Presentation on theme: "This document is for discussion purposes only and is not a statement of Government policy Young People in England An evidence discussion paper."— Presentation transcript:
1This document is for discussion purposes only and is not a statement of Government policy Young People in England An evidence discussion paper Young People Analysis & Strategic Analysis Department for Children, Schools and Families
2Context – Trends in Youth Development ContentsIntroductionContext – Trends in Youth DevelopmentDrivers in Successful Youth TransitionsWhere Policy IntervenesPrinciples from the Evidence
3This is a review of adolescence in contemporary England, viewed through a developmental perspective. IntroductionWe will…Look at the demands from employers of new labour market entrants.Look at the expectations of society from new adults.What attributes do adolescents need to develop?Further…We take stock of how adolescents develop the skills for adulthood, and explain the challenges they encounter.We define the role of Government in supporting the development of young people.We consider whether the fact that the lives of young people are changing rapidly matters for adolescent development, or has significant policy implications.
4Structure of Report Trends Drivers Role of Government Principles IntroductionTrendsAs a starting point, we briefly review aspects of young people’s world that have undergone significant and relevant change.DriversThe main body of this report discusses the drivers of successful youth transitions into adulthood. What development is required to exploit opportunities? And which factors influence that development? And how do they operate?Role of GovernmentWe examine how government intervention impacts on different groups of young people in supporting making better transitions.PrinciplesPrinciples and areas emerging from the evidence for possible future intervention.
5Adolescence is not strictly defined by chronological age, but we can identify a number of stages and changesIntroductionStagesChangesPre-adolescenceAge 9 to 13Begins with the onset of puberty and is marked by the most rapid growth spurt.PhysicalDevelopment in this stage is unrivalled by any other point in development except infancy. Puberty triggers a surge of growth and sex hormones.Middle adolescenceAge 14 to 16Brain DevelopmentThe brain re-organises: some areas get less efficient, such as working memory, while others, such as recognising emotion, get stronger.The time when the need for independence becomes increasingly apparent.IntellectualAdolescence is a distinct phase in the development of thinking skills. Thinking changes from concrete thinking (e.g. yes and no) to formal operations including abstraction and forming hypotheses.Late adolescenceAge 17 to 19The time during which teenagers start to disengage with their families and begin to shift to economic and emotional independence.Psycho-socialAdolescence is the stage when young people start developing personal identity; trying on different roles to work out who they are and how they fit within society. This can involve tensions within families as young people seek independence and a separate identity.Asmussen et al. (2007) Supporting parents of teenagersBlakemore S-J & Choudhury, S (2006) Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
6The role of Government in young people’s lives has to balance the needs of the individual, society and the economyIntroductionThere is no single “route” through adolescence, but it does needs correct pace in order to benefit society and the individual.Too fast: young adults are less likely to have the skills needed to be self-sufficient sustainably.Too slow: the financial burden on family and society may become excessive.The principle of self-responsibility is strong and Government has a critical role in promoting opportunity and information so that everyone can to do best for themselves.However, important inequalities amongst young people exist, and Government has an important role in targeting support to those with either fewer opportunities or inability to fully exploit them.Some activities of young people impact adversely on other members of society, such as anti-social behaviour. It is right for government to intervene to stop it; exactly as happens with other people.
7Context – Trends in Youth Development ContentsIntroductionContext – Trends in Youth DevelopmentDrivers in Successful Youth TransitionsWhere Policy IntervenesPrinciples from the Evidence
8We do so under these headings: We briefly look at trends in some of the main changes that have occurred in the lives of young people and how they view life today.We do so under these headings:DemographicLearningEconomicSocialTechnological….Finally, we characterise the voice of young people
9The demographic landscape for adolescents is changing Trends in Youth DevelopmentDemographicThere are 3.3 million year olds in England.From a recent high point, this number is currently falling and will continue to do so over the next 10 years, before bouncing back.The proportion of year olds in the population will fall over the next decade from 1 in 16 to 1 in 19 - the lowest ever share.Minority ethnic groups are 14% of year olds, compared with only 5% of over 50s.Population projections (England)Sources: ONS (2009) Population estimates by ethnic group, mid-2007 (experimental).GAD (2009) Population Projections 2008 estimates
10More young people than ever are attaining in learning… Trends in Youth DevelopmentLearningAttainment at age 16 has risen steeply year-on-year for over the last 20 years since the introduction of GCSEs……and by age 19 a further fifth of young people gain Level 2 and half gain Level 3Trends in GCSE/O-level attainmentAttainment atGCSEs introducedSource: GCSE and Equivalent Results in England, 2008/09 and DCSF time seriesDCSF Level 2 and 3 Attainment by Young People in England Measured Using Matched Administrative Data: Attainment by Age 19 in 2008
11Trends in Youth Development …however, despite progress over the last decade, social gradients persist in attainment…Trends in Youth DevelopmentLearning1 in 5 young people in the poorest households gain 5 or more A*-C GCSEs (inc. English & Maths) compared to three quarters of those from the richest homes - a gap of over 50% pts.GCSE threshold attainment by parental income quintileGCSE average point scores by parental income quintileSource: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
