Presentation on theme: "PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Air Quality Directive Implementation and future direction Andrej Kobe ENV C3, DG Environment."— Presentation transcript:
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Air Quality Directive Implementation and future direction Andrej Kobe ENV C3, DG Environment
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Outline l New Directive 2008/50/EC published in OJ 11 June 2008 l What’s new? l Why have we done it, what are the expectations? l Reality check : current status, implementation, outlook l Implementation, transition l Challenges and future outlook
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Ambient Air Quality Mobile Sources Stationary sources National emissions ceilings IPPC LCP’s Road Non-roadFuels Quality Framework Directive 1 St Daughter 2 nd Daughter 3 rd Daughter Exchange Information 4 th Daughter ConcentrationsEmissions IncinerationVOC’s Community Air Policy Air Pollution CAFE Directive
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 AQD Co-decision Summary l Commission Proposal in September 2005 l European Parliament 1 st reading September 2006 l Council political agreement October 2006 m Common position 25 June 2007 m Commission supports common position l 2 nd reading : m EP ENVI 9 October m...negotiation... m EP Plenary 12 December l Adoption 21 May 2008 l Entry into force : yesterday
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 What’s new (1) 5 objectives for PM 2,5 1)Target and limit value l25µg/m 3 annual average to apply everywhere. lTarget value in 2010, limit value in 2015 Indicative limit value of 20µg/m 3 in 2020, to be confirmed at review 2) Exposure (based on national average exposure indicator) l Exposure concentration obligation 20µg/m 3 in 2015 l Exposure reduction target to reduce national average measured urban background concentration 0-20% between 2010 and 2020 subject to later review where differentiated MS legal objectives to be proposed
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 What’s new (2) Addressing compliance problems (Article 22) Attainment date not yet arrived (NO 2 ) Maximum postponement up to 2015 Attainment data already passed (PM 10 ) Only if rationale can be given Until May Conditions : amended plan which obligatory had to at least consider a list of measures (Annex to the Directive) LV in force, but at LV+MoT level
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 What’s new (3) Addressing man-made pollution Existing provision to deduct natural events (Sahara dust episode) generalized to natural contributions New possibility : sea spray Deduction needs to be well justified Further source apportionment mostly required to be able to use this provision Guidance in development
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 What’s new (4) Where limit values apply Specific list of locations where compliance with limit values related to health is not to be assessed On the motorway Where no access and no permanent habitation Limit values apply everywhere!
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 What can be expected from the revision of the Air Quality Directive? l Streamlined provisions, more clarity in implementation l PM2.5 objectives, monitoring requirements including speciation in background m Focused, more coherent measures, better information for further policy development l More time for compliance, under conditions m Assessment of measures by Commission l Expanded concept of deduction of natural contributions m Assessment > better understanding of sources, more effective measures l Additional QA/QC provisions, reference methods... higher quality data (monitoring & modelling) l New reporting provisions m Faster availability (NRT), higher quality, spatial dimension of AQ l Updated guidance m Support to implementation and more harmonized approach
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 „Aerem corrumpere non licet” [ Roman senate, BC] Why have we done it? Objectives Air Quality (I)
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June : 6th Environmental Action Programme ‘achieving levels of air quality that do not give rise to significant negative impacts on and risks to human health and the environment’; (Art 7.1. of 6th EAP) Why have we done it? Objectives Air Quality (II)
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Do reduced concentrations bring improvement in health?
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Are we not there yet? AQ assessment and management l Air Quality Framework directive established principles & techniques m Well defined air quality management zones m Assessment of 12+ pollutant concentrations using monitoring and modelling m Plans & Programmes mandatory to meet air quality limits before entry into force m Legal sanctions before the Court of Justice for non- compliance after limits in force.
