Presentation on theme: "In your journal… Make a list of 10 people, places, things, or issues you are interested in and/or would like to learn more about."— Presentation transcript:
In your journal… Make a list of 10 people, places, things, or issues you are interested in and/or would like to learn more about.
Writing a Research Paper Eng II Mrs. McLeod
Contents Research Paper: Background The Thesis Statement Organizing your Paper Incorporating and Citing Research
What is a research paper? Research (noun) – careful or diligent search. (verb) To search or investigate exhaustively. A research paper combines two activities : Doing research Writing an academic paper What a research paper is NOT : A book report —reporting facts from one book An essay —generally all about your ideas Journalism —without bias
Research Paper: WHY?????? How to do and use research Prepare for college and the world of work Researching and writing Problem-solving and organization Self-discipline and time management Explore and share a chosen area of interest
10 th Grade Research Paper: Requirements 4-5 pages MLA style 4 sources (2 print, 2 internet) Rough draft (best effort possible, including all necessary components) Revised final paper (following teacher and peer suggestions, accompanied by rough draft)
MLA Style MLA stands for Modern Language Association Refers to the style of mechanics of writing such as punctuation, quotation and documentation of sources. Required format in Language Arts classes
Basic MLA Requirements Typed, Double-spaced Times New Roman font - 12 pt 1-inch margins Your “Works Cited” page will be an additional page.
Possible 200 Points Thesis statement - 15 pts Outline- 20 pts Note cards - 25 pts Rough draft (brought to class) - 40 pts Final draft pts
In your journal… Choose one of the 10 topics of interest you listed and free-write about it.
The Power of the Right Topic Don’t underestimate this part of the project! A great topic can help lead you an A A bad topic can doom your paper before you start writing it! Your topic guides your research and your thesis Guides your attitude towards your paper Pick a topic with care, and you’ll be well on your way to a great research paper
Topic Selection: Hints and Help Be interested ! A career? A cause? A hobby? A person or place of interest? Broad enough to access information, specific enough to make research possible STRETCH! Challenge yourself academically and creatively
Need Some Topic Ideas? Favorite Historical Figure —Abe Lincoln, Helen Keller, Ronald Reagan, Martin Luther King Jr. Favorite Author, Artist or Musician —Jane Austen, Pablo Picasso, Bob Marley, The Beatles Important Issues —Obesity, Gun Ownership, Homelessness, Teen Pregnancy, Drug Abuse, Stem Cell Research, Recycling, Oil Drilling, Global Warming, Cell Phone Use/Texting Career Choices—Nursing, Teaching, Engineering, Journalism, Military Hobbies—Photography, Piano Playing, Football, Soccer, Volunteering Activities, Vacation Choices Medical Issues and Treatments—Breast Cancer, Parkinson’s Disease, Depression, ADHD, Gene Therapy
Narrowing Your Topic The Beatles Drug Abuse Cell Phone Use/Texting Global Warming Volunteering Football Teaching The Beatles’ Impact on American Music Effects of Long-term Drug Abuse The Dangers of Texting While Driving The Myth of Global Warming The Benefits of Volunteer Vacations Football: Then and Now Measuring the Effectiveness of a Teacher Ask yourself: What angle am I taking on my topic? What is my unique stance? TOPIC NARROWED TOPIC
DUE MONDAY Choose your basic topic Narrowed topic proposal due beginning of class Monday Media/computer time Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
What is Plagiarism ? The use of another’s thoughts, words or concepts without proper attribution Considered intellectual property theft, a serious, punishable event with serious consequences Unethical Various form s: Copying from source research—articles, web sites, etc. Using a sibling’s or friend’s paper Purchasing a paper Work must be original, with all sources properly cited
5 Easy Ways to Earn a Zero Plagiarize—all papers must be submitted to turnitin.com No “Works Cited” page No in-paper citations One paragraph paper No paper
The Thesis Statement Writing a Research Paper:
What is a Thesis Statement? The glue that holds the paper together; the premise that will be defended or refuted Should be: Focused Arguable Interesting Typically the last sentence of the introduction
Thesis Statement: The Three-Prong Approach Supporting Point 1Supporting Point 2Supporting Point 3 Lists 3 main points within your thesis statement that support your main position Sets up a logical outline of your entire paper Each supporting point becomes a topic sentence within the body of the paper Example: Practicing ballet can benefit any athlete because it improves flexibility, increases agility, and instills self-discipline.
Thesis Statement What it is NOT : It is NOT the topic itself Example: “Eminem’s life story” is not a thesis. Your opinion on how Eminem’s early life—the abandonment by his father, economic struggles, and failures in school-- impacted his music could be. It is NOT a statement about or a summary of the research you’ve done. “The history of professional football dates back many years” is not a thesis. Your opinion on the three most significant changes in the sport—ie., in equipment, player salaries and international expansion—could be. It is NOT a general statement of opinion unsupportable by research Example: “My favorite kind of dance is ballet” is not thesis. Your opinion on the benefits of ballet to the athlete—i.e., that it improves flexibility and agility and instills self-discipline—could be.
Developing a Thesis 1. First, write down your topic. 2. Now, write your statement of purpose. “I intend to show…” “I intend to prove…” “I intend to demonstrate…” 3. Finally, just eliminate the beginning of your statement of purpose.
Developing a Thesis: EXAMPLE 1. First, write down your topic: PRIMITIVE ART 2. Now, write your statement of purpose: “I intend to show that collecting primitive art can be an inexpensive, enjoyable, and profitable venture.” 3. Finally, just eliminate the beginning of your statement of purpose: “Collecting primitive art can be an inexpensive, enjoyable, and profitable venture.”