12…and in post-16 participation in learning. Trends in Youth DevelopmentLearningThe proportion of 16 year olds participating in education and training is at the highest ever rate, though gaps between social groups persist……although taking a longer view, the relationship between family income and staying on has decreased substantially over the years.Participation rate in FT Education at 16 by socio-groupingRelationship between family income and staying on in education post 16 across cohortsClearly as we move to full participation with RPA, socio-economic differences in participation will disappearSEGNS-SECSources: Participation in Education, Training and Employment by Year Olds in England SFR 12/2009; YCS cohorts 3 to 13Gregg and Macmillan (2009) Family Income and Education in the Next Generation: Exploring the income gradients in education for the current cohorts of youth. CMPO Working Paper 09/223
13Trends in Youth Development Aggregate snap-shot statistics mask extensive diversity in the pathways young people follow post-GCSE.Trends in Youth DevelopmentLearning3 out of 5 young people continue in full-time education continuously to 18 or beyond.The remaining 41% follow many routes post-16, often cycling between periods in learning, work (with or without training), unemployment and inactivity.‘Education to job without training’ – 5% of young people who stay in full time education in the first year only to leave to a job without training.‘Return to education’ – 5% of young people who enrol in full time education at 17, having spent spells in a variety of activities at age 16.‘Increasing job without training’ – 8% of young people spend most of their time in jobs without training, with some spending the first year NEET or other activities.‘Job with training’ – 8% of young people spend most of their time in jobs with training, a small number with short periods of other activity.‘Becoming NEET’ – 5% of young people who complete or drop out of a course of full-rime education spend most of the remainder of their period NEET. Some start jobs only to leave them quickly.‘Education to work with training’ – 6% of young people who study in full-time education at 16, then move into a job with training, however some with a short period NEET.‘Mainly NEET’ – 5% of young people cycle between NEET and other activities (mainly work with out training). Some young people spend the full two years NEET.Here the LSYPE & YCS have been used to categorise the routes taken by young people in the two years following compulsory education. This pie chart represents eight stereotypical pathways based on individual monthly activity data.‘Continuous education’ - 59% of young people remain in full-time education for two full years after compulsory education.Source: DCSF using LSYPE and YCS
14Trends in Youth Development Greater participation in learning has extensively altered the relationship young people have with the labour market…Trends in Youth DevelopmentEconomicThe transition out of education and into full time work has become more problematic for young people, who have been hit particularly hard recently by the recession.Over 300, & 17 year olds in full-time education are also in part-time employment, though they are becoming a diminishing minority.ILO unemployment by ageEmployment rate of year olds in FT EducationRecessionRecessionSource: ONS Labour Market Statistics
15Trends in Youth Development …and this has happened at the same time as changes to independent living. More educated young people are staying at home longer…Trends in Youth DevelopmentSocialThe expansion of higher education has seen more young people leave home at age 18 - but adults in their 20s are now more likely to live with their parents than they were 20 years agoThe trend is most marked for those with higher qualifications suggesting more returners home after university.Percentage of young adults living with their parent (s) by age and genderPercentage of males and females aged living with parents) in 1988 and 2008 according to highest educational qualificationBerrington et al. (2009) in Population Trends 138, ONS
16…and starting families later. Trends in Youth DevelopmentSocialParents are getting older, as they start families later in life…Average age of mother at first birth,Adolescent fertility rate: births per women aged 15-19, 2005…although a significant minority become pregnant as teenagers. By age 17/18, 3% of young people have children of their own (LSYPE Sweep 5 / YCS Sweep 2)Rate per 1000Source: ONS Social Trends 2009; World Development Indicators 2008.
17Trends in Youth Development Digital age has profoundly changed what young people do, how they see themselves and communicate with one another...Trends in Youth DevelopmentTechnological90%12-15 year olds use a mobile phone (2007).The growth of Twitter in recent year exemplifies the explosion of social networking.55%12-15 year olds who used the internet at home had created a page or profile on a social networking site (2007).75%said that they couldn't live without the internet.45%said that they felt happiest when online.32%agreed with the statement: 'I can access all the information I need online, there is no need to speak to a real person about my problems'.82%said they had used the internet to look for advice and information for themselves and 60% had for other people.37%said that they would use the internet to give advice to others on sensitive issues.Media Literacy Audit, Ofcom (2009); Youthnet’s Life Support: Young people’s needs in a digital age report.Twitter.com
18Trends in Youth Development ...but despite this technological change, what year olds say most worries them feels remarkably familiar.Voice of Young PeopleIn the past 6 months, what have been the 3 most challenging issues you have come across in your life?Education Net 74%CareersNet 34%RelationshipsNet 44%HealthNet 20%Driving lessons/learning to drive, growing up, travelTop 15 responses shownSource: DCSF Digital Comms presentation, quant online survey of s18
19Young people today embody many of the values of modern Britain Trends in Youth DevelopmentVoice of Young PeopleYoung people are liberal and racially tolerant. They are proud to be British and perceive Britain as providing opportunity for self-improvement…Young people are perhaps surprisingly politically engagedStatementAgreeOn voting – 51% likely to vote in general election.Only 11% said they definitely wouldn’t vote……but this rose to over one quarter for those with the lowest qualifications.74% of young people agreed that people from different racial, ethnic and religious backgrounds get on well together in their local community80% Pakistani YP say that being British is important to them.It is easier for people like me to get on and improve things for themselves than it was for my parents78%VotingBritain today is a place where people are usually treated fairly no matter what background they come from55%These days newspapers usually make young people out to be much worse than they actually are78%There is too little respect for religion and religious values in Britain today56%Community CohesionBritain is a free country where everyone’s rights are respected no matter what their background60%Source: LSYPE wave 5; YCS Cohort 13, Sweep 2
