2 Properties: Solid Naturally Occurring Inorganic Fixed composition Cannot be a liquid or a gasNaturally OccurringFound in nature, not man-madeInorganicIs not alive and never was, non-livingFixed compositionHas a chemical formula, most are formed from compounds of two or more elements, some minerals consist of one element ex. AuCrystal FormA definite structure in which atoms are arranged
3 Definition:A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure.
4 The next few slides show an assortment of items. Questions to ask yourself when determining if an item is a mineral or not:Is it non-living material?Is it a solid?Is it formed in nature?Does it have a crystalline structure?The next few slides show an assortment of items.As a group, categorize the items as either:Minerals or Non-Minerals.
18 And the answers are… Minerals Non-Minerals Gold Topaz Quartz Talc Iceberg*DiamondsNon-MineralsWood - once livingFossils – once livingBone - living materialGranite - intrusive igneous rockPearls – made by oystersCoal - Sedimentary rockRock Salt – Sedimentary rockAccording to IMA – ice is listed as a mineral. Why?
19 Two Groups of Minerals Nonsilicates Silicates Do not contain combinations of Si and OMay contain C, O, F, SClasses of NonsilicatesNative Elements: Au, Cu, AgOxides : Al or Fe combine with OCarbonates: C + OSulfates: S + OHalides: F, Cl, I, or Br combine with Na, K, or CaSulfides: Pb, Fe, Ni, combine with SSilicatesContains Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O)90% of Earth’s crustCombine with elements such as Al, Fe, Mg, and K
20 Identifying MineralsColor – the same mineral can come in a variety of colors, not reliable
21 Luster – the way in which a mineral reflects light Metallic - opaque and reflective, like metalSubmetallic - to nearly opaque and reflect wellNonmetallic - not looking like a metal at allVitreous - glassySilky - fibrousResinous – yellow, dark orange, brownWaxyPearly – like inside a molluskEarthy – dull, looks like dirt or clay
22 Streak – the color of the mineral in a powdered form Cleavage – when minerals break along a smooth, flat surfaceFracture – when minerals break unevenly along a curved or irregular surface
23 Hardness – a minerals resistance to being scratched Moh’s Scale of Hardness
24 Density – how much matter is in a given amount of space Special PropertiesFluorescence – glow under ultraviolet lightChemical Reaction – fizzes with acid testOptical Properties – double image formedMagnetism – magnetic, attract ironTaste – saltyRadioactivity – radium or uranium contained