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Dyslexia and Specific Learning Difficulties Professor Amanda Kirby.

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Presentation on theme: "Dyslexia and Specific Learning Difficulties Professor Amanda Kirby."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dyslexia and Specific Learning Difficulties Professor Amanda Kirby

2 Aims of the talk 1. Some basic facts around literacy,dyslexia and specific learning difficulties 2. Highlights from the benchmarking study and review of dyslexia and SpLD literature review

3 Key facts Early identification of reading difficulties is important to highlight which children need additional support Phonics is generally good for all All specific learning difficulties overlap – so if you have one difficulty you are likely to have some other challenges Understanding typical development can help with recognising atypical development Literacy difficulties can impact in all areas of learning so need to be considered especially in secondary school curriculum e.g. maths, geography and reasonable adjustments made

4 Also need to think of reasons for literacy challenges may be related to: Specific language impairment Inconsistent teaching approaches Cognitive impairment Emotional and behavioural difficulties Lack of focus/concentration (ADHD)

5 Dyslexia Benchmarking Report Key Findings publications/researchandevaluation/research/li teracyreview/?skip=1&lang=en > publications/researchandevaluation/research/li teracyreview/?skip=1&lang=en

6 Report commissioned by WAG Prof Markéta Caravolas Prof Angela Fawcett Prof Amanda Kirby Kathleen Glendenning

7 Review contains information on: Current definitions of dyslexia Main theoretical and empirical accounts of the causes of dyslexia Current knowledge of the manifestation of dyslexia in different languages and in bilingual individuals A review of research into developmental disorders that may co‐occur with dyslexia Review of the longer‐term educational and psychosocial outcomes of indi viduals with dyslexia An overview of issues associated with screening and assessment of dyslexia A review of the rationale and effectiveness of literacy intervention appr oaches currently held to reflect best practice a review of some comm ercially‐available complementary intervention approaches Consideration of the implications for best practice in supporting children with dyslexia and other SpLDs in Welsh schools

8 Rose Dyslexia Review 2009 Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling.

9 Characteristic features of dyslexia are: Difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed. Dyslexia occurs across the range of intellectual abilities. It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut‐off points.

10 10 An international model of reading An international model of assessment An international model of support Amanda Kirby 2013

11 Co-occurrence (overlap, comorbidity) Co‐occurring difficulties may be seen in: language disorders motor co‐ordination mental calculation concentration personal organisation BUT these are not, by themselves markers of dyslexia

12 Each student has a different shape copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby12

13 ODDCDADHDAnxietyASDDCDDyslexiaSLI Amanda Kirby 2013

14 Therefore a student could have skill challenges with : Reading ( but be able to spell) Writing ( but be good at sports) Speaking ( but good at understanding) Time management ( but have good self organisation copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby14

15 Each student has different hills to overcome and… different ways to do this copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby15

16 RTI A good indication of the severity a nd persistence of dyslexic difficulties can be gained by examining how the individual responds or has respond ed to well‐founded intervention.

17 Benchmarking study for Wales All local authorities participated Examined screening, intervention and Spld practices across Wales

18 Results showed:variability Structure of SpLD services provided by LAs In the way children with dyslexia are supported across Wales In the tools used to assess for dyslexia In the cut offs applied to gain additional support and to be no longer eligible for additional support In the multi-agency pathways for different SpLDs However, ALL LAs aim to support children without the need for a diagnosis or statutory assessment

19 Screening Inconsistency between LAs with regards to screening for other SpLDs PRUs do not routinely screen for literacy difficulties despite high levels of literacy problems,SLI, ADHD and SpLDs noted (Place,2000)

20 Interventions 69 different intervention packages/tools in use Frequency of intervention varies across Wales – Ranges from school-based according to pupil needs to 1 half day of intervention twice a week Variability in provision of intervention – School-based – Central team of specialist teachers – Bought in from external provider

21 Resources Lack of parity between Welsh and English resources – For assessing difficulties – For supporting children with difficulties – Several LAs developing their own good quality Welsh materials

22 Welsh Language Provision Lack of assessment / intervention materials Lack of qualified, Welsh-speaking specialists – E.g. Educational Psychologists

23 English as Additional Language Statistically under-represented, possibly being overlooked 59% of LAs encourage cooperation between dyslexia specialists and EAL support Small percentage of EAL support have qualification in dyslexia or SpLDs Half the LAs reported difficulties distinguishing between L2 based literacy issues and dyslexia

24 Training Not many LAs keep database of teachers with SpLD training All LAs offered non-accredited training to staff 68% offered accredited training to staff 59% offered training in Welsh and English

25 Parents All LAs encourage participation of parents in process of assessment and support Some good parent information available across Wales – Needs to be translated into different minority languages 32% provide training for parents by schools 32% provide training by the LA

26 SpLD Reporting Difficulties identified with reporting codes – Hard to adequately describe pupil with overlapping SpLDs

27 Dyslexia Benchmarking Report Implications of Key Findings

28 Planning Task and Finish group needed for Welsh – Coordinate provision of resources for identification, assessment and support through the medium of Welsh – Resources being independently developed and need to be pooled for use by all – Gaps in provision to be identified and resources developed – Resources should be professionally developed and available through central depository e.g. NGfL

29 Research into Welsh Support Need to understand best method of supporting children with literacy difficulties in bilingual Welsh/English context Diversity of home language situation needs to be taken into account Need to develop appropriate screening and assessment tools in Welsh

30 Guidance for Local Authorities Clarification on which screening / assessment tools are appropriate and valid – Research into the ‘gaps’ in tools should be undertaken Consideration of defining the entry/exit criteria for intervention to avoid postcode lottery Clearly defined multi-agency pathways for all SpLDs at different ages and stages

31 Other Recommendations A review of PLASC codes to ensure descriptors are correct and overlap can be identified Screening of all children entering PRUs for additional learning needs – Reading, spelling, writing, maths, comprehension as a minimum Pupil’s voice should be included in the planning decisions Guidelines for supporting ALN and EAL to be drawn up and best practice circulated

32 Recommendations for Training Needs to include information on typical development so discrepancies can be recognised (now WAG module in place.. adolescent- development/?lang=en#/improvementareas/child- adolescent-development/?lang=en adolescent- development/?lang=en#/improvementareas/child- adolescent-development/?lang=en Minimum level of SpLD training for all teachers across all curricular subjects All NQTs and PRU staff to receive training in identifying & supporting dyslexia and other SpLDs At least 1 SpLD specialist teacher per school cluster Database of training and SpLD qualified staff to be kept by all Local Authorities

33 Recommendations for Practice Literacy assessments should include all aspects of literacy difficulties – Reading comprehension, reading speed, spelling, writing ability, single word reading – Consider testing for visual difficulties Support for other SpLDs in line with dyslexia Central resource of open access materials and information for teachers, parents and others Information for parents translated into key community languages and readily available

34 Remember

35 Each student has different hills to overcome and… different ways to do this copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby35

36 Take 10 students all with a diagnosis of Dyslexia (literacy difficulties) Amanda Kirby 2013

37 WAIS scores Amanda Kirby 2013

38 Sub scores Amanda Kirby 2013

39 How many report attention difficulties Ref: Kirby, Do-IT Profiler,2013

40 Amanda Kirby 2013 …And social difficulties

41 Amanda Kirby 2013 ….And co-ordination/organisational difficulties

42 Amanda Kirby 2013 …and …the ways they study …

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