Presentation on theme: "Florida-Friendly Best Management Practices for Protection of Water Resources by the Green Industries Fertilizer Module 4 Draft FINAL Version August 24,"— Presentation transcript:
Florida-Friendly Best Management Practices for Protection of Water Resources by the Green Industries Fertilizer Module 4 Draft FINAL Version August 24, 2009
At the end of this module you will be able to: Identify the different types of common fertilizers Interpret and apply the information on a fertilizer label Implement practices to avoid runoff and leaching of fertilizers Calculate the amount of fertilizer to be applied according to the recommended rates Apply recommended rates Training Objectives
Soil Test Basis for determining a fertility program pH as well as macro and micro nutrients Phosphorus testing is particularly important Do not soil test for N o Very mobile o Use IFAS recommended rates
Soil pH Nutrient Availability Strongly acidic Medium acidic Slightly acidic Very slightly acidic Very slightly alkaline Slightly alkaline Medium alkaline Strongly alkaline
Nitrogen Fertilizers Quick Release also “water soluble” or “readily available”
Ammonium Sulfate 21% N (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Deep green, longer response than many other soluble N Highly soluble and leachable Volatilization Very acidifying – useful in high pH soils High salt index – must be watered in
Urea 46% N Soluble synthetic organic Nonionic, highly leachable Subject to volatilization Low acidity - 1.8/kg N Low salt index
Ammonium Nitrate 33 – 34 % N Very soluble Subject to volatilization and leaching Low acidity - 1.8/kg N High salt index Can be explosive Short term response
Nitrogen Fertilizers Slow Release also “controlled release” (CR) or water insoluble (WIN)
Urea Formaldehyde Insoluble organic 38% N; 65-71% WIN Biological N release o Rate influenced by soil temperature o Less effective in cool seasons Microbes release N as urea
Methylene Urea 40% N - 36% WIN Biological N release More rapidly available than UF Not as adversely influenced by cool temperatures
Isobutylidene Diurea - IBDU 31% N 90% slow release N released by hydrolysis as urea Relatively unaffected by o Temperature o pH Particle size important Excellent cool season response Less effective during heavy rain periods due to rapid release
Sulfur Coated Urea 32-38% N Release depends upon: o Thickness of sulfur coating o Biological o Soil environment Temperature pH Cool season response-erratic Drop spreaders may crack pellets Response up to 4 months
Polymer Coated Variable N May contain other sources, other nutrients N release influenced by o Coating thickness o Diffusion rate o Soil temperature Good for both warm and cool season Longer residual in warm temps
Leaching & Runoff Potential Quick release sources vs. slow release sources Quick release sources, properly applied, do not leach significantly more The potential for leaching due to misapplication or overwatering is greater with soluble sources The potential for leaching due to heavy rain soon after applying is greater with soluble sources The potential for runoff due to heavy rain several weeks after application may be greater with slow release sources
Why use slow release fertilizers?
Fertilization of Established Grasses: Should be applied based on soil and/or tissue test Often ample in plant available form in FL Turf needs are low DACS Fertilizer Rule limits use: o 0.25 lb 1,000 ft -2 per application o 0.5 lb 1,000 ft -2 yearly Needs increase under traffic or other stresses Phosphate Fertilizers
Potassium Potassium is like a multi-vitamin for turf Provides some resistance to many stresses Is not a curative, but should be part of a fertilization plan N:K ratio 2:1 or 1:1 under stress
A Magnesium deficiency may be found in many parts of the State 2 ½ lbs. Mg/1000ft²/yr may be applied Magnesium (Mg)
What about micro nutrients?
Fertilizer Label BRAND NAME GRADE X-X-X Guaranteed Analysis Total Nitrogen (N) _____% Nitrate Nitrogen _____% Ammoniacal Nitrogen _____% Water Soluble Nitrogen _____% Urea Nitrogen _____% Water Insoluble Nitrogen Available Phosphate (P ) _____% Soluble Potash (K 2 0) _____% Chlorine, (Cl) Not More Than. _____% Total Magnesium as(Mg ) _____% Water Soluble Magnesium as (Mg) _____% Chelated Magnesium (Mg) _____% Total Manganese as (Mn) _____% Water Soluble Manganese as (Mn) _____% Chelated Manganese as (Mn) _____% Total Copper as (Cu ) _____% Water Soluble Copper as (Cu) _____% Chelated Copper as (Cu) _____% Total Iron as (Fe ) _____% Water Soluble Iron as (Fe) _____% Chelated Iron as (Fe) _____% Total Zinc as (Zn) _____% Water Soluble Zinc as (Zn) _____% Chelated Zinc as (Zn) _____% Combined Sulfur as (S) _____% Free Sulfur as (S) Derived from: (Actual materials and in forms used in the fertilizer mixture, e.g., Diammonium Phosphate, Urea, Potassium Chloride, Magnesium Sulfate, Manganese Nitrate, etc.) Manufactured by: Name (FXXXX) City, State & Zip Net Weight - _______ lb
Do you need a license to apply fertilizers?