Exercise Develop a three-prong thesis statement on why FCAT practice assessments should/should not be given to 9 th and 10 th graders every Friday.
DUE DATES Outline w/ thesis and 10 note cards: 3/24 First draft due:3/29 “Works Cited” Page3/30 Final Paper4/4
Submit with Final Draft Final Paper— typed in MLA format First draft —written on one side of paper in blue or black ink Outline ---with finalized thesis statement Note Cards—minimum of 10
Organizing your Paper Writing a Research Paper
Taking Notes on Research Summary: To record the general idea of a long paragraph, several paragraphs, or a chapter—summarize in your own words Paraphrase: Restate particular ideas or pieces of information from a small section in your own words Quotation: For a passage that is particularly significant or well-stated, you may quote it word-for-word. Be sure to use quotation marks.
Creating Note cards TITLE: What is the subtopic or category from outline? FACTS : Write info from your sources—summarize, paraphrase or quote One single fact per card SOURCE: Include the source of the information and the page number FORMAT : See handout REQUIRED: Minimum 10 note cards; at least two cards for each source
The Outline: Your Road Map Organizes your thoughts and research into a cohesive, structured whole Don’t just toss everything under your thesis statement and hope it makes sense! Arrange information to follow your argument Eliminate anything that isn’t logical, relevant or effective A strong organization plan makes your job much easier!
Research Paper Outline Introduction Introduce topic Deliver your thesis statement—last sentence of intro Body First major supporting argument Statement of argument Reasoning and research/evidence Second major supporting argument Statement of argument Reasoning and research/evidence Third major supporting argument Statement of argument Reasoning and research/evidence Conclusion Thesis restatement Argument summary, broader implications
The Body: Setting up your Arguments Ask yourself: Is it relevant t o your thesis? Do you have sufficient supporting evidence ? Is it critical, or am I attached because I found research? Does it fit logically within the paper, or is it a departure? Organize Strongest to weakest Chronological Logical flow
Creating the First Draft Writing a Research Paper:
Rough Draft Info 2 class days to work in class Students will have access to: Dictionary Note cards Sources MLA format sheets May use cell phones for Thesaurus and citations
Rough Draft Format Write in blue or black Ink Write your name in top right of every sheet of paper with a page # Write on only front side of each piece of notebook paper Indent every paragraph Use proper MLA citation when you use info from source card
Rough Draft Do’s and Don’ts No first person or second person No contractions Use formal tone Watch punctuation If you pause while reading, use commas. There is to be no talking during rough draft writing; this is a testing setting. Rough drafts will collected by teacher for review and returned for students to type, edit, rewrite for final drafts.
Incorporating and Citing Research Writing a Research Paper:
Incorporating your Sources Know when to use what. Quotations : Use sparingly. Only if succinct, beautifully worded and original. Paraphrasing : A great way to capture an expert opinion and make it concise. Cite it! Balance research and opinion. Not only the research, but your take on it. Guide your reader. Tell her how to interpret the material.
Introducing your Sources Only you know who your sources are. Include credentials the first time you name a source. INNEFFECTIVE: “Ed Said argues…” EFFECTIVE: “Ed Said, a well-known professor of Middle East Studies at Columbia University, writes…”
Citing Sources Don’t cite common knowledge (CK) Appropriate for a reference book CK: Columbus sailed for America in Not CK: A theory about Columbus’ motivation to explore Widely known, often referenced CK: We know little about Shakespeare’s life Not CK: Shakespeare’s marital situation
Understanding MLA Style Modern Language Association Detailed guidelines for citing sources Used in most academic papers Adds credibility to your work Two main components: In-text citations—generally author’s last name and page number in parentheses, i.e., (Hemingway 23) Works cited list—a detailed list of all your sources Any source that is included in your paper should be included in your Works Cited list, and vice versa
Don’t worry about memorizing the many citation rules! You can refer to
MLA Basic Format Book: In-text Citation (Author, page number) Examples: As one author notes, “If I am lukewarm about the dahlia, I am red hot about the bearded iris” (White 97). If the author’s name appears in the text, you don’t need the name in parentheses: As author Katharine S. White notes, “If I am lukewarm about the dahlia, I am red hot about the bearded iris” (97).
MLA Basic Format Book: Works Cited Author’s last name, first name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publishing company, publication date. Example: White, Katherine S. Onward and Upward in the Garden. Boston: Beacon Press 2002.
MLA Basic Format Magazine: In-text Citation Same rules for book: (Author, page number) Examples: “Where,” asks writer Brittany Thoreau, “have all the career-focused mothers gone?” (23)
MLA Basic Format Magazine: Works Cited Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Month. Year: Page numbers. Example: Thoreau, Brittany. “The Opt-Out Epidemic.” Manhattan Mother Jan. 2004:
MLA Basic Format Web Site: Works Cited Some web sites include authors or editors, some do not. Use all the relevant information you can in this order: Author’s Name Material’s Title Web Site Title Name of editor(s) Publication date or last update Name of sponsoring organization Date accessed URL in Examples: Nolan, Hamilton. “Individuality Is a New Luxury Automobile.” Gawker. Ed. Nick Denton. 25 Feb March 2008.http://www.gawker.com/news
Other MLA Citation Requirements First Page Name, instructor, course title and date in upper left corner. Title centered above body Last name and page number on upper right of every subsequent page Works Cited Page Center words Works Cited above list Capitalize all main words in a title Alphabetize by author’s or editor’s last name If no author exists, alphabetize by title Indent the second and all subsequent lines in list Remove hyperlinks
The Body: Using Topic Sentences One key point per paragraph Reveals the point of the paragraph it introduces Transition from preceding paragraph “Another type of dance to consider…” “After focusing on the religious significance, it is also important to consider…” “In a related incidence…”