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2 Hydraulic Fracturing

3 Classes of AdditivesPurposeExamples Acid Facilitates entry into rock formations hydrochloric acid Biocides Kill bacteria and reduce risk of fouling glutaraldehydeglutaraldehyde, 2,2 Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide2,2 Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide BreakerFacilitate proppant entryperoxodisulfates Clay stabilizerClay stabilizationsalts, ie tetramethylammonium chloridetetramethylammonium chloride Corrosion inhibitorWell maintenancemethanol CrosslinkerFacilitate proppant entrypotassium hydroxide Friction reducersImprove surface pressuresodium acrylate, polyacrylamideacrylatepolyacrylamide Gelling agentsProppant placementguar gum Iron controlWell maintenancecitric acidcitric acid, thioglycolic acidthioglycolic acid Scale inhibitorPrevention of precipitationammonium chlorideammonium chloride, ethylene glycol,polyaccrylateethylene glycolpolyaccrylate SurfactantReduction in fluid tensionmethanolmethanol, isopropanolisopropanol

4 "significant potential risks to human health and the environment." January 2011

5 Water Contamination Ground Contamination

6 Lack of regulations Guardian Newspaper, 31 st August 2011

7 Air Pollution Huffington Post 3 rd August 2011

8 BBC News 31 st May 2011 Earthquakes?

9 The Blackpool Gazette 16 th October 2011 “CONTROVERSIAL gas drilling DID cause Fylde coast earthquakes.” “ tremors felt nearby [Lancashire drilling site] were most likely to have been caused by fracking” British Geological Survey 16 th October 2011

10 Western Mail 11 th June 2011 Over Estimated Reserves Business Insider 24 th Aug 2011

11 Multiple Drill Rigs Wyoming, USA

12 Volume of Water Used “On average, each well will use approx. 1 - 8 million gallons of water per frack”

13 Tourism Property Value Increased Traffic Other areas of concern..


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