Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece 2000 B.C.E.-1000 B.C.E.. Overview of Greece Physical Setting –Northeast End of the Mediterranean –Consists of Small Peninsulas –Geography."— Presentation transcript:
Overview of Greece Physical Setting –Northeast End of the Mediterranean –Consists of Small Peninsulas –Geography Short mountain ranges cut through mainland Separate communities Prevents Unity among Greeks –No clear river system No unifying meeting place Prevents Unity –Mild climate, good soil, sufficient rainfall Farmers can grow grain, grapes, olives Sheeps, Goats raised in mountains Not enough to live on
The Importance of Geography Geography encourages trade –Long coastline allows all of mainland to be near sea –Islands surrounding have many good harbors Question: What types of occupations might Greek citizens develop? –(Farmers, fishermen, sailors, traders, explorers)
The Predecessors of the Greeks The Minoans –Existed on Crete before Greek Civilization –Legendary in Greek culture, verified in 1900 AD Archaeologists discover Knossos (palace of King Minos)Knossos Ruins, artifacts discovered since back up finding Characteristics –Writing: “Linear A” (Not been deciphered yet), “Linear B” (early form of Greek) Well established by 2000 BC –Art: created Frescoes (Wall paintings on plaster) Dominated the Aegean Islands –1500 BC: Volcano destroys much of Minoan civilization
The Palace of King Minos King Minos’ palace: built as a labyrinth legendary home of the Minotaur
The Mycenaeans 2000 BC: Groups from the North (Indo- European) Culture develops around 1600 BC-1200 BC Warlike group, conquered other areas Conquered Crete, adopted much of Minoan civilization 1200 BC: Earthquakes destroy much of civilization
The palace in Mycenae was surrounded by massive walls with a huge gateway called the Lion Gate
Mycenaen Civilization Palaces in the city of Mycenae –served as the centers for government and economy Government –Role of Tax collectors: kept track of the wealth of the people living in the kingdom collected taxes on: wheat, livestock, honey etc.
Mycenaen Civilization Economy –tanned leather, sewed clothes, made jars for honey and olive oil, created bronze shields etc. What did they learn from the Minoans? –used Minoan architecture as a model for their palaces –Metalworking--------shipbuilding –navigation------lead by the sun and stars –Religion- worshipped Earth Mother
Mycenaen Civilization Why does the civilization come to an end? –Two Theories: 1. Infighting amongst the kingdoms 2. Invasion by the Dorians
Dorians Came in armed with iron weapons called the “dark age”: –Why? Trade ended, poverty increased, literacy declined refugees fled to Ionia 750 B.C.- reintroduced culture, crafts, etc. Founding of Hellenic Civilization –700’s B.C.- 350 B.C.
Greek Systems of Government Monarchy- is a government by a royal family-in ancient Greece a King. established a dynasty. –Autocracy- (rule by one person who has total control over all others) Aristocracy- (government ruled by the wealthy or upper class) was comprised of the nobility, or landowning class that ruled the city-state. Oligarchy - absolute rule by a few Tyranny - (Tyrant) seized power, gaining popular support by promising to defend the poor from the aristocracy. Democracy- the council of citizens helped form laws and limited the power of rulers. Theocracy- government in which the clergy rules or in which a “god” is the civil ruler.
Athenian Government In early times ruled by kings Later, the aristocracy, selected representatives called archons Merchants later replaced some of the nobility
Athenian social classes Nobility Merchants, Artisans Peasant Slaves – common Athenian practice to free their slaves Metics – foreigners allowed to live in Athens but could not become citizens
Evolution of the system to a democracy Draco – Wrote harsh code of laws Solon – Canceled debts of the poor –Set up a court of appeals for citizens –Stopped debt slavery CLEISTHENES –Determined that all male citizens over age 20 could be in the Assembly –Set up the Council of 500 PISISTRATUS –Created a following among lower classes –Exiled nobles who disagreed with his policies
Citizen Rights a) access to courts b) no enslavement (but the very creation of citizen class makes the distinction that other people are slaves - that's what makes citizenship a privilege) c) religious and cultural participation d) death penalty was rare e) becoming a citizen was nearly impossible f) citizen duties - taxes, military service
Geographic and historical influences in the development of Greek city states Sparta was located on the Peloponnesus Peninsula, an area that was good for growing grain but did not provide the protection of an acropolis. The ruling class of citizens of Sparta was small in numbers compared with the slaves, or helots. Due in part to a constant fear of outside invaders and of inside slave revolts, the Spartan aristocracy empathized military strength and uniformity. The government controlled all phases of life for both citizens and slaves. By doing so, art, literature, philosophy, and science were present only as they supported the military and only in a practical nature. Military might, as shown by strength, courage, endurance, and cleverness, along with devotion to Sparta were the most important values. Individual freedoms were sacrificed.
