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What is a Mineral?.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral?."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Mineral?

2 Properties: Solid Naturally Occurring Inorganic Fixed composition
Cannot be a liquid or a gas Naturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made Inorganic Is not alive and never was, non-living Fixed composition Has a chemical formula, most are formed from compounds of two or more elements, some minerals consist of one element ex. Au Crystal Form A definite structure in which atoms are arranged

3 Definition: A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure.

4 The next few slides show an assortment of items.
Questions to ask yourself when determining if an item is a mineral or not: Is it non-living material? Is it a solid? Is it formed in nature? Does it have a crystalline structure? The next few slides show an assortment of items. As a group, categorize the items as either: Minerals or Non-Minerals.

5 Wood

6 Gold

7 Fossil

8 Topaz

9 Bones

10 Granite

11 Quartz

12 Pearls

13 Talc

14 Icebergs

15 Diamond

16 Coal

17 Rock Salt

18 And the answers are… Minerals Non-Minerals Gold Topaz Quartz Talc
Iceberg* Diamonds Non-Minerals Wood - once living Fossils – once living Bone - living material Granite - intrusive igneous rock Pearls – made by oysters Coal - Sedimentary rock Rock Salt – Sedimentary rock According to IMA – ice is listed as a mineral. Why?

19 Two Groups of Minerals Nonsilicates Silicates
Do not contain combinations of Si and O May contain C, O, F, S Classes of Nonsilicates Native Elements: Au, Cu, Ag Oxides : Al or Fe combine with O Carbonates: C + O Sulfates: S + O Halides: F, Cl, I, or Br combine with Na, K, or Ca Sulfides: Pb, Fe, Ni, combine with S Silicates Contains Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) 90% of Earth’s crust Combine with elements such as Al, Fe, Mg, and K

20 Identifying Minerals Color – the same mineral can come in a variety of colors, not reliable

21 Luster – the way in which a mineral reflects light
Metallic - opaque and reflective, like metal Submetallic - to nearly opaque and reflect well Nonmetallic - not looking like a metal at all Vitreous - glassy Silky - fibrous Resinous – yellow, dark orange, brown Waxy Pearly – like inside a mollusk Earthy – dull, looks like dirt or clay

22 Streak – the color of the mineral in a powdered form
Cleavage – when minerals break along a smooth, flat surface Fracture – when minerals break unevenly along a curved or irregular surface

23 Hardness – a minerals resistance to being scratched
Moh’s Scale of Hardness

24 Density – how much matter is in a given amount of space
Special Properties Fluorescence – glow under ultraviolet light Chemical Reaction – fizzes with acid test Optical Properties – double image formed Magnetism – magnetic, attract iron Taste – salty Radioactivity – radium or uranium contained

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