Presentation on theme: "In your journal… Make a list of 10 people, places, things, or issues you are interested in and/or would like to learn more about."— Presentation transcript:
1In your journal…Make a list of 10 people, places, things, or issues you are interested in and/or would like to learn more about.
2Writing a Research Paper English IIWriting a Research PaperEng IIMrs. McLeod
3Contents Research Paper: Background The Thesis Statement Organizing your PaperIncorporating and Citing Research
4What is a research paper? Research (noun) – careful or diligent search. (verb) To search or investigate exhaustively.A research paper combines two activities:Doing researchWriting an academic paperWhat a research paper is NOT:A book report—reporting facts from one bookAn essay—generally all about your ideasJournalism—without bias
5Research Paper: WHY?????? How to do and use research Prepare for college and the world of workResearching and writingProblem-solving and organizationSelf-discipline and time managementExplore and share a chosen area of interest
610th Grade Research Paper: Requirements 4-5 pagesMLA style4 sources (2 print, 2 internet)Rough draft (best effort possible, including all necessary components)Revised final paper (following teacher and peer suggestions, accompanied by rough draft)
7MLA Style MLA stands for Modern Language Association Refers to the style of mechanics of writing such as punctuation, quotation and documentation of sources.Required format in Language Arts classes
8Basic MLA Requirements Typed, Double-spacedTimes New Roman font - 12 pt1-inch marginsYour “Works Cited” page will be an additional page.
10In your journal…Choose one of the 10 topics of interest you listed and free-write about it.
11The Power of the Right Topic Don’t underestimate this part of the project!A great topic can help lead you an AA bad topic can doom your paper before you start writing it!Your topic guides your research and your thesisGuides your attitude towards your paperPick a topic with care, and you’ll be well on your way to a great research paper
12Topic Selection: Hints and Help Be interested!A career?A cause?A hobby?A person or place of interest?Broad enough to access information, specific enough to make research possibleSTRETCH! Challenge yourself academically and creatively
13Need Some Topic Ideas?Favorite Historical Figure—Abe Lincoln, Helen Keller, Ronald Reagan, Martin Luther King Jr.Favorite Author, Artist or Musician—Jane Austen, Pablo Picasso, Bob Marley, The BeatlesImportant Issues—Obesity, Gun Ownership, Homelessness, Teen Pregnancy, Drug Abuse, Stem Cell Research, Recycling, Oil Drilling, Global Warming, Cell Phone Use/TextingCareer Choices—Nursing, Teaching, Engineering, Journalism, MilitaryHobbies—Photography, Piano Playing, Football, Soccer, Volunteering Activities, Vacation ChoicesMedical Issues and Treatments—Breast Cancer, Parkinson’s Disease, Depression, ADHD, Gene Therapy
14Narrowing Your Topic The Beatles The Beatles’ Impact on American Music Ask yourself: What angle am I taking on my topic? What is my unique stance?TOPICNARROWED TOPICThe BeatlesDrug AbuseCell Phone Use/TextingGlobal WarmingVolunteeringFootballTeachingThe Beatles’ Impact on American MusicEffects of Long-term Drug AbuseThe Dangers of Texting While DrivingThe Myth of Global WarmingThe Benefits of Volunteer VacationsFootball: Then and NowMeasuring the Effectiveness of a Teacher
15DUE MONDAY Choose your basic topic Narrowed topic proposal due beginning of class MondayMedia/computer time Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
16What is Plagiarism?The use of another’s thoughts, words or concepts without proper attributionConsidered intellectual property theft, a serious, punishable event with serious consequencesUnethicalVarious forms:Copying from source research—articles, web sites, etc.Using a sibling’s or friend’s paperPurchasing a paperWork must be original, with all sources properly cited
175 Easy Ways to Earn a ZeroPlagiarize—all papers must be submitted to turnitin.comNo “Works Cited” pageNo in-paper citationsOne paragraph paperNo paper
19What is a Thesis Statement? The glue that holds the paper together; the premise that will be defended or refutedShould be:FocusedArguableInterestingTypically the last sentence of the introduction
20Thesis Statement: The Three-Prong Approach Supporting Point 1Supporting Point 2Supporting Point 3Main Argument/PositionLists 3 main points within your thesis statement that support your main positionSets up a logical outline of your entire paperEach supporting point becomes a topic sentence within the body of the paperExample: Practicing ballet can benefit any athlete because it improves flexibility, increases agility, and instills self-discipline.