20Context – Trends in Youth Development ContentsIntroductionContext – Trends in Youth DevelopmentDrivers in Successful Youth TransitionsWhere Policy IntervenesPrinciples from the Evidence
21Drivers in successful Youth Transitions Attitudes and Behaviours There is no one single, linear, successful youth transition to adulthood. Transitions occur at different ages and at different rates.Drivers in successful Youth TransitionsEmployers’ DemandsA conceptual model…ChildhoodAdulthood141619Social and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomic and widerOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchool
22What do we mean by cognitive and social & emotional skills? Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study, and learn……Social and Emotional skills cover a much wider range. They are sometimes referred to as ‘soft skills’ or ‘life skills’.They include a wide variety of mental processes used to:Analyse sounds and images;Recall information from memory;Make associations between different pieces of information; andMaintain concentration on particular tasks.They can be individually identified and measured.Cognitive skill strength and efficiency correlates directly with students' ease of learning.Examples of skills and characteristics that commonly fall under this heading:OptimismConfidence / self confidencePerseverance and persistencePlanning and organisingDependabilitySelf-esteemEmotional intelligenceSelf managementTeam workLocus of controlManaging relationshipsManaging stressSelf-efficacy
23…and qualifications are associated with higher employment rates. Cognitive skills are ultimately the single most important driver of economic outcomes…EconomicOutcomesIn general, higher qualifications carry higher returns and academic qualifications earn more than their vocational counterparts……and qualifications are associated with higher employment rates.Wage* returns to academic and vocational qualificationsEmployment rate by highest qualification levelVocational degrees include “professional” qualifications such as accountancy, law, etc.AcademicVocationalSource: Jenkins et al (2007): The Returns to Qualifications in England, Updating the Evidence Base on Level 2 and Level 3 Vocational Qualifications. CEE Discussion Paper no. 89.*Wage returns are interpreted as the average percentage increase in wages or the chance of being employed as result of holding a particular qualification compared to other people that do not hold that qualification. They are a more sophisticated way to analyse the economic value of skills as they take account of other factors that also might affect wages or employment chances. Examples of these include, gender, age, ethnicity, hours worked and region.
24…and the labour market seems to be absorbing the increase in supply of qualifications, with average returns remaining stable…EconomicOutcomesReturns for academic qualifications have remained fairly stable over time…Average wage returns…the same applies for vocational qualificationsAverage wage returnsSource: Jenkins et al (2007): The Returns to Qualifications in England, Updating the Evidence Base on Level 2 and Level 3 Vocational Qualifications. CEE Discussion Paper no. 89.
25…and demand for cognitive and social and emotional skills is likely to continue. Employers’ demandsEconomicOutcomesThe level of skill required to do a job is generally rising……and the type of skills demanded are also changing, from manual skills, to abilities in communication and self-management.Changes in qualifications required , million jobsProjected change in skill requirements to 2010Sources: Felstead et al (2006) Skills at work; IER estimates base on Census and LFS data
26Employers’ views on the preparedness of young people for work Employers have clear demands on young entrants to the labour force – including social and emotional skills.Employers’ demandsEconomicOutcomesIn preparation for the world of work, satisfaction of employers towards young people remains reasonably good, and is improving…… although it is with personal attributes that greatest shortcomings are identified.Employers’ views on the preparedness of young people for workEmployers’ views on the shortcomings of young people’s preparedness for workNational Employers Skills Survey 2009; National Employers Skills Survey Results from 79,000 employersPersonal attributes are defined in NESS as: Lack of motivation/enthusiasm/commitment; work ethic/poor attitude to work; time keeping skills/punctuality;poor attitude (inc. manners/respect); not prepared to work long hours; discipline; social/people skills; common sense; initiative; confidence; responsibility;personal appearance/presentation.
27Relative Impact of Different Skills on Numeracy Achievement1 Social and emotional skills are also important in determining outcomes, including cognitive skillsThere is significant interdependence between cognitive and social /self-regulation skills – with achievement in maths…Recent research has shown that attentiveness and locus of control are almost as important as cognitive skills for educational attainment and economic outcomes…Relative Impact of Different Skills on Numeracy Achievement1The relative importance of cognitive and social and emotional at age 10 on likelihood of attaining minimum educational qualifications at age 261Each marker refers to an individual study. The black markers are studies with statistically significant resultsCognitive skillssocial and emotional skillsMarginal effectEstimated coefficientCognitivesocial and emotional1) Feinstein (2000), The relative importance of academic, psychological and behavioural attributes developed in childhood. 2) Carneiro et al, (2007), The Impact of Early Cognitive and social and emotional Skills on Later Outcomes;1) Duncan et al, 'School Readiness and Later Achievement.', Developmental Psychology 43:6. Filled triangles indicate statistically significant coefficients (2008). Results based on results from 6 surveys across different countries.2727
28Drivers in successful Youth Transitions Attitudes and Behaviours Young peoples’ attitudes and behaviours are key and they are shaped by a variety of influencesDrivers in successful Youth TransitionsEmployers’ DemandsA conceptual model…ChildhoodAdulthood141619Social and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomic and widerOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchool
