Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: The Rise of Rome Rome’s Beginnings. Italy Shaped like a boot In the Mediterranean “toe” points at Sicily Alps border Italy in the North Apennines."— Presentation transcript:
Italy Shaped like a boot In the Mediterranean “toe” points at Sicily Alps border Italy in the North Apennines extend North to south Terrain easier to farm than Greece Italy supported more people because of this!
Rome’s Beginnings Latins built Rome on the plain of Latium Located in Central Italy on Tiber River 2 stories tell of Rome’s beginning Remus and Romulus Aeneas and the Trojan followers
Remus and Romulus As babies, they were abandoned by the Tiber River, rescued by a wolf, raised by a shepherd. Built a city, had a fight, Romulus killed Remus, became king and named the city after himself
Aeneas and Trojan Followers Aeneas and Trojan followers A famous Greek poet named Virgil wrote an epic called the Aeneid. Aeneas was the main character, a Trojan hero who along with his followers sailed the Mediterranean Sea after the Greeks captured Troy. He had many adventures ending with marriage to the king’s daughter. He united the Trojans and the Latins (local people) and became known as the “father” of Rome.
Rome’s Beginnings Latins were influenced by Greeks and Etruscans especially The Etruscans were skilled metal workers The Etruscans were a model for Roman army
Rome’s Beginnings Tarquins Leaders of Etruscan- ruled Rome Romans rebelled after 100 years of rule Established a republic Leader is not king or queen Elected by citizen vote to office by citizens
Rome’s Beginnings Rome had large army Very powerful Excellent and disciplined soldiers Soldiers were good problem solvers Legion is a group of 6,000 soldiers Roads connected all of Rome’s military settlements
Rome’s Beginnings Roman Confederation Gave full citizenship to some (vote, serve gov’t) Others received status of allies (rule own local affairs)
Rome’s Government Cicero Denounces Catiline: Fresco by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a3/Maccari-Cicero.jpg
Rome’s Government Two classes of people in Rome Patricians: wealthy land owners; made up Rome’s ruling class Plebeians: artisans, shopkeepers, owners of small farms (most citizens)
Roman Principles of Government Government organized around a Constitution Not written; Constitution was a verbal tradition. Powers were separated. Power shared (initially) by three branches. Assembly, Senate, and Magistrate. Tripartite Government.
Assemblies: Adult male Roman Citizens which passed the laws and elected magistrates All adult males could vote. A form of direct democracy Assembly
Senate: Wealthy, important citizens who helped to pass laws. They controlled Roman money and foreign policy. Most powerful part of government. Only wealthy and politically connected could become Senators. Positions were prestigious and very influential. Senate
Magistrates: Elected Officials who enforced the law and judged cases. Race of Honors Started off in lower offices Quaestor (kept track of money) Aedile (maintain public buildings and festivals) Tribune of Plebs: Powerful position where they could veto laws or acts of any magistrate. Upper offices: Praetor: Judged cases, managed city, and led armies Consul: Two top officials in government. The shared power and could veto the other. Good idea? Why? Magistrates
Rome’s Government Roman Republic had a dictator who served people and was a temporary ruler during emergencies. Cincinnatus best know early Roman dictator Cincinnatus AKA Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus Born: 519 BC Died: 430 BC Cause of death: unspecified Gender: Male Religion: Pagan Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: MilitaryMilitary Nationality: Ancient Rome Executive summary: Republican leader of Rome
Rome’s Government Twelve Tables first code of laws was adopted around 451 B.C Basis of all future Roman laws Law of Nations created to address issues of conquered people Rule of law is idea that laws should apply to everyone equally Table 1 and Table 2: Civil Procedure Table 3: Debt Table 4: Parents and Children Table 5: Inheritance Table 6 and Table 7: Property Table 8: Torts (causing harm to another) Table 9: Capital Punishment Table 10: Funeral Regulations Table 11: Marriage Table 12:Crimes
How did Rome grow from a small Republic to a huge empire? From what we know about large empires, how do empires gain more territory? Colonization? Conquering? How do you think Rome did it? War, of course. But, who did the Romans fight against?