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11 Hydro-energy production, hydro-morphologic alterations and security implications Dr. János Fehér Visiting Professor, Szent István University, Gödöllő,

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Presentation on theme: "11 Hydro-energy production, hydro-morphologic alterations and security implications Dr. János Fehér Visiting Professor, Szent István University, Gödöllő,"— Presentation transcript:

1 11 Hydro-energy production, hydro-morphologic alterations and security implications Dr. János Fehér Visiting Professor, Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary Member of European Topic Centre on Inland, Coastal and Marine Waters “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

2 22 Some thoughts World energy sources Regional hydro-power potential Utilization of hydro-power potential Hydropower developments vs. Environmental impacts Dilemmas “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

3 33 World energy sources Fossil Solar Wind Nuclear Geothermal Biomass Hydropower “Future water use and the challenge of hydropower development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

4 4 4 Regional hydro-power potential “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

5 55 No arid country has become rich without extensive investment in water-retaining dams. and No mountainous country has become rich without tapping most of its hydroelectric potential. Utilization of hydro-power potential “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

6 66 The first fact is that dams have been the foundation for economic development in most rich countries, which have developed huge inventories of dams. For example, arid countries like the US and Australia have around 5000 m 3 of storage capacity for every citizen, and countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have developed over 70% of their economically viable hydroelectric potential. The second fact is that poor countries have orders of magnitude of less water infrastructure. Instead of the 5000 m 3 of storage in rich arid countries, India and Pakistan have 150 m 3 and Ethiopia and Kenya 50 m 3 of storage capacity per capita! Instead of developing 70% of their hydropower potential, poor countries with large hydropower resources like Nepal have developed less than 1% of their hydro potential, and Africa as a whole less than 5%. Utilization of hydro-power potential “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

7 7 The capacity (P) of a hydro-power plant can easily be calculated from the h head, Q discharge and η efficiency, which later one incorporates losses in head caused by power canal, turbine, generator, transformer, etc. P [kW] = Q [m 3 /s] * h [m] * a [kN/m 3 ] The coefficient a is practically constant in all cases: a = g * ρ * η = 7500 [N/m 3 ] where g is gravitational acceleration (9,81 m/sec²), ρ is water density (1000 kg/m³) and η is the net efficiency of the hydro-power plant, (assumed to be 76,5%) Generator Turbine “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Hydro-power calculations

8 8 Hydropower is very efficient –Efficiency = (electrical power delivered to the “busbar”) ÷ (potential energy of head water) Typical losses are due to –Frictional drag and turbulence of flow –Friction and magnetic losses in turbine & generator Overall efficiency ranges from 75-95% Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2 nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003 “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Efficiency of hydro-power plants

9 9 Consider a mountain stream with an effective head of 25 meters (m) and a flow rate of 600 liters (ℓ) per minute. How much power could a hydro plant generate? Assume plant efficiency (  ) of 83%.  H = 25 m  Q = 600 ℓ/min × 1 m 3 /1000 ℓ × 1 min/60sec Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec   = 0.83  P  10  QH = 10(0.83)(0.01)(25) = P  2.1 kW Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2 nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003 “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Example 1a

10 10 How much energy (E) will the hydro plant generate each year? E = P×t E = 2.1 kW × 24 hrs/day × 365 days/yr E = 18,396 kWh annually About how many people will this energy support (assume approximately 3,000 kWh / person)? People = E÷3000 = 18396/3000 = 6.13 About 6 people Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2 nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003 “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Example 1b

11 11 Consider a second site with an effective head of 100 m and a flow rate of 6,000 cubic meters per second (about that of Niagara Falls). Answer the same questions. P  10  QH = 10(0.83)(6000)(100) P  4.98 million kW = 4.98 GW (gigawatts) E = P×t = 4.98GW × 24 hrs/day × 365 days/yr E = 43,625 GWh = 43.6 TWh (terrawatt hours) People = E÷3000 = 43.6 TWh / 3,000 kWh People = 1.45 million people (This calculation assumes maximum power production 24x7) Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2 nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003 Example 1b “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

12 12 Trade-offs of hydro-power dams

13 13 Environmental impacts

14 14 Fuel is not burned, so there is minimal pollution Water to run the power plant is provided free by nature  It's renewable - rainfall renews the water in the reservoir, so the fuel is almost always there  No waste products  High efficiency (80%)  Low cost electricity  Long life span  Provides flood control below dam  Provides year-round water for irrigation and crop land  Useful for fishing and recreation due to reservoir Advantages “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

15 15 High construction costs High environmental impacts High CO 2 emissions from biomass decay in shallow reservoirs Floods natural areas Converts land habitat to lake habitat Danger of collapse Uproots people Decreases fish harvest below dam Decreases flow of natural fertilizer to land below dam Large water loss due to evaporation “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Disadvantages / Environmental problems

16 16 Loss of forests, wildlife habitat, species Degradation of upstream catchment areas due to inundation of reservoir area Rotting vegetation also emits greenhouse gases Loss of aquatic biodiversity, fisheries, other downstream services Cumulative impacts on water quality, natural flooding Disrupt transfer of energy, sediment, nutrients Sedimentation reduces reservoir life, erodes turbines –Creation of new wetland habitat –Fishing and recreational opportunities provided by new reservoirs “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Ecological impacts

17 17 Land use – inundation and displacement of people Impacts on natural hydrology –Increase evaporative losses –Altering river flows and natural flooding cycles –Sedimentation/silting Impacts on biodiversity –Aquatic ecology, fish, plants, mammals Water chemistry changes –Mercury, nitrates, oxygen –Bacterial and viral infections Tropics Seismic risks Structural dam failure risks “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Environmental and social issues

18 18 Energy demands in the future? If hydro-power is to be used than - Discharge? Conflicting demands for constrained water resources? “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Dilemmas of vision makeing Water EnergyAgricultureFinanceIndustryTourismEnvironmentFisheries

19 19 Conflicting demands for constrained water resources - implement IWRM. “IWRM is a process which promotes the co-ordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems” “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Dilemmas of vision makeing

20 20 How the three pillars of IWRM would develop in the future? “Future water use and the challenge of hydro-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Feb 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Economic Efficiency Equity Environmental Sustainability Management Instruments  Assessment  Information  Allocation Instruments Enabling Environment  Policies  Legislation Institutional Framework  Central - Local  River Basin  Public - Private Balance “water for livelihood” and “water as a resource” Dilemmas of vision makeing

21 21 “Future water use and the challenge of hydo-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Febr 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia Lake Tisza (Tisza-tó), also known as Kisköre Reservoir (Kiskörei-víztározó), is the largest artificial lake in Hungary.

22 22 Special Areas (SAC) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in Hungary

23 23 “Future water use and the challenge of hydo-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Febr 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia

24 24 Ecology – Lake Tisza Trapa natans L. (Sulyom) Phragmites australis (CAVAN.) TRIN. ET STEND. (Nád) Typha latifolia L. Széleslevelű gyékény Nymphaeetum albo-luteae Tündérrózsa - vizitökhínár Emys orbicularis mocsári teknős Hód (Castor fiber) Vízisikló (Natrix natrix)

25 million km 3 – fresh water on Earth 71% of the Earth surface is water 0,45 million km 3 – yearly water circle 3000 years for a full circle

26 26 Thank you for your attention! “Future water use and the challenge of hydo-power development in Western Balkan” Workshop, Febr 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia


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