2Module objectivesProvide an opportunity to look at the learner outcomes in the ‘Manage money’ element of the numeracy component of the National Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF), to identify where budgeting exists in the curriculum in Wales.Highlight resources and activities that can be used in Key Stages 2, 3 and 4 to develop learners’ numeracy skills in the context of managing their money by budgeting.
3Learner aimsThis module introduces the process of budgeting. It works across key stages and some learners will:appreciate the decisions that need to be made relating to ‘essential and non-essential purchases’identify the differences between a need (something you cannot live without) and a want (something you can live without)identify how money enters and leaves their livesunderstand the differences between income and expenditurebe able to explain why a budget needs to balance.Ideas:Find out about learners’ knowledge relating to budgeting, needs and wants, income and expenses.
4The National Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF) The National Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF) focuses on four strands of numeracy:Strand 1: Developing numerical reasoningStrand 2: Using number skillsStrand 3: Using measuring skillsStrand 4: Using data skills.A look at where ‘Manage money’ exists in the LNF.4
5Numeracy component of the LNF Strand: Using number skillsElements:Use number facts and relationshipsFractions, decimals, percentages and ratioCalculate using mental and written methodsEstimate and checkManage money5
6LNF learner outcomesThe following tables show the learner outcomes as specified in the numeracy component of the LNF.The focus in this module is the topic of budgeting which is highlighted in bold in the tables.
7realise that budgeting is important. Manage moneyLearners are able to:Year 3use different combinations of money to pay for items up to £2 and calculate the changeorder and compare items up to £10record money spent and saved.Year 4use money to pay for items up to £10 and calculate the changeorder and compare items up to £100add and subtract totals less than £10 using correct notation, e.g. £6.85 – £2.76manage money, compare costs from different retailers and determine what can be bought within a given budget.Year 5order and compare the cost of items up to £1 000add and subtract totals less than £100 using correct notation, e.g. £ £33.45plan and track money and savings by keeping accurate recordsrealise that budgeting is important.Year 6use the terms profit and loss in buying and selling activities and make calculations for thisunderstand the advantages and disadvantages of using bank accountsmake comparisons between prices and understand which is best value for money.7
8Manage moneyLearners are able to:Year 7use profit and loss in buying and selling calculationsunderstand the advantages and disadvantages of using bank accounts, including bank cardsmake informed decisions relating to discounts and special offers.Year 8carry out calculations relating to VAT, saving and borrowingappreciate the basic principles of budgeting, saving (including understanding compound interest) and borrowing.Year 9calculate using foreign money and exchange ratesunderstand the risks involved in different ways of saving and investingdescribe why insurance is important and understand the impact of not being insured.Extensionuse and understand efficient methods of calculating compound interestunderstand and demonstrate the real-life process of foreign exchangeunderstand and calculate income tax.
9The Personal and social education framework for 7 to 19-year-olds in Wales also highlights opportunities for learners to develop their budgeting knowledge. These are highlighted in bold on the next slide.Resource: LNF.9
10Personal and social education framework for 7 to 19-year-olds in Wales Key Stage 2 learning outcomesRange: Preparing for lifelong learningLearners should be given opportunities to understand: that money is earned through work and can buy goods and services the importance of looking after their money and the benefits of regular saving.Personal and social education framework for 7 to 19-year-olds in WalesKey Stage 3 learning outcomesRange: Preparing for lifelong learningLearners should be given opportunities to understand: the economic and ethical consequences of personal financial decision-making as a consumer, e.g. Fairtrade how to become competent at managing personal finances and recognise that saving provides financial independence.Personal and social education framework for 7 to 19-year-olds in WalesKey Stage 4 learning outcomesRange: Preparing for lifelong learningLearners should be given opportunities to understand: their rights as consumers and their responsibilities in terms of managing a budget the importance of planning for their financial futures and how to access financial advice.
11How do we know if we can afford something? Can we afford it?Starter activity:How do we know if we can afford something?Ideas:Find out about learners’ knowledge relating to budgeting, needs and wants, income and expenses.
12What do these terms mean? needswantsSee Manage money activity sheet: Needs and wants (Key Stage 2/3 activity).Using images and words, learners can decide which items they cannot live without (need) and those items that they simply want to have.Discussion ideas:Find out about learners’ knowledge relating to needs and wants.
13Need versus wantIdeas:Find out about learners’ knowledge relating to budgeting, needs and wants, income and expenses.Carry out the activity online by visiting https://hwb.wales.gov.uk/cms/hwbcontent/Shared%20Documents/vtc/ /maths/financial-literacy/needsVsWants.swf13
14Essential and non-essential items Scenario:You have started working, have your own flat and recently had a loan to purchase a new car.Differentiation:The activity can be limited to fewer cards. The scenario can be presented to younger learners by asking them to think about what type of bills their parents/carers may have to pay.Print off Resource 1: Essential and non-essential items, which is a Key Stage 3/4 activity. This activity asks learners to sort the cards into two groups – ‘essential’ and ‘non-essential’ monthly payments/purchases. Examples are shown on the next slide.
