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S olid S olid Cannot be a liquid or a gas Cannot be a liquid or a gas N aturally Occurring N aturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made Found in.

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Presentation on theme: "S olid S olid Cannot be a liquid or a gas Cannot be a liquid or a gas N aturally Occurring N aturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made Found in."— Presentation transcript:

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2 S olid S olid Cannot be a liquid or a gas Cannot be a liquid or a gas N aturally Occurring N aturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made Found in nature, not man-made I norganic I norganic Is not alive and never was, non-living Is not alive and never was, non-living F ixed composition F ixed composition Has a chemical formula, most are formed from compounds of two or more elements, some minerals consist of one element ex. Au Has a chemical formula, most are formed from compounds of two or more elements, some minerals consist of one element ex. Au C rystal Form C rystal Form A definite structure in which atoms are arranged A definite structure in which atoms are arranged

3 A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure.

4 Is it non-living material? Is it non-living material? Is it a solid? Is it a solid? Is it formed in nature? Is it formed in nature? Does it have a crystalline structure? Does it have a crystalline structure?

5 Wood

6 Gold

7 Fossil

8 Topaz

9 Bones

10 Granite

11 Quartz

12 Pearls

13 Talc

14 Icebergs

15 Diamond

16 Coal

17 Rock Salt

18 Minerals Minerals a) Gold b) Topaz c) Quartz d) Talc e) Iceberg* f) Diamonds Non-Minerals Non-Minerals a) Wood - once living b) Fossils – once living c) Bone - living material d) Granite - intrusive igneous rock e) Pearls – made by oysters f) Coal - Sedimentary rock g) Rock Salt – Sedimentary rock According to IMA – ice is listed as a mineral. Why?IMA

19 Silicates Silicates Contains Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) Contains Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) 90% of Earths crust 90% of Earths crust Combine with elements such as Al, Fe, Mg, and K Combine with elements such as Al, Fe, Mg, and K Nonsilicates Nonsilicates Do not contain combinations of Si and O Do not contain combinations of Si and O May contain C, O, F, S May contain C, O, F, S Classes of Nonsilicates Classes of Nonsilicates Native Elements: Au, Cu, Ag Native Elements: Au, Cu, Ag Oxides : Al or Fe combine with O Oxides : Al or Fe combine with O Carbonates: C + O Carbonates: C + O Sulfates: S + O Sulfates: S + O Halides: F, Cl, I, or Br combine with Na, K, or Ca Halides: F, Cl, I, or Br combine with Na, K, or Ca Sulfides: Pb, Fe, Ni, combine with S Sulfides: Pb, Fe, Ni, combine with S

20 Color – the same mineral can come in a variety of colors, not reliable Color – the same mineral can come in a variety of colors, not reliable

21 Luster – the way in which a mineral reflects light Luster – the way in which a mineral reflects light Metallic - opaque and reflective, like metal Metallic - opaque and reflective, like metal Submetallic - to nearly opaque and reflect well Submetallic - to nearly opaque and reflect well Nonmetallic - not looking like a metal at all Nonmetallic - not looking like a metal at all Vitreous - glassy Vitreous - glassy Silky - fibrous Silky - fibrous Resinous – yellow, dark orange, brown Resinous – yellow, dark orange, brown Waxy Waxy Pearly – like inside a mollusk Pearly – like inside a mollusk Earthy – dull, looks like dirt or clay Earthy – dull, looks like dirt or clay

22 Streak – the color of the mineral in a powdered form Streak – the color of the mineral in a powdered form Cleavage – when minerals break along a smooth, flat surface Cleavage – when minerals break along a smooth, flat surface Fracture – when minerals break unevenly along a curved or irregular surface Fracture – when minerals break unevenly along a curved or irregular surface

23 Hardness – a minerals resistance to being scratched Hardness – a minerals resistance to being scratched Mohs Scale of Hardness 1 - 10 Mohs Scale of Hardness 1 - 10

24 Density – how much matter is in a given amount of space Density – how much matter is in a given amount of space Special Properties Special Properties Fluorescence – glow under ultraviolet light Fluorescence – glow under ultraviolet light Chemical Reaction – fizzes with acid test Chemical Reaction – fizzes with acid test Optical Properties – double image formed Optical Properties – double image formed Magnetism – magnetic, attract iron Magnetism – magnetic, attract iron Taste – salty Taste – salty Radioactivity – radium or uranium contained Radioactivity – radium or uranium contained


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