21Thesis Statement What it is NOT: It is NOT the topic itselfExample: “Eminem’s life story” is not a thesis.Your opinion on how Eminem’s early life—the abandonment by his father, economic struggles, and failures in school-- impacted his music could be.It is NOT a statement about or a summary of the research you’ve done.“The history of professional football dates back many years” is not a thesis.Your opinion on the three most significant changes in the sport—ie., in equipment, player salaries and international expansion—could be.It is NOT a general statement of opinion unsupportable by researchExample: “My favorite kind of dance is ballet” is not thesis.Your opinion on the benefits of ballet to the athlete—i.e., that it improves flexibility and agility and instills self-discipline—could be.
22Developing a Thesis1. First, write down your topic. 2. Now, write your statement of purpose. “I intend to show…” “I intend to prove…” “I intend to demonstrate…” 3. Finally, just eliminate the beginning of your statement of purpose.
23Developing a Thesis: EXAMPLE First, write down your topic: PRIMITIVE ART2. Now, write your statement of purpose:“I intend to show that collecting primitive art can be an inexpensive, enjoyable, and profitable venture.”Finally, just eliminate the beginning of your statement of purpose:“Collecting primitive art can be an inexpensive, enjoyable, and profitable venture.”
24ExerciseDevelop a three-prong thesis statement on why FCAT practice assessments should/should not be given to 9th and 10th graders every Friday.
25DUE DATES Outline w/ thesis and 10 note cards: 3/24 First draft due: 3/29“Works Cited” Page 3/30Final Paper /4
26Submit with Final Draft Final Paper—typed in MLA formatFirst draft—written on one side of paper in blue or black inkOutline---with finalized thesis statementNote Cards—minimum of 10
28Taking Notes on Research Summary: To record the general idea of a long paragraph, several paragraphs, or a chapter—summarize in your own wordsParaphrase: Restate particular ideas or pieces of information from a small section in your own wordsQuotation: For a passage that is particularly significant or well-stated, you may quote it word-for-word. Be sure to use quotation marks.
29Creating Note cardsTITLE: What is the subtopic or category from outline?FACTS: Write info from your sources—summarize, paraphrase or quoteOne single fact per cardSOURCE: Include the source of the information and the page numberFORMAT: See handoutREQUIRED: Minimum 10 note cards; at least two cards for each source
30The Outline: Your Road Map Organizes your thoughts and research into a cohesive, structured wholeDon’t just toss everything under your thesis statement and hope it makes sense!Arrange information to follow your argumentEliminate anything that isn’t logical, relevant or effectiveA strong organization plan makes your job much easier!
31Research Paper Outline IntroductionIntroduce topicDeliver your thesis statement—last sentence of introBodyFirst major supporting argumentStatement of argumentReasoning and research/evidenceSecond major supporting argumentThird major supporting argumentConclusionThesis restatementArgument summary, broader implications
32The Body: Setting up your Arguments Ask yourself:Is it relevant to your thesis?Do you have sufficient supporting evidence?Is it critical, or am I attached because I found research?Does it fit logically within the paper, or is it a departure?OrganizeStrongest to weakestChronologicalLogical flow
33Creating the First Draft Writing a Research Paper:Creating the First Draft
34Rough Draft Info 2 class days to work in class Students will have access to:DictionaryNote cardsSourcesMLA format sheetsMay use cell phones for Thesaurus and citations
35Rough Draft Format Write in blue or black Ink Write your name in top right of every sheet of paper with a page #Write on only front side of each piece of notebook paperIndent every paragraphUse proper MLA citation when you use info from source card
36Rough Draft Do’s and Don’ts No first person or second personNo contractionsUse formal toneWatch punctuationIf you pause while reading, use commas.There is to be no talking during rough draft writing; this is a testing setting.Rough drafts will collected by teacher for review and returned for students to type, edit, rewrite for final drafts.
