemNo unifying meeting placePrevents UnityMild climate, good soil, sufficient rainfallFarmers can grow grain, grapes, olivesSheeps, Goats raised in mountainsNot enough to live on
4The Importance of Geography Geography encourages tradeLong coastline allows all of mainland to be near seaIslands surrounding have many good harborsQuestion: What types of occupations might Greek citizens develop?(Farmers, fishermen, sailors, traders, explorers)
6The Predecessors of the Greeks The MinoansExisted on Crete before Greek CivilizationLegendary in Greek culture, verified in 1900 ADArchaeologists discover Knossos (palace of King Minos)Ruins, artifacts discovered since back up findingCharacteristicsWriting: “Linear A” (Not been deciphered yet), “Linear B” (early form of Greek)Well established by 2000 BCArt: created Frescoes (Wall paintings on plaster)Dominated the Aegean Islands1500 BC: Volcano destroys much of Minoan civilization
7The Palace of King Minos King Minos’ palace:built as a labyrinthlegendary home of the Minotaur
10The Mycenaeans 2000 BC: Groups from the North (Indo-European) Culture develops around 1600 BC-1200 BCWarlike group, conquered other areasConquered Crete, adopted much of Minoan civilization1200 BC: Earthquakes destroy much of civilization
11The palace in Mycenae was surrounded by massive walls with a huge gateway called the Lion Gate
12Mycenaen Civilization Palaces in the city of Mycenaeserved as the centers for government and economyGovernmentRole of Tax collectors:kept track of the wealth of the people living in the kingdomcollected taxes on: wheat, livestock, honey etc.
14Mycenaen Civilization Economytanned leather, sewed clothes, made jars for honey and olive oil, created bronze shields etc.What did they learn from the Minoans?used Minoan architecture as a model for their palacesMetalworking shipbuildingnavigation------lead by the sun and starsReligion- worshipped Earth Mother
15Mycenaen Civilization Why does the civilization come to an end?Two Theories:1. Infighting amongst the kingdoms2. Invasion by the Dorians
16Dorians Came in armed with iron weapons called the “dark age”: Why?Trade ended, poverty increased, literacy declinedrefugees fled to Ionia750 B.C.- reintroduced culture, crafts, etc.Founding of Hellenic Civilization700’s B.C B.C.
19Greek Systems of Government Monarchy- is a government by a royal family-in ancient Greece a King. established a dynasty.Autocracy- (rule by one person who has total control over all others)Aristocracy- (government ruled by the wealthy or upper class) was comprised of the nobility, or landowning class that ruled the city-state.Oligarchy - absolute rule by a fewTyranny - (Tyrant) seized power, gaining popular support by promising to defend the poor from the aristocracy.Democracy- the council of citizens helped form laws and limited the power of rulers.Theocracy- government in which the clergy rules or in which a “god” is the civil ruler.
20Athenian Government In early times ruled by kings Later, the aristocracy, selected representatives called archonsMerchants later replaced some of the nobility
21Athenian social classes NobilityMerchants, ArtisansPeasantSlaves – common Athenian practice to free their slavesMetics – foreigners allowed to live in Athens but could not become citizens
22Evolution of the system to a democracy DracoWrote harsh code of lawsSolonCanceled debts of the poorSet up a court of appeals for citizensStopped debt slaveryCLEISTHENESDetermined that all male citizens over age 20 could be in the AssemblySet up the Council of 500PISISTRATUSCreated a following among lower classesExiled nobles who disagreed with his policies
23Citizen Rights a) access to courts b) no enslavement (but the very creation of citizen class makes the distinction that other people are slaves - that's what makes citizenship a privilege)c) religious and cultural participationd) death penalty was raree) becoming a citizen was nearly impossiblef) citizen duties - taxes, military service
24Individual freedoms were sacrificed. Geographic and historical influences in the development of Greek city statesSparta was located on the Peloponnesus Peninsula, an area that was good for growing grain but did not provide the protection of an acropolis.The ruling class of citizens of Sparta was small in numbers compared with the slaves, or helots.Due in part to a constant fear of outside invaders and of inside slave revolts, the Spartan aristocracy empathized military strength and uniformity.The government controlled all phases of life for both citizens and slaves.By doing so, art, literature, philosophy, and science were present only as they supported the military and only in a practical nature. Military might, as shown by strength, courage, endurance, and cleverness, along with devotion to Sparta were the most important values.Individual freedoms were sacrificed.
