6PIONEER SPECIES: The first species to populate an area after Primary Succession. Usually lichen and can grow on rockLichens:formed symbiotic relationship between fungus and algae and can grow on bare rock
7Primary SuccessionSoil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller piecesWhen lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soilSimple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil
14Secondary Successionsuccession that occurs following a disturbance that changes an existing community without removing the soilwildfires, clearing of land for agriculture or development, wind storms, lakes that dry up, etc.Pre-existing seeds will germinate to establish new plants.
22Decomposition of a fallen log Primary or Secondary Succession?
23Old- field Succession Occurs in farmland that has been abandoned Grasses and weeds grow quickly, and procede many seeds that cover large areas
24Maintenance of Prairie Ecosystems Before: high fuel load During controlled burn Just 2 months later
25Succession in a Marine Ecosystem Large whale dies and sinks to barren ocean floor. Attracts scavengers and decomposers.Within a year, most of the tissue has been eaten, the decomposition of the whale enriches the surrounding sediments.When only the skeleton remains, bacteria begin to decompose the bones.
27What Is Climate?Weather is the day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place. Climate refers to the average year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region.
28Climate is caused by: trapping of heat by the atmosphere latitude transport of heat by winds and ocean currentsamount of precipitationshape and elevation of landmasses
29The Greenhouse EffectAtmospheric gases that trap the heat energy of sunlight and maintain Earth's temperature range include:carbon dioxide (CO2)Methane (CH4)water vapor (H2O)
30The Greenhouse EffectSome heat escapes into spaceSunlightThe natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth’s atmosphere by this layer of gases is called the greenhouse effect.Greenhouse gases trap some heatCarbon dioxide, water vapor, and several other gases in the atmosphere allow solar radiation to enter the biosphere but slow down the loss of heat to space. These greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect, which helps maintain Earth’s temperature range.AtmosphereEarth’s Surface
32The Effect of Latitude on Climate Solar radiation strikes different parts of Earth’s surface at an angle that varies throughout the year.At the equator, energy from the sun strikes Earth almost directly.At the North and South Poles, the sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface at a lower angle.
33Temperature and Precipitation Making Climate GraphsClimate graphs show us the two factors in a climate:Temperature and Precipitation
34Let’s look at two climate graphs Making Climate GraphsLet’s look at two climate graphsThe line graph is temperatureThe bar graph is precipitation
35Let’s look at two climate graphs Making Climate GraphsLet’s look at two climate graphsThe y-axis on the left is for temperatureThe y-axis on the right is for precipitation
36What trends can we see on these graphs? Making Climate GraphsWhat trends can we see on these graphs?Cold winters, hot summersEven precipitation (no rainy season)Moose Factory, Ontario gets much colder in the winter than Chicago,IL