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Attainment scheme Group 3: below limit value: annual report to Commission. Good air quality maintained Group 2: between limit value and margin of tolerance: annual report to Commission. Directive comes into force limit value Attainment date: limit value must be met everywhere time Group 1: above margin of tolerance: annual report and plans or programmes to improve air quality sent to Commission. concentration in the agglomeration or zone margin of tolerance Improvement through Community and local measures
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Emissions of particulate matter
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Fine particles serious health issue CAFE 2000 Loss in life expectancy due to fine particles (in months) 350,000 premature deaths annually
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Structural indicator
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008
By EEA ETC/ACC, Source : Q461
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Why no improvement? l Plans and programmes (regional/local action) m Plans late or very late m Often not all possible measures are explored, only limited chosen m Assessment of effects of measures limited m Sound and timely planning required for efficient measures m Cooperation across levels of governance, across borders and across policies (i.e. climate change) provide more cost-effective response l Community measures m Implementation! NEC,IPPC m Not timely enough, less effective than anticipated l Pressures - traffic in urban areas
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 The CAFE Process 6EAPBetter regulation CAFE Science & peer review Implementation experience IAM + CBA Stakeholder involvement Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution Proposal AQ Directive COM (2005) 447 AQD, Transposition, Implementation, Review
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Implementation (Strategy) Revision of existing and development of new Community measures Revision of existing and development of new Community measures Work in international arena (IMO-shipping) Work in international arena (IMO-shipping) Links with other policies Links with other policies See also declaration published jointly with the new Directive in OJ See also declaration published jointly with the new Directive in OJ
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Implementation (Directive) Transition Transition From existing legislation to new Directive Guidance (5x) Guidance (5x) Implementing Provisions on Reporting Implementing Provisions on Reporting Integrated QA/QC Integrated QA/QC Link to Community action Link to Community action GMES – user oriented service Shared Environmental Information System (SEIS) / INSPIRE JRC/EIONET modelling work Objective : facilitate and improve implementation
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Will all that be enough? Some questions remain open... Some questions remain open... Air Quality Directive review in 2013 Air Quality Directive review in 2013 ‘Mini CAFE’ including review of health effects and impact of Community measures Explicit objectives in Article 32 Review provision for all pollutants as appropriate Explicitly PM2.5 Legally binding exposure reduction target, review exposure concentration obligation More ambitious limit value Confirm/modify indicative limit value Monitoring Chance to review other provisions Assessment requirements in view of availability of GMES GAS, work on modelling Operational SEIS, INSPIRE
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Air /climate change links l Climate sensitivity (aerosols) l CC may exacerbate AP health, agricultural production, and ecosystem impacts (ACCENT network – ‘common issues’ report) l Link through measures m Synergies (energy efficiency – beware: indoor air quality) m Trade-offs (wood burning) m tbd (effect varies : land use, transport solutions, biofuels...) l Need for consistent integrated assessment models (IAM) m Example : revision of national emission ceilings l Scales issue m Regional/hemispheric AP becoming increasingly important m AP/CC linkage more apparent at larger scales... m...but intimate links present also on a very local level!
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 CAFE research needs I l Understanding changes in environment, society and structural shift m New technologies for production and abatement of emissions m global changes of trade and industry m Effects of Climate change (in environment and of CC policy) l Emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and air pollution dispersion m Sources of PM : natural/anthropogenic, secondary organics... m Long distance m Links air pollution/climate change m Improved assessment: advanced monitoring, modelling, use of remote sensing
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 CAFE research needs II l Effects of air pollution m How changing sources and composition impacts on the human population m health-related studies on exposure patterns and effects of air pollution abatement and policies (ex post evaluations). m the sensitivity and vulnerability of the population and different population groups, which may also change with time. Identify contributing sources of exposure outdoor/indoor, to the different groups m effects of long term exposure to different size fractions m fuel-source specific risks (e.g emissions from diesel engines and combustion sources) including also ultra-fine particles. m understand the composition specific effects of particulate matter (e.g. secondary organic and inorganic aerosols, metals) - epidemiology and toxicology. m long term studies of air pollution impact on different European population groups including children, and to follow this group (cohort) over substantial time. Also other population groups would be followed in epidemiological studies. Closely linked with the Environment and health strategy of the Commission (jointly between DG ENV, DG SANCO and DG RTD).
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 CAFE research needs III l Assessment tools and policy instruments and abatement strategies and technologies m support to introduction of new technologies and abatement techniques for bench/feasibility test, pilot scale and full scale early introduction m on-board diagnostics and portable emissions monitoring equipment of air pollution m develop integrated approaches to facilitate the development and implementation of existing effective emission abatement strategies – includes downscaling of EU Impact Assessment m further develop integrated assessment m Comparison ex-ante and ex-post m Risk communication, indicators
PROMOTE workshop / GMES, June 2008 Summary l New AQD is adopted. What is new? m PM2,5 objectives m Art. 22 time extensions: PM10, NO2, benzene m Deduction of natural contributions m Where limit values apply? l Implementation & enforcement m Time extension process m Infringements, abatement measures and local action m Objectives and further Community measures at source m Immediate action : PM2.5 exposure monitoring m Implementation guidance overhaul m Other activities including GMES l Review