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Early America Beginning-1800.  Beliefs about nature of physical world  Beliefs about social order and appropriate behavior  Beliefs about human nature.

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Presentation on theme: "Early America Beginning-1800.  Beliefs about nature of physical world  Beliefs about social order and appropriate behavior  Beliefs about human nature."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early America Beginning-1800

2  Beliefs about nature of physical world  Beliefs about social order and appropriate behavior  Beliefs about human nature and the problem of good and evil  Beings are animals spirits in more or less human form

3  Myths explain things. They may be told for entertainment, but they also teach cultural values. They often explain such important matters as how human beings came into existence, or trivial matters such as why rabbits have short tails.  Myths contain supernatural elements. They usually have gods or goddesses or figures associated with divinities as characters. These figures may be human, animals, or other living things, or even inanimate beings.  Myths have dreamlike qualities. Mythic stories typically take place in a timeless past, and they contain fantastic and symbolic elements often connected with dreams. Like dreams, myths can bring out human beings’ worst fears and dearest wishes.  Myths can be both serious and humorous. Though some myths, such as dramatic stories of the Greeks, are serious, others contain humorous elements as well.

4  1492- Columbus makes first voyage to America  1607- Colony of Jamestown founded in Virginia  1619- first Africans arrive in Virginia  1692- Witchcraft trials begin in Salem, MA  1736- Great Awakening religions revival begins

5  1765- Stamp Act triggers protest throughout colonies  1770- British troops fire on colonists in Boston Massacre  1776- Declaration of Independence is signed  1789- George Washington becomes first President

6  The Native Americans:  Europeans arrived in Western hemisphere, there were already hundreds of Native Americans  Had different cultures, language, and social values  Ancestors- from Asia thousands of years ago  Social organization determined by local environment

7  European Contact  1400s- people urged to explore the rest of the world  Advances in navigation and shipbuilding  European explorers brought many parts of the world into meaningful contact with one another for the 1 st time  European exploration = Native American tragedy

8  Religious Belief  Major factor in American colonial culture  Protestants began founding settlements in 1620  Others wanted religious freedom  1730-1740- religious revival called the Great Awakening spread through colonies  Two results of this:  Increased feelings of responsibility for Native Americans and enslaved Africans  More tolerant spirit toward other faiths

9  Slave Trade  American colonies suffered from severe labor shortage  South- large tobacco and rice plantations required hundreds of workers  By 1750- 200,000 enslave Africans in North America  Colonies developed slave codes =  Sets of laws that formally regulated slavery and defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people

10  The American Revolution  Mid-1760s- unrest developed  Long war between Britain and France left Britain in debt  British gov. passed laws- included taxes on everyday items  Mid-1770s- resentment over taxes led to political violence and colonial self-rule  April 1775- British colonial gov. started battle- Revolutionary War between America and Britain  Declaration of Independence- 1776- Britain finally accepted it in 1783

11 1. The Sacred Earth and the Power of Storytelling 2. Life in the New World 3. The Road to Independence

12  Native American culture- entire earth and all living things were sacred  Appreciation passed down orally from generation to generation  Speakers and storytellers were valued members of Native American communities

13  N.A. saw plants, animals, and forces of nature as part of a great, sacred cycle of life that humans must treat with deep respect  Through dreams and visions- made contact with spirits  Spirits inhabit all living things  Tales and songs- N.A. expressed their view of sacredness of natural world

14  “Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?”  Tecumseh, Shawnee leader

15  N.A. didn’t believe in land ownership  No one person could own land, which instead belonged in common to all people and living things  Common ownership- contrasted sharply with European interests  Violent conflicts often resulted when N.A. leaders signed treaties  They usually didn’t understand them (written in English)  The treaties opened lands to white settlement

16  N.A. oral tradition- began approx. 40,000 years ago  When first humans crossed from Asia to Alaska via land bridge- now the Bering Strait  Migrate south- new unique cultures and languages developed in response to different environments  Thousands of languages when settlers first arrived  Each culture developed own stories and mythology

17  Likely that many stories dramatized the struggle of the 1 st Americans to survive  Ex: Stone age hunters- tales of the hunt to groups sitting around then campfire  Sacred stories- heart of religious ceremonies  Myth and reality merge- rituals linked spirits of hunters and animals  Earlier versions have evolved through hundreds of generations and are still living legends

18 I have killed the deer. I have crushed the grasshopper And the plants he feeds upon. I have cut through the heart Of trees growing old and straight. I have taken fish from water And birds from the sky. In my life I have needed death So that my life can be. When I die I must give life To what has nourished me. The earth receives my body And gives it to the plants And to the caterpillars To the birds And to the coyotes Each in its own turn so that The circle of life is never broken. Question: Why is this considered a poem, or a song?

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