37Incorporating and Citing Research Writing a Research Paper:Incorporating and Citing Research
38Incorporating your Sources Know when to use what.Quotations: Use sparingly. Only if succinct, beautifully worded and original.Paraphrasing: A great way to capture an expert opinion and make it concise. Cite it!Balance research and opinion. Not only the research, but your take on it.Guide your reader. Tell her how to interpret the material.
39Introducing your Sources Only you know who your sources are.Include credentials the first time you name a source.INNEFFECTIVE: “Ed Said argues…”EFFECTIVE: “Ed Said, a well-known professor of Middle East Studies at Columbia University, writes…”
40Citing Sources Don’t cite common knowledge (CK) Appropriate for a reference bookCK: Columbus sailed for America in 1492.Not CK: A theory about Columbus’ motivation to exploreWidely known, often referencedCK: We know little about Shakespeare’s lifeNot CK: Shakespeare’s marital situation
41Understanding MLA Style Modern Language AssociationDetailed guidelines for citing sourcesUsed in most academic papersAdds credibility to your workTwo main components:In-text citations—generally author’s last name and page number in parentheses, i.e., (Hemingway 23)Works cited list—a detailed list of all your sourcesAny source that is included in your paper should be included in your Works Cited list, and vice versa
42Don’t worry about memorizing the many citation rules! You can refer to
43MLA Basic Format Book: In-text Citation (Author, page number) Examples: As one author notes, “If I am lukewarm about the dahlia, I am red hot about the bearded iris” (White 97). If the author’s name appears in the text, you don’t need the name in parentheses: As author Katharine S. White notes, “If I am lukewarm about the dahlia, I am red hot about the bearded iris” (97).
44MLA Basic Format Book: Works Cited Author’s last name, first name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publishing company, publication date. Example: White, Katherine S. Onward and Upward in the Garden. Boston: Beacon Press 2002.
45MLA Basic Format Magazine: In-text Citation Same rules for book: (Author, page number) Examples: “Where,” asks writer Brittany Thoreau, “have all the career-focused mothers gone?” (23)
46MLA Basic Format Magazine: Works Cited Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Month. Year: Page numbers. Example: Thoreau, Brittany. “The Opt-Out Epidemic.” Manhattan Mother Jan. 2004:
47MLA Basic Format Web Site: Works Cited Some web sites include authors or editors, some do not. Use all the relevant information you can in this order:Author’s NameMaterial’s TitleWeb Site TitleName of editor(s)Publication date or last updateName of sponsoring organizationDate accessedURL in <brackets>MLA Basic Format Web Site: Works CitedExamples:Nolan, Hamilton. “Individuality Is a New LuxuryAutomobile.” Gawker. Ed. Nick Denton. 25 Feb.March 2008 <http://www.gawker.com/news>.
48Other MLA Citation Requirements First PageName, instructor, course title and date in upper left corner.Title centered above bodyLast name and page number on upper right of every subsequent pageWorks Cited PageCenter words Works Cited above listCapitalize all main words in a titleAlphabetize by author’s or editor’s last nameIf no author exists, alphabetize by titleIndent the second and all subsequent lines in listRemove hyperlinks
49The Body: Using Topic Sentences One key point per paragraphReveals the point of the paragraph it introducesTransition from preceding paragraph“Another type of dance to consider…”“After focusing on the religious significance, it is also important to consider…”“In a related incidence…”