Limited Commercial Fertilizer Applicator Certificate (LCFAC) Issued by FDACS - Chapter 482 Required by January 1, 2014 GI-BMP training certificate pre-requisite [approved equivalent] $25 fee, renewal every 4 years 4 hours of CEUs required for renewal Not required if application is only to property owed by you, your firm, or your employer LCFAC holders are exempt from further local testing
Single N Applications Depends on percentage slow-release N: o 0.5 lb. N 1000 ft 2 if water soluble o Up to 1 lb. N 1000 ft 2 if slow-release Follow UF recommended annual N rates
N Calculations , 50% slow-release N How much N per 1,000 ft 2 ?
N Calculations How much will supply the correct N amount to 1,000 ft 2 ?
100/15 = lbs. to cover 1,000 ft 2 at 1 lb N /1,000 ft 2 N Calculations
Fertilizer Calculations- Milorganite How much fertilizer?
Formula> 1 lb /1,000 ft 2 Remember that this product has 2% phosphorus, only 12.5 lb. may be applied if there is not a P deficiency 100/6 = lbs. to cover 1,000 ft 2 at 1 lb N /1,000 ft 2 Fertilizer Calculations- Milorganite
Fertilizer Calculations- Urea How much (quick release) fertilizer?
Fertilizer Calculations- Urea Formula> 0.5 lb /1,000 ft 2 100/46 = 2.2 To apply 0.5 lb. N per 1,000 ft 2 : 2.2 /2 = lbs. to cover 1,000 ft 2 at 1 lb N /1,000 ft 2
6% N (Low) Larger amounts of fertilizer 15% N (Medium) Medium amounts of fertilizer 46% N (High)Very Low amounts of fertilizer
Fertilizer Calibration, Application, Storage
Calibrate spreaders & sprayers frequently Ensure they are clean and maintained properly Double check the material used and application rate desired Calibration
Spreader Calibration Determine amount needed for the test area Capture material (bucket or measured tarp) Walk the spreader over test area Weigh applied material Compare to the required amount Adjust spreader
Sprayer Calibration Determine how much fertilizer is needed for the test area Determine how long it takes to spray that area Determine the amount sprayed in that time Compare and adjust as needed
Deliver the fertilizer to the target Check the delivery rate Check for appearance Avoid non-target surfaces Operate the equipment safely Application
Measure the lawn area 40’ 25’ 40’ x 25’ = 1,000 square feet of front lawn
Take half of the total amount of fertilizer: o 15% = 6.6 lbs fertilizer per 1,000 square feet o Half of this = 3.3 lbs fertilizer in spreader Then take the remaining fertilizer and go in other directions Application
Then take the remaining fertilizer and go in opposite directions This will help you apply the correct amount of fertilizer! Application
Use a deflector shield near water Leave at least 3’ ring Without a shield leave 10’ ring Ordinances may vary Use the shield near impervious areas and storm water systems Application
¼ Inch Only enough water to move granules off of leaves Application
Sweep-up spills! Fertilizer on impervious (paved) surfaces can pollute water bodies
Fertilizer Storage Store fertilizer in areas protected from rainfall Load fertilizer away from wells or waterbodies Store fertilizer away from flammable substances Clean up spills immediately
Irrigation After Fertilization Even at proper rates, too much water can result in leaching or runoff Irrigate fertilizer in with ¼” of water Do not fertilize when heavy rainfall is expected (NWS tropical watch or warning or flood watch for the area)
Proper application is more important than the type of fertilizer Soluble N sources differ in chemical properties and handling requirements Slow-release N sources are not 100% slow-release and they differ in their release properties Review
Knowledge of fertilizer management is one of the most important tools in limiting the environmental impact Irrigation Management is the other critical tool Educating the customer is critical New Limited Commercial Fertilizer Applicator Certificate (LCFAC) by 2014 Review (continued)
This slide set was adapted from the presentation SOLUBLE vs. CONTROLLED RELEASE NITROGEN FERTILIZERS by J.B. Sartain University of Florida by Mike Thomas, FDEP Laurie Trenholm, UF-IFAS Alberto Chavez, FDEP Last update August 24, 2009 Thank you!