29Individual child attitudes are critical Individual child attitudes are critical. Levels of self-belief are related to attainment, whereas changes are more closely associated with engagement in risky behaviours…Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursThere are strong associations between children’s beliefs regarding their own ability and their academic attainment….…but losing self-belief is also associated with increased likelihood in engagement in risky behaviours.There are also strong associations between whether a child believes they have control over their own economic destiny (locus of control) and their academic attainment…Impact of child self-belief on various outcomes at age 16Haroon Chowdry, Claire Crawford and Alissa Goodman, Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in EnglandMethodology:regression method employed is Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) for outcomes that take the form of a continuous variable (e.g. Key Stage test scores, which we standardise to have mean zero and standard deviation one) and probit analysis for dichotomous outcomes (such as whether or not the young person is NEET at age 17, or whether they have engaged in a particular risky behaviour).Key stage 4: is measured in terms a standard deviation 1 SD in KS4 = approx 120 pointsOther measures are percentage point impacts on probability of behaviour occurringN.B. Direction of causality remains ambiguous – very plausible that all of the dependents impact on explanatories.Strong positive relationship between locus of control (believe they have greater control over their own economic destiny) and educational attainment (KS4) and make more progress between KS3 and KS4 (value-added).Participation in positive activities at 14 have higher test scores at KS3 and KS4. Young people who stop reading or playing sport between 14 and 16 have KS results.Marginal percentage point effect for other outcomesEffect size (% of standard deviation) for KS4;Source: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102*Goodman and Gregg ed.s (forthcoming) Children’s educational outcomes: the role of attitudes and behaviours, from early childhood to late adolescence.29
30Engaging in multiple ‘risky’ behaviours is also associated with low educational attainment… Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursEngaging in only one or two risky behaviours is associated with a small and statistically insignificant reduction in attainment (< 1 GCSE grade = 6 GCSE points)However, multiple engagement in risky behaviours is associated with up to a 20% reduction in GCSE points. A reduction in 8-12 entire GCSE grades.Impact of engagement in multiple risky behaviours on GCSE attainmentSource: LSYPENote: 6 points represent 1 grade in 1 subject, although 16 points are given for the lowest pass (grade G)
31Young Person’s Attitudes and Behaviours …and undertaking self-developmental activity is associated with better educational attainment and fewer risky behaviours.Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursYoung people engaging in self-development activities, including sport, on average achieved 10%-20% higher GCSE point scores….….Self-development activities are correlated with fewer risky behaviours, whereas there is a positive correlation with socialising activitiesImpact of engagement in multiple self-development behaviours on GCSE attainmentImpact of socialising activities and self development activities on engagement in risky behavioursSource: LSYPENote: 6 points represent 1 grade in 1 subject, although 16 points are given for the lowest pass (grade G)
32Young Person’s Attitudes and Behaviours Parental attitudes and behaviours, along with family processes, matter a great deal for older children.Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesGood parenting matters for older children too.Most families function as supportive unite.g. 74% eat together most nights (age 13/14)Teenagers rely on their parents for psychological and emotional support.Sharing problems is strongly associated with post-16 transitions.Young people who “never talk to mum about things that matter” are twice as likely to become NEET as those who talk at least once a week (15% versus 8%)……and 15% less likely to be in full-time education.Overwhelming evidence from LSYPE that these sort of behaviours matter for attainment through KS4, over and above earlier age effects.Young people, who get on badly with their parents are associated with a lower likelihood of being in FT educationSource: LSYPE
33Parents act as an important source of support and guidance. Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesHappy adolescents feel most able to talk to their parents about things that matter……but only 1 in 5 unhappy or depressed adolescents felt able to talk to their parents.Having someone to talk to matters. 26% feeling much more unhappy than usual had no-one to talk to.People that young people are likely to talk to about things that matter to them, by self-reported well-being“Who are you most likely to tell your problems to?”…disaggregated by how young person feels.Source: LSYPE, wave 4
34Young Person’s Attitudes and Behaviours Parental expectations to stay on in learning post age 16 have become a social ‘norm’…Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesParental expectations have risen across all social class background, with gaps narrowing in latest born cohortAlthough high social class parents have the highest learning aspirations for their children, the picture is reversed once adjusted for prior attainment.Direct influence of parental education on parental expectations for education has reduced for the later born cohorts.The role of academic attainment in influencing expectations among teenagers and parents has reduced for later born cohort. Therefore, it suggests that social change has made further education a norm.percentageSources: Schoon and Polek (2009) High Hopes in a Changing World: Social disadvantage and educational expectations in three age cohorts
35Young Person’s Attitudes and Behaviours …but there are socioeconomic differences in parents’ assessment of the likelihood of this happeningYoung Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesMost parents would like their young person to continue in education beyond the age of 16...…but the extent to which parents think it is likely their young person will enter HE varies significantly by income% of parents who said education when asked what they would like YP to do when they leave school?Proportion of parents who thought it was likely their child would enter Higher EducationproportionpercentageSource: LSYPE