25Persian WarsGreek colonization brought the city states in conflict with the Persian EmpireRemember from Lesson 6Result was the Persian Wars ( B.C.)
28Ionian Rebellion Cyclades Islands As Persian emperors Cyrus and Darius tightened their grip on Anatolia, the Greek cities on the Ionian coast became increasingly restlessIn 500 B.C., they revolted and expelled the Achaemenid administratorsAthens sent a fleet in support of their fellow Greeks and commercial partnersIn 493, Darius repressed the rebellionCyclades Islands
29Persian WarsTo punish the Athenians and discourage future interference, Darius attacked Athens in 490The Athenians repelled the invasionMarathon
30Battle of MarathonThe Persians landed at the Plains of Marathon on September 9, 490For eight days, the two armies faced each otherOn the ninth day, the Persians started to advance, forcing Miltiades, the commander in chief of the Athenian army, to deploy his army of 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans for battle
31Battle of MarathonThe Athenians surrounded the Persians in a double envelopmentAlthough the Athenians were outnumbered, their spears were superior to the Persians’ bows and short lancesThe Persians fled to their shipsPersians lost 6,400 men and seven shipsAthenians lost 192
32Battle of MarathonHowever, Miltiades realized that the Persian fleet could sail and attack the undefended city of AthensAccording to legend, he called upon Phidippides to run to Athens to tell them of the victory and warn them of the approaching Persian shipsPhidippides ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens in about three hours, successfully warning the Athenians who repelled the Persian invasionPhidippides was exhausted from the fight at Marathon and the 26 mile run and died upon announcing the warningMiltiades
33Olympic Marathons The marathon was part of the 1896 Olympics The course was from Marathon to Athens (24.85 miles or 40 km)At the London Olympics in 1908, the Olympic marathon course was set at 26 miles, 385 yards ( km) to accommodate the Royal Family’s viewingIn 1921 the International Amateur Athletic Foundation made km the official distance of a marathon
34XerxesDarius’ successor Xerxes tried to avenge the Persian losses by launching another attack in 480Thermopylae
35ThermopylaeThe Greeks sent an allied army under the Spartan king Leonidas to Thermopylae, a narrow mountain pass in northeastern Greece The point was to stall the Persians long enough that the city states could prepare for later major battles after the Persians broke throughPersians attempting to force the pass at Thermopylae
36Thermopylae Leonidas Twice the Greeks repelled the Persians Then Ephialtes, a local farmer, traitorously led a force of Persian infantry through a mountain passage and the next morning they appeared behind the Greek linesLeonidas ordered the rest of the army to withdraw and held the passage with just 300 SpartansAs true Spartans, they chose death over retreatRemember Lesson 17All died but they did hold off the Persians long enough to ensure the safe withdrawal of the rest of the Greek army.Leonidas
37Thermopylae“Stranger, go tell the Spartans that we lie here in obedience to their laws.” (Inscription carved on the tomb of Leonidas’ Three Hundred)Leonidas atThermopylae by David
38After ThermopylaeThe Persians captured and burned Athens but were defeated by the Athenian navy at SalamisIn 479 the Persians were defeated at Plataea and forced back to Anatolia
39Delian LeagueAfter the Persian threat subsided, the Greek poleis had conflicts among themselvesThe Athenians formed an alliance called the Delian LeagueAthens supplied most of the military force and the other poleis provided financial supportIn the absence of the Persian threat, eventually the other poleis came to resent financing Athens’ bureaucracy and construction projectsThe resulting tensions led to the Peloponnesian War ( ) in which the poleis divided up into two sides led by Athens and Sparta