Presentation on theme: "How Work is Accomplished. The Concept of the Division of Work Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations By breaking complex jobs into separate operations in which."— Presentation transcript:
How Work is Accomplished
The Concept of the Division of Work Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations By breaking complex jobs into separate operations in which each worker can specialize total productivity increases geometrically Concept Roots: No one person can be an expert in all areas Simplified tasks are easy to learn and can be done with great efficiency A variety of jobs can be created Inherent Negative Aspects: Less overall job satisfaction Less pride in achievement
Departmentalization and Span of Control Span of Control The number of people reporting directly to a given manager In general a span of control should not exceed six or seven Organizational Structures Tall Organizations: Many layers of management Long decision making process Severely disadvantaged in industries and markets that are constantly changing at a rapid pace Flat Organizations Few levels of management Typically characterized by quicker decisions Less expensive (in terms of people) But much more taxing on individuals: Increased work load Increased responsibility Long working hours that reach into personal time...
The Importance of Delegation Delegation frees up a manager to handle broader responsibilities Complex problem solving Mentoring Crisis handling, etc. Enriches the employees job By providing new opportunities Demonstrates confidence in his or her ability Creates a widow to develop new skills Improves the chance of being promoted or being perceived as an interracial player in the organization
Anatomy of Delegation Delegation is trust Trust builds productivity and commitment Delegation is teaming Teaming is the essence of good management and problem solving Delegation is compromise Compromise is needed to move forward in many situations Delegation is teaching As mentored individuals can only learn as they do within complex business environments Delegation is timing It is essential to know when to delegate timing when the situation and individual is ready to accept and grow with added responsibility...
Why it is Difficulty to Delegate Many mangers lack faith in their employees Managers can lack self confidence Fear of being outdone by their employees Enjoyment of doing certain tasks
Degrees of Delegation The just do it philosophy (employee in full control) Task is completely thrown over the wall to the employee Build recommendation (employee in control of analysis) Employee develops and lays out the best approach Then the final decision is made by the manager Limited recommendation (employee in control of work application of analysis) Manager decides on technique of analysis Employee does analysis Manger makes final decision
Organizational Design The Classical Approach The Neoclassical Approach
The Classical Approach A hierarchical structure based on formal authority The creation of a bureaucracy Business, labor, religious, educational, and governmental systems depend on a large workforce arranged in a hierarchy to carry out specialized tasks based on internal rules and procedures Chain of command oriented Promotions are based on ability, experience and longevity
Apparent Disadvantage of Classical Approach Too big Therefore slow to decision Can lose sight of goals and missions Very costly in terms of person power Tends to generate furious politics
The Neoclassical Approach Individuals need work satisfaction Douglas McGregor vs. The Bureaucracy People dont respond to formal authority in the long run The business of work is the creation of the joy of work Without this only mediocre performance will prevail There is a human need for self expression and accomplishment When these are blocked workers become less effective
Neoclassical Continued Likerts Theory Build a group that can make decisions and carry them out! Mangers and work activities should enhance individual members personal sense of worth and importance Make use of group decision making when appropriate Set and strive for high performance standards The ideal organizational structure is where there is extensive group participation and teaming in supervision and decision making
The Environment Approach Building and establishing the organizational design based on an understanding of the environment Stable Environment Industry and markets are in a state of stasis May be extinct! Changing Environment Industry and market change is constant But somewhat predictable Turbulent Environment Change is sudden and may be often Very difficult to predict