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Language and Literature Introduction

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Presentation on theme: "Language and Literature Introduction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Language and Literature Introduction
Lesson Objective: To explore an unseen text To become familiar with how to approach a text

2 Language and Literature
Write down your definition of each term: Language and Literature Share with a partner and refine your definition Pair up with another pair and discuss your ideas Link up with the whole class.

3 Language – the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in an agreed way Literature – written works, esp. those whose value lies in beauty of language or in emotional effect Can these definitions ever be challenged? For example have you ever read something that you have valued and enjoyed but which may not be accepted as literature? Or have you ever read a text which uses language that is not beautiful but which had an emotional effect?

4 What does FOOD mean to you?
Culture Satisfying hunger Celebration Sharing with friends Expensive vs Cheap At home or in a restaurant

5 YOUR attitudes to FOOD What is your favourite food?
Is there any food you absolutely hate? Is there a food which is traditional to your family? Which member of your family cooks the food? Do you have any bad memories of food from when you were a child?

6 Approaching and Analysing Texts
Pre-Reading: S – Subject - What is it about? P – Purpose - What is the purpose(s) of the text? A – Audience - Who is it written for? G – Genre - What genre does the text belong to? Post-Reading: When approaching any text, apply the following 5 questions: What does the text tell us? What does the author wish to convey? What does the author want us to think? How does the author structure the text to shape our response? What features of language are chosen to achieve desired effects?

7 Key Terms 1 Lexis = the total ‘stock’ of words in a language (WORDS)
Lexical field = a broad area of meaning that includes a number of words or phrases (WORDS THAT ARE SIMILAIR IN MEANING) Semantics = the study of the meaning of words (WHAT WORDS MEAN) Denotation = the literal meaning of a word (THE PRIMARY MEANING) Connotation = the associations and feelings linked to a word (ASSOCIATED MEANING)

8 Meat is Murder Morrissey – well known for being a vegetarian
Banned the other members of The Smiths from eating meat when on tour

9 And the calf that you carve with a smile Is MURDER And the turkey you festively slice Is MURDER Do you know how animals die ? Kitchen aromas aren't very homely It's not comforting, cheery or kind It's sizzling blood and the unholy stench Of MURDER It's not natural, normal or kind The flesh you so fancifully fry The meat in your mouth As you savour the flavour Of MURDER NO, NO, NO, IT'S MURDER NO, NO, NO, IT'S MURDER Oh ... and who hears when animals cry? Heifer whines could be human cries Closer comes the screaming knife This beautiful creature must die This beautiful creature must die A death for no reason And death for no reason is MURDER And the flesh you so fancifully fry Is not succulent, tasty or kind It's death for no reason And death for no reason is MURDER

10 On your copy of the lyrics...
Alliteration Repetition Exaggeration Emotive language Personal pronouns Opinions These are all examples of what type of writing? So, the PURPOSE of this text is to ?

11 Attitudes? Eating meat is ‘murder.’ Food can cause controversy
Food can be the topic of debate / argument Food is a lifestyle choice HOMEWORK: Read TEXT 9 (Why we all need to eat red meat...) from the anthology and be prepared to discuss it next lesson. Complete a SPAG on the text.

12 To use key terminology when analysing the grammar of a text
Anthology – Text 9 Lesson Objective: To use key terminology when analysing the grammar of a text

13 The Anthology What is an ANTHOLOGY? Etymology
The word anthology comes from Greek: ‘anthos’ means flower and ‘logia’ means gathering, so the literal meaning is ‘a gathering of flowers’. TASK – in pairs Skim through the contents page and look at the front cover Discuss which texts will be LITERARY texts and which will be NON-LITERARY texts Make links between texts based on their titles and brief dicriptions

14 The Anthology – An Introduction
33 Texts The theme is FOOD ‘Food Glorious Food’ Different text types Poems Plays Novels Non-Fiction Transcripts

15 Key Terms 2 Context = the social situation, including audience and purpose, in which language is used; this situation is an important influence on the language choices made by the speakers or writers Pragmatics = the study of implied meanings and what is understood by language in a particular context

16 Contexts of production and reception
Who has produced it? Who is reading/hearing it? When was it produced? When is it being read or heard? Where was it produced? Where is it being read or heard? Why was it produced? Why is it being read or listened to? For whom was it intended? Who is reading or hearing it?

17 Using linguistic frameworks
Level of analysis Explanation Graphology and typography Concerned with visual presentation Phonology Concerned with the sounds of words and the effects they produce Lexis The choice of vocabulary Grammar Concerned with: Sentence types Syntax – the order of words Morphology – the changes we make to words in a sentence according to the job they do Punctuation Semantics and Pragmatics The literal and implied meanings of a text or individual words Text structure and organisation How a text begins, continues and ends – the ‘flow’ of ideas

18 Grammar – sentence types
Turn to page 4 of your booklets Sentence type Example from text 9 Effect of the sentence type complex compound simple exclamatory imperative declarative

19 Key Terms 3: Sentences Type: Minor Simple Compound Complex Function:
Declarative Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory

20 Key Terms 4: Sentences Clause Subject Object Subordinating clause
Subordinating conjunction Infinitive clause Coordinating conjunction

21 Text 9 – what was it all about?
Pre-Reading: S – Subject - What is it about? P – Purpose - What is the purpose(s) of the text? A – Audience - Who is it written for? G – Genre - What genre does the text belong to?

22 Writing about grammar You have identified different sentence types.
There are examples of each different sentence type in Text 9. Now, how do you write an ANALYSIS of this information? What is essential is that you write about linguistic features with the PURPOSE and AUDIENCE of the text in mind.

23 Compound sentences – example analysis
In the article ‘Text 9’, John Torode is trying to advise the reader about how to eat a balanced diet. He ends the article with two compound sentences. “We don’t have huge hunks of meat, but we do enjoy a roast. It’s all about balance – and not eating too much of anything.” The use of these two compound sentences helps him to advise his readers because it provides simple information which is easy to understand. It is almost as if he is ‘dumbing down’ the advice. This links to the rest of the article of which the subtext is that British people are like children when it comes to food, especially beef.


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