36Socio-economic differences in financial and other resources in families impacts on access to services that aid attainmentYoung Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursFamily ResourcesAlthough there are strong differences in educational outcomes by family income, the causal impact of income is only modest, albeit significantIndicative ways in which differential access to resources affects attainment is shown through the gradients in use of private tuition and in access to computer or internet access.UK evidence suggest that a one-third reduction in family income increases the propensity to achieve no A-C GCSEs by between 1 and 3 percentage points…Access to material resources by socio-economic positionDifferential access to family resources also impacts on affordability of participation in learning post-16 and may contribute to the significant drop-off in aspiration toward HE for young people and their parents from lower social-class families between the ages of 14 and 16.Gregg and Blanden, 2004 “Family Income and Educational Attainment: A Review of Approaches and Evidence for Britain”,Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
37As young people get older they spend more time with their peers, particularly those from more socially disadvantaged groups.Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursFriends and PeersDuring adolescence, young people want to spend more time with peers.Parents help to moderate young people’s peer and community contexts. For example, parental values and practices indirectly determine their teenagers’ choice of peer group or ‘crowd’.The importance of the peer group appears to peak at age 15 and is particularly influential for boys. Young people in the UK, in particular boys, spend more time with their peers than almost all other OECD countries.Young people in lone parent families working more than 16 hours per week are most likely to frequently spend time at friends’ houses and have their friends over to theirs.“I’d rather spend time with friends than family” by agepercentageInteraction with friends, by lone parent/working status…with young people from lower SEGs spending more time with peers than those from higher SEGs3percentageNumber of days had friends round last weekNumber of days visited friends at home last weekSources: Young People in Britain: The attitudes and Experiences of 12 to 19 Year Olds, NatCen (2004); Currie at al, 2004; DWP, 2005 (based on year olds); Asmussen et al. (2007)
38Young Person’s Attitudes and Behaviours The majority of young people have good peer relations, helping them to develop themselves throughout adolescence…Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursFriends and PeersGood peer relations are integral to the development of internal (personal) skills.Making and keeping friends requires an assortment of internal skills including functional skills such as:problem solving;aspects of self-regulation including perspective taking ability, affect recognition;self-belief; andsocial & behavioural skills such as communications skills, understanding others and so on.As these competencies develop friendships change and can become more stable and reciprocal. 5Strong positive peer friendships cushion young people from the stresses associated with experiences like bullying or even the divorce of parents, as friends provide important help and advice about how to manage problems. 3They can also produce feelings of personal well-being and prevent loneliness. 3Young people are more likely to be satisfied by their friendship networks1Do you have a satisfactory friendship network?Age Range (Years)Sources: Office of National Statistics 2005; Sullivan 1953; Hodges et al 1999; Rubin et al 1998 ; Epstein 1986; Savin-Williams & Berndt (1990); Hartup (1993); Armsden & Greenberg (1987); Buhrmester and Yin (1997)
39…however, a significant minority struggle to form or maintain peer relationships. Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursFriends and PeersAlthough most young people have friends, up to 18% of today’s young people have no ‘best friend who they can really trust’1……and young people from lower socio-economic backgrounds are marginally more likely to be bulliedYoung people who said they had a friend they could really trustYoung people bullied in the past 3 years (years 9, 10 or 11)percentagepercentageIf a young person’s peer influences are primarily negative, the likelihood of adjustment difficulties later on are increased. For example, a lack of friendships at an early age is linked to later depression.Good Childhood Enquiry (2005); Gifford-Smith et al 2002; LSYPE
40Young Person’s Attitudes and Behaviours ..and not having good friendship and peer relationships is associated with poorer outcomes.Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursFriends and PeersAssociation between different types of bullying and impact on GCSE scoreAny form of being bullied is associated with reduced attainment.Overall, being bullied in KS4 is correlated with a reduction in attainment of 2 GCSE grades.Those bullied are less likely to be in full-time education and more likely to become NEETHappiness and well-being is much lower for those experiencing bullying.Source: LSYPE wave 4
41Neighbourhood characteristics in and of themselves appear to have little influence on outcomes, except NEETYoung Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursCommunityDeprived individuals living in deprived areas are more likely to be NEET at age 17 than deprived individuals living in non-deprived areas.However same study finds no evidence that neighbourhood deprivation (after controlling for other factors) consistently affects Key Stage 4 scores or any behavioural outcomes at age 16……though the literature is more mixed about the impact of neighbourhoods on behavioural outcomes.Impact of multiple deprivation on chances of being NEET (relative to 20% most deprived neighbourhoods)Marginal effect (% point)Source: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR1024141
42Relatively little of the difference in pupils’ attainment can be explained by differences across schools…Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursSchoolAbout 8% of the variation between pupils in Key Stage 4 is attributable to school differences.Voluntary-Aided schools have the best GCSE results, but they also have a higher quality intakeKey Stage 2 and 4 attainment by school typePercentage of between-school variation in Key Stage 2 and 4taking into account prior attainment and other pupil characteristicsHigher between-school variation in primary reflects the fact that the primaries have a large number of institutions, each with a small number of teachers and pupils, and secondary which has a smaller number of institutions, each with a large number of teachers and pupils.percentageDCSF (2009) DCSF (2008) The Composition of Schools in England4242
43…but good teachers do seem to matter. Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursSchoolBeing taught by a high-quality (75th percentile) rather than low-quality (25th percentile) teacher adds of a GCSE grade per subject.Rivkin et al. (2005) find the gap in GCSE points between a poor and non-poor student is 6.08 GCSE points……so if a poor student had good teachers for all 8 subjects and the non-poor student had poor (25th percentile teachers) for all 8, this would make up 3.4 points (56%) of the difference.Impact of teacher quality on GCSE attainmentSource: Burgess et al (2009) Do teachers matter? Measuring the variation in teacher effectiveness in England