Persian Wars Greek colonization brought the city states in conflict with the Persian Empire –Remember from Lesson 6 Result was the Persian Wars (500-479 B.C.)
Ionian Rebellion As Persian emperors Cyrus and Darius tightened their grip on Anatolia, the Greek cities on the Ionian coast became increasingly restless In 500 B.C., they revolted and expelled the Achaemenid administrators Athens sent a fleet in support of their fellow Greeks and commercial partners In 493, Darius repressed the rebellion Cyclades Islands
Persian Wars To punish the Athenians and discourage future interference, Darius attacked Athens in 490 The Athenians repelled the invasion –Marathon
Battle of Marathon The Persians landed at the Plains of Marathon on September 9, 490 For eight days, the two armies faced each other On the ninth day, the Persians started to advance, forcing Miltiades, the commander in chief of the Athenian army, to deploy his army of 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans for battle
Battle of Marathon The Athenians surrounded the Persians in a double envelopment –Although the Athenians were outnumbered, their spears were superior to the Persians’ bows and short lances The Persians fled to their ships Persians lost 6,400 men and seven ships Athenians lost 192
Battle of Marathon However, Miltiades realized that the Persian fleet could sail and attack the undefended city of Athens According to legend, he called upon Phidippides to run to Athens to tell them of the victory and warn them of the approaching Persian ships Phidippides ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens in about three hours, successfully warning the Athenians who repelled the Persian invasion Phidippides was exhausted from the fight at Marathon and the 26 mile run and died upon announcing the warning Miltiades
Olympic Marathons The marathon was part of the 1896 Olympics –The course was from Marathon to Athens (24.85 miles or 40 km) At the London Olympics in 1908, the Olympic marathon course was set at 26 miles, 385 yards (42.195 km) to accommodate the Royal Family’s viewing In 1921 the International Amateur Athletic Foundation made 42.195 km the official distance of a marathon
Xerxes Darius’ successor Xerxes tried to avenge the Persian losses by launching another attack in 480 –Thermopylae
Thermopylae The Greeks sent an allied army under the Spartan king Leonidas to Thermopylae, a narrow mountain pass in northeastern Greece The point was to stall the Persians long enough that the city states could prepare for later major battles after the Persians broke through Persians attempting to force the pass at Thermopylae
Thermopylae Twice the Greeks repelled the Persians Then Ephialtes, a local farmer, traitorously led a force of Persian infantry through a mountain passage and the next morning they appeared behind the Greek lines Leonidas ordered the rest of the army to withdraw and held the passage with just 300 Spartans As true Spartans, they chose death over retreat –Remember Lesson 17 All died but they did hold off the Persians long enough to ensure the safe withdrawal of the rest of the Greek army. Leonidas
Thermopylae “Stranger, go tell the Spartans that we lie here in obedience to their laws.” (Inscription carved on the tomb of Leonidas’ Three Hundred) Leonidas at Thermopylae by David
After Thermopylae The Persians captured and burned Athens but were defeated by the Athenian navy at Salamis In 479 the Persians were defeated at Plataea and forced back to Anatolia
Delian League After the Persian threat subsided, the Greek poleis had conflicts among themselves The Athenians formed an alliance called the Delian League –Athens supplied most of the military force and the other poleis provided financial support –In the absence of the Persian threat, eventually the other poleis came to resent financing Athens’ bureaucracy and construction projects The resulting tensions led to the Peloponnesian War (431-404) in which the poleis divided up into two sides led by Athens and Sparta