2Sections of W.W. I Section #1: The Road to War Section #2: The U.S. Declares WarSection #3: American’s on the European FrontSection #4: On the Home FrontSection #5: Global Peacemaker
3Section #1: “The Road to War” Causes for W.W. I1.) Imperialism in Europe.2.) Militarism: Building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war.3.) Nationalism:Act with their own national interests.Ethnic diversity led to violent struggles for independence.Ex. Austria-Hungry4.) Alliances designed to bolster each nation’s security.5.) Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie on June 28, 1914 by Bosnian nationalist Gavrilo Princip.
4American Response American Neutrality The Conflicts Expands July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungry declares war on Serbia.July 29th, Serbia’s protector, Russia began mobilization.Germany demands that Russia stops mobilizing.France begins to ready it’s troops.Aug. 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia.Schlieffen PlanBrings Great Britain into war.Great powers dividedCentral PowersAlliesStalemate: a situation in which neither side is able to gain the advantage.Trench WarfareAmerican Response1/3 of American population were 1st or 2nd generation immigrants. (1/4 German American, 1/8 Irish)Most Americans opposed Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany. (autocracy)American NeutralityPreparedness MovementPeace Movement
5Section #2: “The United States Declares War” Actions will lead the U.S. to war.German submarine warfare.U-boat activityNo warnings of attack.Lusitania attacked, May 7, 1915.1,200 dead128 AmericansMarch 24, 1916, sinking of the Sussex.Sussex PledgePresident Wilson agrees with “preparedness”.Authorized bankers to make loans with Allies.February 1, 1917 Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare.Wilson asks Congress for permission to arm American merchant ships.
6The Zimmerman Note Russian Revolution War Resolution Filibuster: tactic in which senators take the floor, begin talking, and refuse to stop talking to prevent a vote on a measure from taking place.A intercepted telegram that proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico.Russian Revolution1.8 million killed2.4 million prisoners2.8 million sick / woundedMarch 1917 Czar Nicholas II was forced to give up his power.Republic government established.Russia backs out of war, signs treaty w/ Germany.War ResolutionMarch 16 – 18 three American ships were sunk.April 2, 1917 Wilson goes to Congress. War resolution passed 82 to 6.April 6, 1917 Wilson signs the war resolution.
7Section #3: “American’s in Europe” Preparing for ActionAllies desperately need replacements.Gen. John J. PershingSmall forceBoost Allied moraleStart of W.W.I. U.S. = 120,000 enlisted troops and 80,000 national guard.Selective Service Act: May 1917authorizing a draft of young men for military service.By November 1918, more than 24 million had registered for the draft for “the war to end all wars.”American Expeditionary Force (AEF)25, women would serve their country. (Red Cross)Transportation of troops and war goods by Convoy.American forces separated from Allied forces.300,000 African Americans volunteered or drafted.Mostly for manual labor.369th Infantry (Harlem Hell Fighters) fought with the French. (Croix de Guerre)
8Turning Tide of the WarNov. 1917, with the help of the German government, Vladimir Lenin led his Bolsheviks to violently overthrow the Russian government. Lenin would then makes peace with Germany on March 3, How does this effect the war?Americans save ParisBrigadier General James G. Harbord: “We dig no trenches to fall back on. The Marines will hold where they stand” -- Battle of Chateau – ThierryLost of half his troops.Tank warfareAugust 11, 1918 German General Erich Von Ludendorff advises Kaiser Wilhelm to seek a peace settlement.Allies began to use airplanes to drop bombs on the final German strongholds.
9Ending the WarGerman commanders hoping to dictate terms for peace. Allies refused, called for unconditional surrender.November 11, 1918: armistice, or cease-fire.50,000 American soldiers died.European casualties =8 million + dead900,000 British troops dead.Millions of civilians died during and immediately after the fighting from starvation, disease, or war-related injuries.Ottoman forces deported and murdered hundreds of thousands of Armenians, genocide.
12Section #5 cont.“Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.”Woodrow Wilson
14Versailles Peace Treaty The Big Four?French premier, Georges, Clemenceau took advantage of the weakness to Wilson’s plan to demand harsh penalties for Germany.War guilt and ReparationsGermany owed the Allies $33 billion.French were backed by British and David Lloyd George.Treaty was signed June 28, 1919.
16Cause and Effects of W.W.I ºImperialism leads to international rivalries, particularly withinEurope.ºNationalism between and within countries intensifies.ºMilitary buildup in Europe intensifies.ºArchduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary is assassinated.ºAustria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.World War IºMap of Europe is redrawn.ºLeague of Nations is formed.ºUnited States economy is boosted.ºUnited States suffers post-war disillusionment.