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World History - Chapter 24

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1 World History - Chapter 24
Warm-up #5 What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna? Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna? What were his 3 main goals? Establish peace and stability in Europe Metternich Weaken France/strengthen their neighbors, balance of power, restore monarchs Make sure your name is on them and turn them in.

2 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West 1789-1900
Chapter 24 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West

3 Section 1: Latin American Peoples Win Independence

4 Division in Colonial Society
Colonial society in Latin America had a clear class system (from top to bottom) Peninsulares – Spanish born; only people allowed to hold high offices Creoles – Spaniards born in the Americas (nobility) Held military positions Mestizo – European and Native American Mulatto – European and African African Slaves Native Americans

5 Haitian Revolution Encouraged by Enlightenment ideals with American and French Independence movements Haiti was the first Slaves outnumbered the “masters” significantly 10:1 In 1791, they began their fight for independence and by 1804, they had broken from the French

6 Creoles Lead the Charge
Creoles, despite not being allowed to hold political office, were highly educated Understood and embraced the Enlightenment ideals In South America, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin led the revolution and by 1824 had succeeded

7 Mexican Independence Unlike South America, the Mexican independence movement was led by people of mixed ethnicities Miguel Hidalgo used the church (he was a priest) to spread the Enlightenment ideals (1810) Jose Maria Morelos will continue the campaign (1811-5) Agustin de Iturbide will declare Mexican (and Central America) independence in 1821 Central America will get their independence from Mexico in 1823

8 Brazil’s Liberation Unique because of the “bloodlessness”
From , Portugal (King John VI) ruled from Brazil In 1821, when Portugal returned “home,” the Brazilians did not want to return to being a colony They accepted King John’s son, Dom Pedro, to become the leader of an independent Brazil in 1822

9 Video: Crash Course Haitian Revolution

10 Other Information Chapter 23 Vocab Quiz
You will have until the end of the weekend to take the test again. You can use your vocab, notes, book, google Use the 3 part quiz on moodle You will have a quiz on Chapter 24 Vocabulary Tuesday You will be allowed to use hand written vocab (again). There will be no second chances next time.

11 World History - Chapter 24
Warm-up #1 Which group of people led the independence movement in South America? Which 2 men are most associated with the liberation of Spanish speaking South America? Who was the first person to lead the independence movement in Mexico? How was Mexico’s independence movement different from Brazil’s? Creoles San Martin and Bolivar Hidalgo Mexico’s was violent, Brazil’s was not

12 Section 2 Europe Faces Revolutions

13 Political Philosophies
People fell into one of three political theories Conservative – wanted to return to the “old days” of monarchy Liberal – wanted limited democracy (educated landowners should elect leaders) Radical – favored democracy for all Typically a poor student

14 Nationalism Develops Nationalism was the idea that people should be loyal to people with whom they share culture and history Foreign monarchs violate that principle When they had their own government, a nation became a nation-state France, England, and Spain were the only ones in Europe by 1815

15 Nationalism in the Balkans
Refers to southeastern Europe (Greece and their neighbors) Controlled by the Ottomans in early 1800s Despite fearing revolutions, Europeans sympathized with Greece By 1830, with Britain, France, and Russia supporting them, Greece got independence from the Ottomans

16 Initial Uprisings Greek Independence spurred many riots by nationalists and liberals The conservative monarchies, led by Metternich (Austria), crushed the revolutions and established control by the mid 1830s This type of “seesawing” in politics continued for another 20 years

17 French Radicals Despite having successfully removed the absolute monarchy, the French radicals began fighting over what kind of changes should be made A series of bloody battles followed the overthrow in 1848 Louis-Napoleon (nephew of THE Napoleon), was elected in 1848 and named himself emperor in 1852 Welcomed as result of people’s exhaustion with fighting

18 Russia Reform Russia had not modernized by the 1800s
Still used feudal system (nobles and serfs) People were becoming aware that Russia was falling behind Reached its peak in 1856, when Russia lost a war against France, G.B., Sardinia, and the Ottomans Alexander II promised reform

19 Reforms/Reactions First reforms was to free the serfs (1861)
Still tied to the land because they had to pay for it Alexander was assassinated in 1881, ending reform in Russia Alexander III tightened his control and encouraged industrialization

20 World History - Chapter 24
Warm-up #2 What is the name of the philosophy that requires loyalty be placed in the nation of people with a common culture rather than a foreign king? A poor student would most likely fit into which political philosophy? Which Russian leader freed the serfs in an attempt to reform? Nationalism Radical Czar Alexander II

21 Section 3 Nationalism

22 A Force to Join & Divide Nationalists in the 1800s sought to unite the people under a single government While inspiring people to revolt against foreign rulers, some rulers used nationalism to strengthen their control

23 Nationalism Breaks up Empires
Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empires controlled most of Eastern Europe, having a variety of ethnicities in each empire The process of Russification (forcing Russian culture on dominated people) actually strengthened nationalistic feelings of conquered people The last half of the 19th Century was filled with ethnic tension/fighting

24 Cavour Leads Italian Unification
Italians grew restless with foreign rulers in the first half of the 1800s Being ruled as independent states In 1852, Sardinia’s king named Camillo di Cavour his prime minister. Used diplomacy and alliances (especially France) to gain control of northern Italy from the Austrians

25 Garibaldi Unites Italy
Cavour used a Southern rebel, Giuseppe Garibaldi, to capture southern Italy Garibaldi agreed to hand control of Southern Italy to the Sardinian king By 1870, Sardinia had control of all of Italy (except Vatican City)

26 German Confederation Like Italy, Germany consisted of a confederation of many states, dominated by the Austrian Empire Prussia’s mostly German population made them more united, giving them a huge advantage over the ethnically diverse Austria-Hungary

27 Bismarck Emerges In 1862, frustrated with his Parliament’s lack of support, Wilhelm I of Prussia named Otto von Bismarck his prime minister Bismarck was one of the Junkers (people in Prussia who supported a strong monarchy)

28 Bismarck Takes Control
Bismarck used realpolitik to govern (used tough politics to get things done) He will declare his intentions to rule without consent of parliament Bismarck initially teams up with Austria to gain territory, then provokes war against them Prussia easily wins and unites northern Germany by 1867

29 Franco-Prussian War Bismarck, wanting to unite south Germans, provoked another war, this time with France in 1870 In 1871, after achieving victory in France, the southern Germans welcomed Prussian leadership King Wilhelm I was named kaiser, or emperor, of Germany (formerly Prussia)

30 Shifts in Power While the Congress of Vienna (1815) had created a balance of power Europe, the wars of the mid 1800s left 2 countries with nearly all control Germany and Britain

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