15Essential and non-essential items Music downloadsBus faresCar loan repaymentFood/toiletriesMeal out with friendsTV licenceElectricityConcert ticketWork clothesMobile phone billTakeaway pizzaPetrolHouse insuranceNew trainersCar insuranceWaterMortgage/rentGasCouncil tax£10 savingsPrint off Resource 1 which has these examples in Word format. Learners sort the cards into essential and non-essential items. Encourage learners to justify their responses.
16Discussion activity:How does money come in and out of your life on a daily, weekly or monthly basis?This is a question for upper Key Stage 2 to Key Stage 4 learners. Present learners with the question. They can write ideas on sticky notes and share with each other and the group. Differentiation will occur naturally in the responses they give.
17Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) SnacksPayment for choresGiftsMobile phoneToiletriesPocket moneyCinema/concertsPart-time workHere are some responses that learners may give on how money enters and leaves their lives on a daily, weekly, monthly basis.This exercise can be used for learners to identify which items are income and which are expenditure (colour coded), or to discuss how the items are linked. Learners can then determine that money comes into their lives (and can give it the label ‘income’) and that money goes out (and be introduced to the term ‘expenses’ or ‘expenditure’).Buying musicBuying clothesBus fares
18Income and expenditure Key Stage 2 activities:Activity 1: Can we afford it? (see Manage money activity sheet: Can we afford it?)Activity 2: Money wise: a monthly budgeting card game (see Manage money activity sheet: Money wise monthly budgeting card game)Activity 3: Budgeting how much electricity to use – ‘Let’s cut back’. Visit the activity online at https://hwb.wales.gov.uk/cms/hwbcontent/_layouts/NGFLSolution/MaterialDescription.aspx?LearningMaterialId=39431&lang=enActivities have been differentiated into key stages based on context. The key stages are for guidance only and teachers should select activities to match the ability of learners. Links/explanations for activities on the following slides.
19Income and expenditure Activity 1: Can we afford it?See Manage money activity sheet: Can we afford it?Learners are given a storyboard to complete. The storyboard charts a family’s decision about whether they can afford to buy a bike as a birthday present. The storyboard raises discussion points.The idea can be developed as role-play activity. Alternative purchases can be given where learners have to work out if they can afford it, e.g. ‘Can we have a dog?’, ‘Can I have a new smart phone?’.
20Income and expenditure Activity 2: Money wise – monthly budgeting card gameSee Manage money activity sheet: Money wise – monthly budgeting card game.Learners cut out the cards that show ways they have earned and spent money, and turn them face down. They play in pairs, turn one card over at a time, and decide where to place it in their monthly budget table. Their challenge is to ensure they:do not get into debt in any one monthbreak even at the end of the three months.This means that they may have to move their cards around, or decide on something they can’t afford to buy to ensure their spending does not exceed their earnings!
21Activity 3: Budgeting how much electricity to use Key Stage 2 activity: Budgeting how much electricity to useView this online activity on Hwb athttps://hwb.wales.gov.uk/cms/hwbcontent/Shared%20Documents/vtc/ /maths/financial-literacy//lets-cut-back/index.htmlVisit Hwb for learners to do this interactive activity online.
22Income and expenditure Key Stage 3/4 activities:Activity 1: Can you help Carrie and Mo to budget? (see Spending Sense)Activity 2: ‘Managing your money’ scenarios (see Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit)Activity 3: Keeping a running balance for a household (see Resource 2 from this module)Activities have been differentiated into key stages based on context. The key stages are for guidance only and teachers should select activities to match the ability of learners. Links/explanations for activities are included on the following slides.
23Activity 1 Can you help Carrie and Mo manage their budget? Resource: Spending Sense, Activity 5 – Carrie and Mo (pages 39–47)Download the resource at https://hwb.wales.gov.uk/cms/hwbcontent/_layouts/NGFLSolution/MaterialDescription.aspx?LearningMaterialId=44957&lang=en23
24Income and expenditure Key Stage 3/4 Activity 1: Can you help Carrie and Mo to budget?This activity raises the problem of overspending on a tight budget. The lifestyles of two young people, Carrie and Mo, are described. Each has a budget showing a typical monthly income and expenditure. The task for learners is to discuss their lifestyles and spending habits to see where they could cut down in order to balance their budget.The following slides show snapshots of this activity.The resource Spending Sense explains fully how the activities can be delivered in the classroom.
