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Dyslexia and Specific Learning Difficulties

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Presentation on theme: "Dyslexia and Specific Learning Difficulties"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dyslexia and Specific Learning Difficulties
Professor Amanda Kirby

2 Aims of the talk 1. Some basic facts around literacy,dyslexia and specific learning difficulties 2. Highlights from the benchmarking study and review of dyslexia and SpLD literature review

3 Key facts Early identification of reading difficulties is important to highlight which children need additional support Phonics is generally good for all All specific learning difficulties overlap – so if you have one difficulty you are likely to have some other challenges Understanding typical development can help with recognising atypical development Literacy difficulties can impact in all areas of learning so need to be considered especially in secondary school curriculum e.g. maths, geography and reasonable adjustments made

4 Also need to think of reasons for literacy challenges may be related to:
Specific language impairment Inconsistent teaching approaches Cognitive impairment Emotional and behavioural difficulties Lack of focus/concentration (ADHD)

5 Dyslexia Benchmarking Report
Key Findings  http://wales.gov.uk/topics/educationandskills/publications/researchandevaluation/research/literacyreview/?skip=1&lang=en >

6 Report commissioned by WAG
Prof Markéta Caravolas  Prof Angela Fawcett  Prof Amanda  Kirby  Kathleen Glendenning 

7 Review contains information on:
Current definitions of dyslexia   Main theoretical and empirical accounts of the causes of dyslexia  Current knowledge of the manifestation of dyslexia in  different languages and  in bilingual individuals  A review of research into developmental disorders that may  co‐occur with dyslexia  Review of the longer‐term educational and  psychosocial outcomes of individuals with dyslexia  An overview of issues associated with screening  and  assessment  of  dyslexia A review  of the rationale  and  effectiveness of  literacy  intervention approaches  currently  held  to  reflect  best  practice a  review  of  some  commercially‐available complementary intervention approaches  Consideration of the implications for best practice in supporting children with dyslexia and other SpLDs in Welsh schools

8 in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling.
Rose Dyslexia Review 2009 Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved  in accurate and fluent word  reading and spelling. 

9 Characteristic features of dyslexia are: 
•Difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal  memory and verbal processing speed.  •Dyslexia occurs across the range of intellectual  abilities.  It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct  category, and there are no clear cut‐off points. 

10 An international model of reading An international model of assessment
model of support Amanda Kirby 2013 10

11 Co-occurrence (overlap, comorbidity)
Co‐occurring difficulties may be seen in: language disorders motor co‐ordination mental calculation concentration  personal organisation BUT these are not, by themselves markers of dyslexia   

12 Each student has a different shape
copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby

13 ODD CD ADHD Anxiety ASD DCD Dyslexia SLI Amanda Kirby 2013

14 Therefore a student could have skill challenges with :
Reading ( but be able to spell) Writing ( but be good at sports) Speaking ( but good at understanding) Time management ( but have good self organisation copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby

15 copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby
Each student has different hills to overcome and… different ways to do this copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby

16 RTI A good indication of the severity and
persistence of dyslexic difficulties  can be  gained by examining how the  individual responds or has responded to  well‐founded intervention. 

17 Benchmarking study for Wales
All local authorities participated Examined screening, intervention and Spld practices across Wales

18 Results showed:variability
Structure of SpLD services provided by LAs In the way children with dyslexia are supported across Wales In the tools used to assess for dyslexia In the cut offs applied to gain additional support and to be no longer eligible for additional support In the multi-agency pathways for different SpLDs However, ALL LAs aim to support children without the need for a diagnosis or statutory assessment

19 Screening Inconsistency between LAs with regards to screening for other SpLDs PRUs do not routinely screen for literacy difficulties despite high levels of literacy problems,SLI, ADHD and SpLDs noted (Place,2000)

20 Interventions 69 different intervention packages/tools in use
Frequency of intervention varies across Wales Ranges from school-based according to pupil needs to 1 half day of intervention twice a week Variability in provision of intervention School-based Central team of specialist teachers Bought in from external provider

21 Resources Lack of parity between Welsh and English resources
For assessing difficulties For supporting children with difficulties Several LAs developing their own good quality Welsh materials

22 Welsh Language Provision
Lack of assessment / intervention materials Lack of qualified, Welsh-speaking specialists E.g. Educational Psychologists

23 English as Additional Language
Statistically under-represented, possibly being overlooked 59% of LAs encourage cooperation between dyslexia specialists and EAL support Small percentage of EAL support have qualification in dyslexia or SpLDs Half the LAs reported difficulties distinguishing between L2 based literacy issues and dyslexia

24 Training Not many LAs keep database of teachers with SpLD training
All LAs offered non-accredited training to staff 68% offered accredited training to staff 59% offered training in Welsh and English

25 Parents All LAs encourage participation of parents in process of assessment and support Some good parent information available across Wales Needs to be translated into different minority languages 32% provide training for parents by schools 32% provide training by the LA

26 SpLD Reporting Difficulties identified with reporting codes
Hard to adequately describe pupil with overlapping SpLDs

27 Dyslexia Benchmarking Report
Implications of Key Findings

28 Planning Task and Finish group needed for Welsh
Coordinate provision of resources for identification, assessment and support through the medium of Welsh Resources being independently developed and need to be pooled for use by all Gaps in provision to be identified and resources developed Resources should be professionally developed and available through central depository e.g. NGfL

29 Research into Welsh Support
Need to understand best method of supporting children with literacy difficulties in bilingual Welsh/English context Diversity of home language situation needs to be taken into account Need to develop appropriate screening and assessment tools in Welsh

30 Guidance for Local Authorities
Clarification on which screening / assessment tools are appropriate and valid Research into the ‘gaps’ in tools should be undertaken Consideration of defining the entry/exit criteria for intervention to avoid postcode lottery Clearly defined multi-agency pathways for all SpLDs at different ages and stages

31 Other Recommendations
A review of PLASC codes to ensure descriptors are correct and overlap can be identified Screening of all children entering PRUs for additional learning needs Reading, spelling, writing, maths, comprehension as a minimum Pupil’s voice should be included in the planning decisions Guidelines for supporting ALN and EAL to be drawn up and best practice circulated

32 Recommendations for Training
Needs to include information on typical development so discrepancies can be recognised (now WAG module in place.. Minimum level of SpLD training for all teachers across all curricular subjects All NQTs and PRU staff to receive training in identifying & supporting dyslexia and other SpLDs At least 1 SpLD specialist teacher per school cluster Database of training and SpLD qualified staff to be kept by all Local Authorities

33 Recommendations for Practice
Literacy assessments should include all aspects of literacy difficulties Reading comprehension, reading speed, spelling, writing ability, single word reading Consider testing for visual difficulties Support for other SpLDs in line with dyslexia Central resource of open access materials and information for teachers, parents and others Information for parents translated into key community languages and readily available

34 Remember

35 copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby
Each student has different hills to overcome and… different ways to do this copyright 2013 Amanda Kirby

36 Take 10 students all with a diagnosis of Dyslexia (literacy difficulties)
Amanda Kirby 2013

37 WAIS scores Amanda Kirby 2013

38 Sub scores Amanda Kirby 2013

39 How many report attention difficulties
Ref: Kirby, Do-IT Profiler,2013 Amanda Kirby 2013

40 …And social difficulties
Amanda Kirby 2013

41 ….And co-ordination/organisational difficulties
Amanda Kirby 2013

42 …and …the ways they study …
Amanda Kirby 2013


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