2Rome’s Beginnings Italy Shaped like a boot In the Mediterranean “toe” points at SicilyAlps border Italy in the NorthApennines extend North to southTerrain easier to farm than GreeceItaly supported more people because of this!
3Rome’s Beginnings Latins built Rome on the plain of Latium Located in Central Italy on Tiber River2 stories tell of Rome’s beginningRemus and RomulusAeneas and the Trojan followers
4Remus and RomulusAs babies, they were abandoned by the Tiber River, rescued by a wolf, raised by a shepherd. Built a city, had a fight, Romulus killed Remus, became king and named the city after himself
5Aeneas and Trojan Followers A famous Greek poet named Virgil wrote an epic called the Aeneid. Aeneas was the main character, a Trojan hero who along with his followers sailed the Mediterranean Sea after the Greeks captured Troy. He had many adventures ending with marriage to the king’s daughter. He united the Trojans and the Latins (local people) and became known as the “father” of Rome.
6Rome’s BeginningsLatins were influenced by Greeks and Etruscans especiallyThe Etruscans were skilled metal workersThe Etruscans were a model for Roman army
7Rome’s Beginnings Tarquins Leaders of Etruscan-ruled Rome Romans rebelled after 100 years of ruleEstablished a republicLeader is not king or queenElected by citizen vote to office by citizens
8Rome’s Beginnings Rome had large army Very powerful Excellent and disciplined soldiersSoldiers were good problem solversLegion is a group of 6,000 soldiersRoads connected all of Rome’s military settlements
9Rome’s Beginnings Roman Confederation Gave full citizenship to some (vote, serve gov’t)Others received status of allies (rule own local affairs)
10Rome’s GovernmentCicero Denounces Catiline: Fresco by Cesare Maccari (
11Rome’s Government Two classes of people in Rome Patricians: wealthy land owners; made up Rome’s ruling classPlebeians: artisans, shopkeepers, owners of small farms (most citizens)
12Roman Principles of Government Government organized around a ConstitutionNot written; Constitution was a verbal tradition.Powers were separated.Power shared (initially) by three branches.Assembly, Senate, and Magistrate. Tripartite Government.
13AssemblyAssemblies: Adult male Roman Citizens which passed the laws and elected magistratesAll adult males could vote.A form of direct democracy
14SenateSenate: Wealthy, important citizens who helped to pass laws. They controlled Roman money and foreign policy. Most powerful part of government.Only wealthy and politically connected could become Senators.Positions were prestigious and very influential.
15MagistratesMagistrates: Elected Officials who enforced the law and judged cases.Race of HonorsStarted off in lower officesQuaestor (kept track of money)Aedile (maintain public buildings and festivals)Tribune of Plebs: Powerful position where they could veto laws or acts of any magistrate.Upper offices:Praetor: Judged cases, managed city, and led armiesConsul: Two top officials in government. The shared power and could veto the other. Good idea? Why?
16Rome’s GovernmentRoman Republic had a dictator who served people and was a temporary ruler during emergencies.Cincinnatus best know early Roman dictatorCincinnatus AKA Lucius Quinctius CincinnatusBorn: 519 BC Died: 430 BC Cause of death: unspecifiedGender: Male Religion: Pagan Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: MilitaryNationality: Ancient Rome Executive summary: Republican leader of Rome
17Rome’s GovernmentTwelve Tables first code of laws was adopted around 451 B.CBasis of all future Roman lawsLaw of Nations created to address issues of conquered peopleRule of law is idea that laws should apply to everyone equallyTable 1 and Table 2: Civil ProcedureTable 3: DebtTable 4: Parents and ChildrenTable 5: InheritanceTable 6 and Table 7: PropertyTable 8: Torts (causing harm to another)Table 9: Capital PunishmentTable 10: Funeral RegulationsTable 11: MarriageTable 12:Crimes
18How did Rome grow from a small Republic to a huge empire? From what we know about large empires, how do empires gain more territory?Colonization?Conquering?How do you think Rome did it?War, of course. But, who did the Romans fight against?