25Spending Sense: Carrie and Mo (Activity 5, pages 39–47).
26Spending Sense: Carrie and Mo (Activity 5, pages 39–47).
27Resource: Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit Activity 2Managing your money scenariosResource: Welsh Government Personal Finance ToolkitSee Topic 3 ‘Managing your money’ (pages 29–33) along with the accompanying resource sheets within Topic 3 entitled ‘Manage my cash’ (pages 31–34).Download the resource atThe activity (described on page 32) offers four scenarios describing young people’s financial situations. Learners suggest ways in which they could manage their money more successfully. Examples of the scenarios are given on the next slidesThe link here can be used to access the resource entitled Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit and must be used with the accompanying resource sheets that supplement the activities described. Full details of how to deliver the activities are provided within the toolkit.27
28Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit (Topic 3: pages 29–33) entitled ‘Managing your money’ and the resource sheets accompanying the toolkit (Topic 3: pages 31–34) entitled ‘Manage my cash’.The screenshot here is from page 31 from the resource sheets.
29Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit (Topic 3: pages 29–33) entitled ‘Managing your money’ and the resource sheets accompanying the toolkit (Topic 3: pages 31–34) entitled ‘Manage my cash’.
30Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit (Topic 3: pages 29–33) entitled ‘Managing your money’ and the resource sheets accompanying the toolkit (Topic 3: pages 31–34) entitled ‘Manage my cash’.The screenshot here is from page 32 from the resource sheets.
31Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit (Topic 3: pages 29–33) entitled ‘Managing your money’ and the resource sheets accompanying the toolkit (Topic 3: pages 31–34) entitled ‘Manage my cash’.The screenshot here is from page 33 from the resource sheets.
32Welsh Government Personal Finance Toolkit (Topic 3: pages 29–33) entitled ‘Managing your money’ and the resource sheets accompanying the toolkit (Topic 3: pages 31–34) entitled ‘Manage my cash’.The screenshot here is from page 34 from the resource sheets.
33Activity 3 Keeping a running balance for a household Resource: Keeping a running balance (see Resource 2 within this module)This activity presents learners with a diary style account of the transactions that take place during one month, from the view point of a working adult with three children. Learners have to read the information and keep a running a balance in the form of a table by calculating the money paid in and paid out of a bank account.33
34Keeping a running balance Mrs Jones is a very busy parent and the information given is one month in her life (print off Resource 2 ‘Keeping a running balance’).The information indicates how much is paid in (income) and paid out (expenditure) of her bank account.Look carefully at each of the days given and consider the transactions that take place.Using the table, carry out a running balance to help her keep track of her money.The resource can be printed off, laminated and cut out to give learners individual cards. Alternatively the resource can be laminated as five A4 sheets and the learners can work on a week at a time.DatePaid inPaid outBalanceExamples of the first week are given on the next slide.
35Council tax needs to be paid. £142 Paid by direct debit. 1 AugustYou have both been paid.£30123 AugustCouncil tax needs to be paid.£142Paid by direct debit.Food shopping.£112Paid with debit card.4 AugustMortgage payments goes out.£12155 AugustUtility bill day!Gas: £72Electricity: £59Water: £45.10All paid monthly by direct debit.7 AugustChild benefit.You have three children.£20.30 for the first child per week.£13.40 for the other children.Note: child benefit is paid every 4 weeks.This is the first week. Learners have to record each transaction as a paid in or paid out and keep a running balance.
36Adding up to a lifetime www.addinguptoalifetime.org.uk This is a free online resource which follows four characters and how they deal with financial situations. It is suitable for Key Stage 3 to Key Stage 5. The package has approximately 25 hours of learning activities which learners can complete online. It is presented as five modules:Life as a student (aged 14 upwards)Working lifeRelationshipsNew lifeActive retirement.The modules offer the whole range of manage money topics including budgeting, visitEach module has an audio tutorial which can be listened to in English or Welsh.
37Websites and resources pfeg (Personal Finance Education Group) an independent charity providing a wealth of resources to support financial education in schools.Barclays Money Skills Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 Resource Packs (download) – needs/wants and essential/non-essential activities available within these packs.Finance Skills: games, factsheets* and worksheets* for learners aged 4 to (printable resources and online games). For budgeting activities see Money Maths – Balancing Budgets (12–14) and Family Budget Factsheet (7–11). *Welsh versions available.The modules offer the whole range of manage money topics including budgeting./maths/financial-literacy//lets-cut-back/index.html Key Stage 2 Science Activity: Looking at budgeting via household electricity usage.Information on managing your money as a student.A free interactive online programme providing resources to support learners manage their money.