44The most damaging behaviour of all to a young person’s prospects is disengagement from school, manifested in absence…Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursSchoolPersistent absence from school is costly and damaging to educational outcomes……and young people who play truant are more likely to be NEET for longer durationsGCSE attainment of persistent absenteesAssociation between NEET duration and truancy in year 11There is a penalty of 3 GCSE points for a 1% increase in absence over the Key Stage6 points = 1 grade in 1 GCSE subjectTherefore 8% increase in absence over the key stage is equivalent to the FSM penalty (25 points)Source: DCSF internal analysis, LSYPE
45…with disengagement clearly associated with earlier poor attitudes towards school. Young Person’s Attitudes and BehavioursSchoolChildren that enjoy school perform better at KS4, even when accounting for prior attainment and are significantly less likely to engage in risky and anti-social behaviourChildren who are bullied perform worse than children who are not bullied and are more likely to experience behavioural problems……but are no more likely to truant…Impact of school enjoyment on outcomesSolid filled bars are significant at p<0.01, stippled bars at p<0.05 and unfilled bars n/s.Source: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
46Context – Trends in Youth Development ContentsIntroductionContext – Trends in Youth DevelopmentDrivers in Successful Youth TransitionsWhere Policy IntervenesPrinciples from the Evidence
47Attitudes and Behaviours This section looks at how current policy intervention acts on each of those drivers to produce better and more equal outcomes.Adulthood141619ChildhoodPriorAttainmentSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomicOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsPolicy interventionsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchool
48Most of the social gradients in adolescent development are associated with gaps generated in earlier childhood…ChildhoodPriorAttainmentHigh performing five year-olds are much more likely to attain higher qualifications at 26Evidence from the 1970 birth cohort shows social class gaps open early, and continue to widen…Percentage of 26 year olds attaining educational and vocational qualifications by quartile position in early development scores at age 5High SES, High AbilityHigh SES, Low AbilityLow SES, High AbilityLow SES, Low Ability…and although there is evidence that the link between parental income and outcomes is weakening slightly*, data from children born in 2000 suggest the same phenomenon is still occurringpercentageFeinstein, L (1999) The relative economic importance of academic, psychological and behavioural attributes developed in childhood Source: Feinstein (2003). “Inequality in the Early Cognitive Development of British Children in the 1970 Cohort,” Economica, p Blanden and Machin (2007) Recent Changes in Intergenerational Mobility *Gregg and Macmillan (2009) Family Income and Education in the Next Generation: Exploring the income gradients in education for the current cohorts of youth. CMPO Working Paper 09/223
49…but there is plenty of scope for progress in adolescence …but there is plenty of scope for progress in adolescence. What young people and their parents do, how they think and how they act has an important bearing on their life trajectory.ChildhoodPriorAttainmentDifferences in prior attainment explain about 60 per cent of the gap in test scores between young people from rich and poor families.Family background factors (including parental education) account for only a relatively small fraction of the attainment gap between young people from rich and poor families.This suggests that the effect of parental education and family background on attainment at age 16 works largely through its influence on attainment by age 11.Differences in parental and young people’s attitudes and behaviours captured at ages 14 and 16 together explain roughly one quarter of the gap in GCSE results between young people from rich and poor familiesExplaining the gap between the poorest and the richest at age 16: decomposition analysisGoodman and Gregg [eds] (2010) Children’s educational outcomes: the role of attitudes and behaviours,from early childhood to late adolescence.
50Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.Where Policy IntervenesAdulthood141619ChildhoodPriorAttainmentSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomicOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchoolPreventing DisengagementTechnological AccessTackling Risky BehavioursHelping post-16 transitionsDeveloping social and emotional attributes
51Where Policy Intervenes Attitudes and Behaviours Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.Where Policy IntervenesAdulthood141619ChildhoodPriorAttainmentSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomicOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchoolPreventing Disengagement
52Where Policy Intervenes Much of the additional social gradient in outcomes generated during adolescence is associated with falling aspiration and disengagement.Where Policy IntervenesThere is no social gradient for young people who have rising aspirations, but there is a strong social gradient for those with falling aspirations……and children with greater educational aspiration tend to perform better in school, and have fewer behavioural issues.Percentage of young people changing their HE aspirations between 14 and 16Impact of higher education aspirations on outcomespercentageMarginal percentage point effect for other outcomesEffect size (% of standard deviation) for KS4;Many young people first their gain Level 2 qualification between ages 16 and 19. This underlines that young people can achieve and that early disengaging young people are failing to reach their potential.Ross, A. (2009) Disengagement from education among year olds. DCSF-RR178 .Chowdry, H. et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
53Where Policy Intervenes This disengagement is manifested through underachievement through Key Stage 4Where Policy IntervenesPercentage of young people in education and training: Under achievers vs. consistent achieversYoung people whose attainment was average at KS3 but dropped in KS4 were more likely to be NEET or in JWT at than their counterparts who were low achievers at KS3. This suggests that a lack of engagement (driven by a range of factors) is a critical issue for post-16 participation and can be more important than attainment level alone.Disengagement can be sudden, triggered by an event or crisis, or a more gradual process.Callanan, M. Kinsella, R. Graham, J. Turczuk, O. and Finch, S. (2009) Pupils with Declining Attainment at Key Stages 3 and 4: Profiles and impacts of underachievement and disengagement. DCSF Research Report 086
