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20. What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna? 21. Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna? 22. What were his 3 main goals?

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Presentation on theme: "20. What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna? 21. Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna? 22. What were his 3 main goals?"— Presentation transcript:

1 20. What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna? 21. Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna? 22. What were his 3 main goals? 20. Establish peace and stability in Europe 21. Metternich 22. Weaken France/strengthen their neighbors, balance of power, restore monarchs Make sure your name is on them and turn them in.

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4  Colonial society in Latin America had a clear class system (from top to bottom ) › Peninsulares – Spanish born; only people allowed to hold high offices › Creoles – Spaniards born in the Americas (nobility)  Held military positions › Mestizo – European and Native American › Mulatto – European and African › African Slaves › Native Americans

5  Encouraged by Enlightenment ideals with American and French Independence movements  Haiti was the first  Slaves outnumbered the “masters” significantly › 10:1  In 1791, they began their fight for independence and by 1804, they had broken from the French

6  Creoles, despite not being allowed to hold political office, were highly educated › Understood and embraced the Enlightenment ideals  In South America, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin led the revolution and by 1824 had succeeded

7  Unlike South America, the Mexican independence movement was led by people of mix ed ethnicities  Miguel Hidalgo used the church (he was a priest ) to spread the Enlightenment ideals (1810)  Jose Maria Morelos will continue the campaign ( )  Agustin de Iturbide will declare Mexican (and Central America) independence in 1821 › Central America will get their independence from Mexico in 1823

8  Unique because of the “ bloodless ness”  From , Portugal (King John VI) ruled from Brazil  In 1821, when Portugal returned “home,” the Brazilians did not want to return to being a colony  They accepted King John’s son, Dom Pedro, to become the leader of an independent Brazil in 1822

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10  Chapter 23 Vocab Quiz › You will have until the end of the weekend to take the test again.  You can use your vocab, notes, book, google › Use the 3 part quiz on moodle  You will have a quiz on Chapter 24 Vocabulary Tuesday › You will be allowed to use hand written vocab (again). There will be no second chances next time.

11 1. Which group of people led the independence movement in South America? 2. Which 2 men are most associated with the liberation of Spanish speaking South America? 3. Who was the first person to lead the independence movement in Mexico? 4. How was Mexico’s independence movement different from Brazil’s? 1. Creoles 2. San Martin and Bolivar 3. Hidalgo 4. Mexico’s was violent, Brazil’s was not

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13  People fell into one of three political theories › Conservative – wanted to return to the “old days” of monarchy › Liberal – wanted limited democracy ( educated landowners should elect leaders) › Radical – favored democracy for all  Typically a poor student

14  Nationalism was the idea that people should be loyal to people with whom they share culture and history › Foreign monarchs violate that principle  When they had their own government, a nation became a nation-state › France, England, and Spain were the only ones in Europe by 1815

15  Refers to southeastern Europe (Greece and their neighbors)  Controlled by the Ottomans in early 1800s  Despite fearing revolutions, Europeans sympathized with Greece  By 1830, with Britain, France, and Russia supporting them, Greece got independence from the Ottomans

16  Greek Independence spurred many riots by nationalists and liberals  The conservative monarchies, led by Metternich (Austria), crushed the revolutions and established control by the mid 1830s  This type of “seesawing” in politics continued for another 20 years

17  Despite having successfully removed the absolute monarchy, the French radicals began fighting over what kind of changes should be made › A series of bloody battles followed the overthrow in 1848  Louis-Napoleon (nephew of THE Napoleon), was elected in 1848 and named himself emperor in 1852 › Welcomed as result of people’s exhaustion with fighting

18  Russia had not modernized by the 1800s › Still used feudal system (nobles and serfs)  People were becoming aware that Russia was falling behind › Reached its peak in 1856, when Russia lost a war against France, G.B., Sardinia, and the Ottomans  Alexander II promised reform

19  First reforms was to free the serfs (1861) › Still tied to the land because they had to pay for it  Alexander was assassinated in 1881, ending reform in Russia  Alexander III tightened his control and encouraged industrialization

20 5. What is the name of the philosophy that requires loyalty be placed in the nation of people with a common culture rather than a foreign king? 6. A poor student would most likely fit into which political philosophy? 7. Which Russian leader freed the serfs in an attempt to reform? 5. Nationalism 6. Radical 7. Czar Alexander II

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22  Nationalists in the 1800s sought to unite the people under a single government  While inspiring people to revolt against foreign rulers, some rulers used nationalism to strengthen their control

23  Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empires controlled most of Eastern Europe, having a variety of ethnicities in each empire  The process of Russification (forcing Russian culture on dominated people) actually strengthened nationalistic feelings of conquered people  The last half of the 19 th Century was filled with ethnic tension/fighting

24  Italians grew restless with foreign rulers in the first half of the 1800s › Being ruled as independent states  In 1852, Sardinia’s king named Camillo di Cavour his prime minister. › Used diplomacy and alliances (especially France) to gain control of northern Italy from the Austrians

25  Cavour used a Southern rebel, Giuseppe Garibaldi, to capture southern Italy  Garibaldi agreed to hand control of Southern Italy to the Sardinian king  By 1870, Sardinia had control of all of Italy (except Vatican City)

26  Like Italy, Germany consisted of a confederation of many states, dominated by the Austrian Empire  Prussia’s mostly German population made them more united, giving them a huge advantage over the ethnically diverse Austria-Hungary

27  In 1862, frustrated with his Parliament’s lack of support, Wilhelm I of Prussia named Otto von Bismarck his prime minister › Bismarck was one of the Junkers (people in Prussia who supported a strong monarchy )

28  Bismarck used realpolitik to govern (used tough politics to get things done) › He will declare his intentions to rule without consent of parliament  Bismarck initially teams up with Austria to gain territory, then provokes war against them › Prussia easily wins and unites northern Germany by 1867

29  Bismarck, wanting to unite south Germans, provoked another war, this time with France in 1870  In 1871, after achieving victory in France, the south ern Germans welcomed Prussian leadership › King Wilhelm I was named kaiser, or emperor, of Germany (formerly Prussia)

30  While the Congress of Vienna (1815) had created a balance of power Europe, the wars of the mid 1800s left 2 countries with nearly all control › Germany and Britain


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