Presentation on theme: "Encounters and Foundations to 1800 Introduction to the Literary Period"— Presentation transcript:
1 Encounters and Foundations to 1800 Introduction to the Literary Period Feature MenuFast FactsKey Concept: Native Cultures Thrive in AmericaKey Concept: The Puritans Settle in New EnglandKey Concept: The Rise of RationalismYour Turn
2 Key Concept: The Rise of Rationalism History of the TimesEuropean political and social turmoil led people to question the divine right of monarchs.A new movement, the Enlightenment, began to spread, fostering a belief in rationalism.Rationalists believe that reason and intellect, rather than revelation, lead to discoveries of scientific and spiritual truth.Inspired by rationalism, the founders of the new country set forth ideals of religious tolerance and individual liberty.
3 Key Concept: The Rise of Rationalism Tinkerers and ExperimentersProminent American rationalists include: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and Thomas Paine.Their writings reflect a rationalist worldview.The most prominent rationalist work was Franklin’s The AutobiographyBenjamin Franklin
4 Key Concept: The Rise of Rationalism Forming a New NationInspired by rationalist thought, the founders signed the Declaration of Independence from Britain in 1776.Many of the arguments in the Declaration are based on rationalist beliefs.George Washington, a rationalist, was elected the first president of United States.George Washington“The Star Spangled Banner”
5 Key Concept: The Rise of Rationalism Literature of the TimesMost American writing was in response to unfolding political and social events: independence from Britain, the struggle of women to gain equality with men, or the struggle of enslaved African Americans to end slavery.Pamphlets, letters, and poetry were popular forms of literature.The most famous piece of literature of the time period was Benjamin Franklin’s autobiography.
6 Key Concept: The Rise of Rationalism Comprehension CheckHow did rationalism differ from Puritanism, and what effect did rationalism have on the new American political system?[End of Section]6
8 Political Writing The Power of Reason The American Revolution was fueled by influential political writings supporting independence.The writers who inspired the colonists’ revolt based their arguments on the ideals of rationalism.
9 Political Writing Rationalist thinkers believe that humans can discover truth using reasoncan use reason to understand natural laws and guide their livesneed not rely only on religious faith or intuitionThe rationalist movement marked the beginning of the Age of Reason in Europe in the seventeenth century.
10 Political Writing The rationalists were not non-believers. rationalists believed that God created the natural world and its laws.Like the Puritans…rationalists thought the universe operated without divine intervention.Unlike the Puritans…These beliefs—which were shared by many of America’s Founders—are known as deism.
11 Political WritingThe rationalist idea that all people are free to use reason to better their lives was part of the justification for independence.It’s also the foundation of the most important political documents in American history and literature—the Declaration of Independenceand the U.S. Constitution.
12 The Granger Collection, New York Political WritingThe Argument for RevoltThe Granger Collection, New YorkEarly American leaders spread their ideas by publishing their words and distributing them to the Colonists.Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, is considered by many to be the most important written work justifying independence.
13 Political WritingPaine applied both rationalist thought and deist principles to his arguments in favor of revolution.Common Sense, only 47 pages long, sold 500,000 copies at a time when the population of the Colonies was a little over 2 million.
14 Political Writing Founding a New Nation Some early American political writers—such as Paine—aroused passion for independence.Other revolutionary leaders used words—spoken and written—to lay the foundation for the new nation.
15 Political WritingIn 1775, as the Virginia Convention was debating compromise with Britain, Patrick Henry delivered his famous speech:The Granger Collection, New York“Give me liberty, or give me death!”Like Paine, Henry used rationalism to persuade the delegates to arm the Colonists.Henry’s speech was a key step on the road to independence, and his words became a battle cry.
16 Independence Hall, Philadelphia Political WritingThe next year, the Second Continental Congress appointed a committee—including Thomas Jefferson—to draft a declaration of independence.As one of the main authors, Jefferson infused the document with rationalist ideals.Independence Hall, PhiladelphiaThe authors took the ideas that inspired their revolt and used them as a basis for the new government.
17 Political WritingThe Declaration of Independence was the first American document to describe an ideal relationship between the people and their government.Underlying this relationship, which emphasized the rights of individuals, was the rationalist belief in humans’ capacity—and freedom—to reason for themselves.
18 Political Writing Influences on Early American Political Writing Early American political writing was influenced by philosophy, beliefs, events, and even the spread of technology:ideas and principles from Europe’s Age of Reason, particularly the ideals of rationalismemergence of deism and its influence on America’s leaders and writersconflict between British rule and American colonists seeking independencespread of self-published political writing
19 Political Writing Ask Yourself 1. In what ways did the philosophies of rationalism and deism contribute to American independence?2. What role did pamphlets and political speeches play in the decision to declare independence from Britain?3. How did political writing allow individuals to affect the development of an entire nation? How does this power of the individual reflect the principles upon which the United States was founded?[End of Section]
21 Identifying Persuasive Techniques You’ve probably read an advertisement or watched a TV commercial that made you feel that you just had to have that product.What aspects of the ad were particularly persuasive? Did it appeal toyour sense of reason?your emotions?a mixture of reason and emotion?
22 Identifying Persuasive Techniques Aren’t many of the decisions you make based on both your intellect and your feelings?Like advertising, effective persuasive writing often appeals to both logic and emotion.
23 Identifying Persuasive Techniques factsstatisticsexamplesLogical appealsto influence the audience.use
24 Identifying Persuasive Techniques wordsimagesanecdotesto arouse the reader’s feelings, hopes, and beliefs.Emotional appealsuse
25 Identifying Persuasive Techniques Early in 1776, Patrick Henry made his famous “Give me liberty, or give me death!” speech.The Granger Collection, New YorkHenry’s “Speech to the Virginia Convention” used both logical and emotional appeals to persuade his audience to arm themselves against the British.
26 Identifying Persuasive Techniques Read this excerpt from Henry’s speech.I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motives for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have so long been forging.Imagine what thoughts and feelings a person hearing the speech at the time might have experienced.
27 Identifying Persuasive Techniques Notice Henry’s logical appeal when he refers to the fact that the British are increasing the number of armed troops in the colonies.I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motives for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have so long been forging.
28 Identifying Persuasive Techniques Now notice his shift to an emotional appeal.I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motives for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have so long been forging.Henry knows his audience will be horrified at the image of being chained and bound. He uses strong, vivid language to take advantage of the audience’s fear.
29 Identifying Persuasive Techniques Patrick Henry knew exactly which details and images would sway his audience.How will your audience respond to your arguments?Patrick Henry’s words—a blend of logical and emotional appeals tailored for his audience—had the power to change history.
30 Identifying Persuasive Techniques Your TurnRead the following passage from Patrick Henry’s speech and analyze his use of persuasive techniques. What appeals does he employ? How can you tell?Sir, we have done everything that could be done, to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne.[End of Section]