54…and without intervention, there is the risk of downward spirals Where Policy IntervenesSuzanne: Complete disengagementIn Years 7 and 8 she had done well at school. As she got older she grew to dislike school. She had difficult relationships with some of her teachers and sometimes she couldn’t answer questions in class and this made her feel stupid. She had a good group of friends, but in Year 9, all her classes were split. Not being with her friends made her not want to go to class and it was at this point she began to truant. At the same time, outside of school, her parents split up.At first she only truanted a few days here and then she was truanting for whole weeks at a time. It was only half-way through Year 11 that the school contacted her dad about her attendance. The school let her drop some lessons and offered her extra classes. She did not go because the lessons were after school and she saw this as her time. When it finally came to her exams, she did not go to any of them because she felt she had missed too much.Pathway to Suzanne’s complete disengagementSource: NatCen (2009) Declining attainment between KS3 and KS4:Profiles, experiences and impacts of underachievement and disengagement
55Where Policy Intervenes A case study with early intervention The evidence points to a range of factors to prevent disengagement or re-engage young peopleWhere Policy IntervenesA case study with early interventionAt KS3 ’Claire’ had been a high achiever. She was initially predicted ten A-C grade GCSEs. However, at KS4 she did not like a lot of the subjects on offer preferring more practical subjects. She would also have liked to have done business studies but this was not available. From Year 9 onwards she fell in with a new group of friends who did not go to her school and because they were truanting, she truanted so that she could be with them. As a result, she got further and further behind with her school work and lost touch with the friends she had at school and this in turn made it more difficult for her to go back. Despite this, support from her family and the help of an Educational Welfare Officer helped her re-engage with school in Year 11 where she also got help from a school mentor to catch-up with what she had missed. With this help she achieved 5 GCSE passes, 4 of them at A-C. ‘Claire’ now 18, is working full-time.Evidence suggests that on-going and early intervention prior to Year 9 is crucial, and that re-engagement activity has more limited successKey success factors are:Schools working with parentsPositive relationships with teachersStudy supportEngaging curriculumSupervision of homeworkPreventing bullyingExtra-curricula activitiesSources: NatCen (2009) Declining attainment between KS3 and KS4:Profiles, experiences and impacts of underachievement and disengagementRoss, A. (2009) Disengagement from education among year olds. DCSF-RR178 .
56Where Policy Intervenes Attitudes and Behaviours Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.Where Policy IntervenesAdulthood141619ChildhoodPriorAttainmentSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomicOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchoolTechnological Access
57Where Policy Intervenes While material differences between families are inevitable, effective policy can mitigate impact this has on adolescent outcomes.Where Policy IntervenesAccess to material resources by socio-economic positionMuch of the SES gap for the LSYPE cohort is associated with differential access to computers and the internet in the home. Something recent policy has sought to address through the home access programme.Differences in 1 to 1 tuition too. Mitigated by personal additional support to those at risk of under-achievementAlthough evidence on whether financial constraint prevents post-16 participation in learning is mixed, the introduction of EMA enabled participation to increase from less advantaged families to rise relatively much faster.percentageChowdry, H. et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
58Where Policy Intervenes Attitudes and Behaviours Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.Where Policy IntervenesAdulthood141619ChildhoodPriorAttainmentSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomicOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchoolTackling Risky Behaviours
59Where Policy Intervenes Young people at risk of harm who are in contact with support services are under-achieving the most…Where Policy Intervenes17% of 15 year olds had been in contact with the police, educational welfare or social services, with young people engaging in the most risky behaviours are most likely to be in contact with institutions and agencies.These young people are those who experience loss of educational attainment, particularly so if social services or other institutions beyond the school are involved (though causality could run in either direction)Contact with different services by number of risky behavioursImpact on attainment from risky behaviours and contact with servicesThose saying they engaged in some risky behaviours but not in extra contact with institutions do not seem to suffer an educational penalty.Source: LSYPE, internal analysis. SS=Social Services; EW=Educational Welfare.
60Where Policy Intervenes Remedial action does not seem as effective as prevention, since despite institutional support those engaged in multiple risky behaviours still suffer attainment penalties.Where Policy IntervenesWhat matters most around risky behaviours is not engaging in them from outset.The most important anchor points to effective policy intervention are: young person’s attitude to school; the relationships with family; and the influence of peersParticipation in self-development activities associated with reduced riskybehaviours socialising activities (just hanging out around town / going out withfriends) associated with increased risky behaviours).So important to encourage desired activities – e.g. youth facilities policies; positiveactivities.PreventionUnstructured socialising activities associated with increased tendency to engage in risky behaviours.Difficult to reverse participation in risky behaviours, but ‘positive activities’ may prevent further activities being taken up.Increasing/taking-up self-development activity may have some benefits, and is associated with 2+ GCSE Grades progress.RemedyCebulla, A & Tomaszewski, W (2009) Risky Behaviour and Social Activities, DCSF Research Report 173.
