2MAIN IDEASChristianity built upon the Jewish belief in one God and the concept of a Messiah.The disciples of Jesus came to believe that he was the Messiah.According to the Gospels, Jesus was executed but rose from the dead. Christians believe that this makes freedom from sin and death possible for everyone.
3Christianity emerged at a time of widespread unrest in the Roman province of Judaea (Palestine). Christianity is based on the life and teachings of Jesus of NazarethChrist comes from the Greek word “christos” which means “messiah” or “anointed one”
6Looking for a MessiahChristianity grew from Judaism and ideas of Jesus—a Jewish teacherRomans conquered Jewish kingdom of Judah (Judea) in 63 B.C.Jewish kings had to be approved by RomeMany Jews sought freedom from foreign rulersSacred writings promised a Messiah who would free themSome believed the ruler would be descended from King David
8Birth and Early LifeThere are few written historical accounts of Christianity's early history. What we know comes from the writings of disciples (followers)Writings are called Gospels (good news) Gospels—accounts of Jesus’ life by Matthew, Mark, Luke, John (these are the first four books of the Christian Bible)Along with other writings, they make up New Testament
9Gospels say Jesus was born in Bethlehem raised in Nazareth by Mary and by Joseph, a carpenterChristians later celebrated his birth on Christmas
10The Teachings of JesusJesus preached justice, compassion, coming of God’s kingdomdelivered teachings in parables—stories with moralsasked people to love and pray for enemies; to live simply, humblySome Jewish leaders angered by Jesus’ teachingswere upset that some followers claimed Jesus was the Messiah
12Arrest and TrialThe claim that Jesus was the Messiah was a threat to Roman rulerspower, authority of Roman rulers was questionedfollowers called Jesus “king” when he came to JerusalemDuring Passover, Jesus criticized running of Jerusalem TempleJewish leaders appointed by Rome arrested Jesusturned him over to Romans for punishment
13The Story of the Resurrection Jesus was executed by Roman governor Pontius Pilateexecuted by crucifixion—hanging on cross until suffocatedburied in tomb with stone blocking entranceGospels say that the third day after death, followers went to tombtomb was empty; some followers say Jesus walked, talked with themAccount of resurrection proved to followers that Jesus was divineResurrection—return to lifeFollowers believed Jesus gave life to create new worldin new world sin and death are defeatedChristians believe crucifixion was on Good FridayResurrection was on Easter Sunday
14The ResurrectionThe apostles belief in the physical resurrection of Jesus was the foundation of a church to promote his teachings.The message of the apostle Peter’s first sermon was that Jesus had died and risen to be with Yahweh and that baptism marked the adherence of those who accepted his resurrection.
15What event made Jesus’ followers believe their leader was divine? REVIEW QUESTIONWhat event made Jesus’ followers believe their leader was divine?The belief in the physical resurrection of Jesus
16The Early Christians & The New Faith Romans followed a number of religions and also allowed a great deal of freedom to other religions.Jews and Christians began to disagree on religious grounds, and Christianity slowly became a separate religion.Jews and early Christians shared the same basic beliefs, but differed on the idea of the messiah.At first, Christians concentrated on trying to convert other Jews.After serious debate, the early Christians decided to preach Christianity to the Gentiles.
17Christianity might have remained a purely Jewish sect had it not been for Saul of Tarsus
20Paul of Tarsus a Jewish Roman citizen Spent time persecuting Christians, including executing them.Converted to Christianity and took the name PaulHe made three long journeys throughout Asia Minor and along the coast of the Aegean to spread Christianity and establish Christian communities.
21The Works of PaulPaul's Roman citizenship, the good roads, and listeners open to new ideas helped Paul spread Christianity in the Greek-speaking world.Emphasized that Christianity was not just a sect of Judaism
22The Works of PaulTaught that Jesus, by his death and resurrection, had fulfilled the prophecy of Judaism and initiated a new age.Taught that Jesus was the son of God, the giver of a new law, and preached that Jesus’ teachings were open to all
23The Works of Paul Made a significant break with Judaism Seek convertsAccording to tradition, while in Rome, Paul preached and taught for two years before being executed.He wrote most of the New Testament in the form of epistles; formal letters he wrote to the churches he helped establish such as his letters to the Corinthians, Galatians, Romans, Philippians, Ephesians, and Colossians
24Rome's Early ResponseAt first the Romans paid little attention to the Christians.Some Romans were quite suspicious of Christians, and Nero blamed them for starting a major fire that destroyed much of Rome.Although by A.D. 100 there was a law condemning admitted Christians to death, it was seldom enforced.
25PERSECUTION Great persecutions of Christians began in 3rd century AD Christian intolerance of pagan beliefs bred powerful retaliatory hatred of ChristiansAccused Christians of cannibalism, atheism, and of being haters of mankindCharged with being sneaky and with dishonoring the emperorAlso blamed with all the evils that afflicted the state
26The Attack on Christianity In A.D. 250 Emperor Decius ordered the execution of all Christians who refused to worship the Roman gods.Up until A.D. 311, Christians suffered two more waves of persecution under two different emperors.Roman mobs destroyed Christian churches and sacred books. Christians were fired from jobs, forced to leave the army, attacked, and killed.
27REVERSAL OF FORTUNEIn the end, the persecutions did not succeed in eliminating ChristianityToo many Christians protected each otherPersecutions also created martyrs who inspired othersCame to an end with death of Galerius and then Constantine officially protected themConstantine credited with being the first Christian emperorConstantine
28Constantine In Hoc Signo Vinces Leading his army into battle when he saw a blazing cross in the sky.Beneath were the words:In Hoc Signo Vinces
30ConstantinePlaced himself and his army under the protection of the Christian GodAfter his victory, he declared himself a Christian and supported Christianity throughout the empire.Baptized on his deathbed in A.D. 337
31Constantine and the growth of Christianity Issues the Edict of Milan allowing for religious tolerationMade it legal for Christians to worship, gave money to the church, and became involved with church decision-making.Gave Christianity the support of the Roman authorities, but also combined religion and government.
32Christianity Becomes Official in Rome Theodosius became emperor in 379 AD and proclaimed Christianity to be the official religion of the stateChristians immediately begin to persecute pagansDestroyed temples or converted them into churchesChurch firmed up its organization and settled disputes with powerful intellectual strength
33How did the Roman Empire help spread Christianity? During Pax Romana, missionaries traveled safelyRoman Roads helped to spread quicklyConstantine convertedConstantine built churches in Rome and JerusalemReligious freedomChristianity becomes official religion of the Roman Empire
35Judeo-Christian Tradition Judaism and Christianity are two different religions, but they both read and believe in the “Old Testament”.Together, the set of morals are called a “Judeo-Christian” tradition.Most western countries have laws based upon this tradition.