61Where Policy Intervenes Attitudes and Behaviours Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.Where Policy IntervenesAdulthood141619ChildhoodPriorAttainmentSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomicOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchoolHelping post-16 transitions
62Where Policy Intervenes Young people need information, advice and guidance to help them plan successful transitions to adulthood.Where Policy IntervenesMany young people are able to access advice about planning for the future from parents and wider social networks.But access to such resources is not universal, so schools and other institutions have a pivotal role.Frequency of talking about plans for future study Year 9Percentage of YP in activities at 16/17 still in same activity at 17/18Navigating transition points, such as from school to post-16 learning notably has potential to deflect young people away from their intentions.This is particularly true for those continuing post-16 learning in routes outside of school.Young people from lower SEC group are over-represented in this routes.percentageSource: LSYPE Waves 1 and 5 and YCS Cohort 13, Sweep 2
63Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.Where Policy IntervenesAdulthood141619ChildhoodPriorAttainmentSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsSocial and emotional skillsEconomicOutcomesCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsCognitive SkillsYoung Person'sAttitudes and BehavioursParental AttitudesFamily ResourcesFriends and PeersCommunitySchoolDeveloping social and emotional attributes
64What employers identify as weaknesses in personal attributes of young people entering the labour market are of growing importance and contribute to social gradients.Where Policy IntervenesSocial and emotional attributes matter……but we don’t yet know how to intervene fully effectively here.A high proportion of job adverts explicitly seek these attributes rather than specific functional skills e.g. only 26% of adverts explicitly or implicitly asked for qualifications.This demand, coupled with distributional differences in these attributes is believed to play a major part in the social gradients that persist in employment and earnings of young adults.They are the same attributes that earlier we showed help mediate educational attainment.Whereas trajectories of childhood cognitive development become largely fixed at early age, evidence suggests that ability in social and emotional behaviours remains malleable later in life and is plastic all through adolescence.Social & Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Behaviour & Attendance Pilots, Personal, Learning and Thinking Skills and PSHE are school-based interventions which could help improve social and emotional attributes.Evaluation results for SEAL in secondary schools is not yet available and the evidence on impact of such programmes in general remains relatively under-developed (we’re investing in evaluations to find out more about what works).Personal tutors increase pupils’ self-confidence (Bullock & Wikeley (2008)).Provision of study support can benefit pupils’ motivation, behaviour and attitudes to learning (MacBeath et al. (2001), MORI (2004)).Engagement in self-development “positive” activities can help to reduce participation in risky behaviours.Jackson, M., Goldthorpe, J. H. and Mills, C. (2005), ‘Education, Employers and ClassMobility’, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 23: 1-30.MacBeath, J. et al (2001) The Impact of Study Support DfES Research Report 273MORI (2004) Study Support Survey. DfES Research Report 591
65Context – Trends in Youth Development ContentsIntroductionContext – Trends in Youth DevelopmentDrivers in Successful Youth TransitionsWhere Policy IntervenesPrinciples from the Evidence
66Five principles that emerge from the evidence Principles from the evidenceBe inclusive but proportionateUse the strongest drivers and leversRelevant & responsiveEngaging and enrichingUse opportunities and incentives
67Be inclusive but proportionate Principles from the evidenceAll young people have some needsSome young people have greater needs than others. This is particularly true for young people not able to benefit from the full range of support that many take for granted from their parents and wider families.Prevention better than cureWe know policies aimed at keeping young people on positive trajectories are currently more effective than those rectifying observed poor outcomes.Precision of targetingSupporting those at risk of poor outcomes implies either a degree of universal help or very good targeting is a major current challenge that creates high deadweight and detracts from cost-effectiveness.
68Use the strongest drivers and levers Principles from the evidenceYoung people do not live in a vacuum.There are many influences on the attitudes and behaviours of young people, both positive and negative.Parents remain the most important influence for young people.Nurturing family relationships, not just for younger children, remains an essential bond to protect adolescents’ well-being and development.In isolation, the impact of schools and other institutions is much weaker. However, it will remain an important influencing medium for young people estranged from their families.The importance of this transmission mechanism is only likely to increase in the future as young people live for longer at the parental home
69Be relevant and responsive. Principles from the evidenceAdolescents often don’t lead ordered, neatly sequenced lives. This creates challenges in providing support when they need help, rather than when the system wants to provide help.The states and activities of young people are often very dynamic – for instance the average duration of a period of being NEET is only 2 months.This means support needs to be nimble if it is to tackle real need rather than the ghost of problems past.Dynamism creates a lot of activity, so policy needs to be discerning about what problems justify intervention and which will self-rectify or be tackled in the family.One solution may be to better develop the decision-making capacity of young people, so that they are better equipped to make informed choices for themselves and know when to seek out support.
70Engaging and enriching. Principles from the evidenceAdolescence should be enjoyable. Young people already worry a lot about growing up, so it’s important not to add to that by being heavy-handed and impose lots of restrictions.Policy ought to enrich their lives not take away liberties.Giving young people a voice in asking what they want and would helps them not only produces better policy but by respecting and empowering them assists their development.Young people most value experiential learning in deciding future choices. That experiential learning also extends into other domains of adolescent behaviour, some of which society finds less acceptable.Policy needs a better framework for determining what the harms are to both individuals and to society, both in the immediate and in the future, to guide when and how to intervene.
71Use opportunities and incentives Principles from the evidenceMore carrot than stick. Simply ordering young people not to do something is ineffective and often disrespectful.There is scope to minimise potential exposure to harmful activities and behaviours by imaginatively creating alternative, more attractive opportunities for young people to engage is positive activities.
72Principles from the evidence Next StepsPrinciples from the evidenceMany of this conclusions from this evidence update support the direction of travel within recent major policy change for young peopleBetter schools -Your child, your schools, our future: building a 21st century schools systemEnsuring all people get the qualifications they need – Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post-16IAG Strategy - Quality, Choice and Aspiration - A strategy for young people's information, advice and guidanceNEET Delivery Plan - Raising the Participation Age: supporting local areas to deliverSocial development – Support for all: Families and Relationships Green Paper.Positive activities - Aiming High for Young People: 10 Year Youth StrategyIt is also clear that much remains to achieve our social goals. Further research stemming from this slide pack will be investigated further by DCSF’s new research centres to help formulate better, more efficient and effective, evidence-informed policy in the future.